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VOL. Ill 






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IUR17 «R 

{DA Kunn uiui umh, uuMBt 

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^ The seveDteenth centorj is, moBically, almoet a blank, 

■ even to those who take more-tiian the average interest 

[ in the Art ; and barely a ecore of compoaerB' namee daring 

' the whole time suggest (mything more than a mere reputa- 

Uon to modem ears. But this is by no means owing to 

^ n^lect of the Art, or lack of mnaical energy and enterprise. 

^ There was fully aa much activity in musical production 

^ throughout the century aa at other times ; and lovers of 

(^ the Art were quite under the impression that the music 

of their time would compare favourably with that of other 

, Umes, and impress those that came after as much as it 

p, impressed themselves. The event i»«ved it siDgolarly 

""^ — shori: lived: and intrinsically most of it seems to casual 

'^ observers little better than an archaeological curiosity. 

Yet to those whose ^nnp^^cs extend a little farther than 

their everyday acquaintance it is capable of being not only 

very interesting but widely suggestive. It is interesting 

to seek for the reasons of its appearing adequate to the 

people of its time, while it appears so slender and inadequate 

to those that come after ; and it is suggestive of essential 

but rarely comprehended facts in relation to the very 

uatore of Art and its place in the scheme of human things, 

to trace the manner in which the slenderest beginnings, 

manifested during the century, served as the foundations 

of all the most important and comprehensive forms of 

Modem Art 

There is no lack of materials. Indeed they are so plentiful 

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that a mere catalogue would make an eztenfuve -volmne. 
But little ia gained by bordening the mind or overweighting 
an argument with a multitude of concrete facts which 
cannot be made to have a living meaning. It may therefore 
be premised that eaideavour will not be made in the follow- 
ing pages to refer to all the composers of the century, much 
leas to all their works, or the personal details of their livM. 
But even without attempting to cover tdl the ground, much 
reference must necessarily be made to works which have 
paased out of sight and are difficult to obtain. And as 
mere language is inadequate to give the impresuon of 
muse, and mere description and reference, unaided by any 
opportunity of actual personal verification, are barren and 
wearisome, passages which clearly indicate or confirm 
essential features of the Art's development are given as 
examples in the text In the presentation of these the most 
exact fidelity to the originals has been maintained, con- 
fflstent with intelligibility. Only in some cases, where a 
mere figured bass was supplied by the composer as an 
accompaniment to a vocal or other solo, and when the 
harmonies are important for the understanding of the music, 
the figures have been translated into their simplest barmottic 
equivalents, for the sake of those who are unaccustomed 
to deal with figured basses. 

In finding and obtaining access to many of the works 
to which reference is made the invaluable help of Mr. W. 
Barclay Squire, of the British Museum, demands ample 
acknowledgement; as do also the most welcome help of 
Miss Emily Baymond in looking over the proofs, and the 
great assiBtance given by Mr. Clande Aveling in copying 
examples, translating lute tatdature, indexing, and checking 
all sorts of details. 

C H. H. Pabbt. 

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Initiativbb 34 


Links bbtwsbn the Old Art and tbb New. . 6i 

Diffusion of Nbw Pbinciplbs 

SiQNS OF Change in Enqi.and . . . .181 

The Influbncb of Fbbnch Taste 

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English Music after the Couuonwealth . . 255 

Foundations of Modebn Inbtbuhental Music . 308 

Tendencies of Italian Abt 376 

The Bboinninq of Gebhan Music 

INDEX 457 

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Thb change in the character and methods of musical art 
at the end of the sixteenth century was so decinve and 
abrupt that it would be easy to be' misled into thinking that 
the laws by which progress or r^ress invariably proceeds 
were abrogated^ and that a new departure leading to develop- 
ments of the most comprehensive description was achieved 
through sheer speculation. 

Undoubtedly speculation bad a great deal to do with 
it. But apecnUtion alone could not provide a whole 
aystem of artistic methods or means of expression without 
the usual preliminaries. Methods ol art are the product of 
the patient labour of generations. The methods which the 
, great masters of pure choral music turned to such marvellously 
good account in the sixteenth century had only been attained 
by the progressive labours of composera during many cen- 
turies ; and before the various new (oims of art which b^an 
to be cultivated at the beginning of the seventeenth century 
could be brought to even approximate maturity, the same 
slow process of development had to be gone througb agun. 

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No one man and no one generation ever coatribute more 
tliaii a very limited amount towards the sum total of resources 
through which art lives and hu its being. There is no 
difference in such matters between art and the familiar 
affairs of public life. No single man is expected to elaborate 
a constitution^ to complete a whole system of law, or to 
organize the physical and spiritual appliances which are 
required by the endless needs of society. The ends are 
attuned by the constant co-operation of countless individuals ; 
and BO it is with arL Each individual who possesses the 
true artistic siurit helps in sonw degree to briog his branch 
of art to perfection. If he sees an apparent flaw he tries 
to mend it. If he foresees some new object for which 
available artistic resources may be applied, he concentrates 
all his energies on attuning it. And though no two men 
ever see anything quite alike, the iuBtinctive co-operation of 
various individual faculties, which is induced by the acceptance 
of certain general principles of aim and style, constantly 
ministers to the general advancement of methods and the com- 
]detion of the wide range of artistic requirements. And by 
degrees the necessary knowledge and appliances are accu- 
mulated, through which the consummation of great and 
complicated schemes of art becomes possible. 

The first e^qimmentos in the field of the so-called 'new 
mosic,' though they enjoyed none of the advantages of copious 
artistic resource which are avulable for composers of later 
times, were in some respects more happily situated. The 
idea of accommodating themselves to any standards but their 
own did not occur to them. Till composers had begun to 
taste oi the excitement of popular success, or the cruelty 
of unmerited public failure, they worked with the innocent 
sinceri^ of men who had never gone through the experience 
of being tempted. They worked, according to their lights, 
with no other aim than to achieve something which accorded 
with their artistic instinct; and the fact that they achieved 

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80 little nt tlie outset waa not owing to misdirection of enei^, 
but to the inadequacy of existing artistic resourcea. Their 
scheme was too grand and comprehensive for their funds. 
Speculation cannot create, but can only redistribute existing 
means for attaining anything ; and the means at the disposal 
of the artistic speculaton of the ' Noore Musiche ' were so 
slender that in all the departments of art in which they really 
attempted anything new, they had to go back almost to the 
level of the pre-historic cavcrdwellers. So far, indeed, from 
the ' Noove Musiche ' being a kind of spontaneous generation, 
as some seem to have thought, it was little better than a crude 
attempt to redistribute and readapt existing artistic means and 
devices to novel ends. And the results were so far from being 
immediatdy successful or adequate that it took neariy a century 
of manifold labour to achieve anything sufficiently mature to 
attract or retain the attention of after ages. 

Even such elementary results as were attuned at first had 
antecedents, though for obvious reasons they are difficult to 
trace. The exact perpetuation of mu«c depends upon the 
means of recording it; and until comparatively late in the 
Middle Ages the only methods of writing music in existence 
were utterly indefinite. Moreover in those da|p, when educa- 
tion and culture were restricted to the Church, it lay with 
ecdeuastical musicians to choose what music was worth 
recording; and in earlier phases of art of all kinds little 
is ever considered worthy of artistic treatment, or of the 
attention of the artistically-minded, except what are called 
sacred subjects. Music was almost as much restricted 
to the functions of relijpon as painting and sculptore 
were to subjects connected with religious history or the 
ha^olt^ of the Church. So music which was outside tUs 
range found but scanty and occasional favour with serious 
musicians; and any uprising of a secular tendency, which 
might have brought about a development of independent 
musical art, was inevitably regarded with indifference and 

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even with hostile feelings by a Church which aimed at worldly 
Ml well as spiritual domination. Hence secular, or at least 
extra-ecclesiastical things, especially in artistic directions, had 
very little chance of surriving till the general spread of culture 
and refinement beyond the Church's border had created too 
large and weighty a masa of independoit public opinion tor 
her to crush by the old methods. Then there was a period 
of wavering while she made her last attempt to suppress all 
independence at the Reformation, and, filing, she adopted 
ti>e policy of adapting the fruits of secular mental activity 
to her own uses ; as will be found in tracing the story of 
music after its independence from eccleuastical domination 
had been established. 

The new musical departure was in fact the counterpart 
and outcome of that uprismg of the human mind, whose 
outward manifestations are known as the Renaissance and the 
Reformation. It waa the throwing off of the ecclesiastical 
limitations in matters musical, and the negation of the claims 
of the Church to universal domination and omnisciencci It 
was the recognition of the fact that there is a spiritual life 
^lart from the sphere to which man's spiritual advisers had 
endeavoured to restrict it; a sphere of human thought where 
devotion and deep reverence, nobility and aspiration, may find 
nqtression beyond the utmost bounds of theology or tradition. 
Until this fact, and the right of man to use the highest resources 
of art for other purposes than ecclensstical religion, had been 
establi^ed, such achievements as Beethoven's instrumental 
compositions, Mozart's and Wagner's operas, and even the 
divinest achievements of John Sebastian Bach were impossible. 
Hie innermost meaning of the striking change in muucal style 
in the seventeenth century is therefore its secularization. It 
waa the firat deliberate attempt to use munc on a laige scale 
for extra-eccleaiastical purposes; and to express in musical 
terms the emotions and psychical states of man which are 
not included in the (wnventional circuit of what is commonly 

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conceired to be religion. It ia unneceBsary to discusa here 
hov far the conception of what were fit to be defined as 
religious Bt&tea of mind may be expanded. For the pup- 
poHes of eatimating the change, and underetanding thig 
period of muaical history, the generally accepted meaning 
of the terms secular and ecclesiastical is sufficient. More- 
over, the religion of Earope had not, at the end of the 
sixteenth century, been split up into countless sects, and 
though there were diviBions in the Reformed Church already, 
they were too recent to produce different kinda of distinctive 
music. Sacred music of tbe-artiatic kind was therefore con- 
terminous with the music of the Roman Church ; and by the 
end of the sixteenth century this had become a very highly 
and" delicately organized product, though limited in range 
because it was devised essentially for devotional purposes, and 
to express with the subtlest nicety possible the subjective 
religious characteristics of the old Church. The essential 
principle of this devotional choral music was the polyphonic 
texture, which maintained the expressive individuality of the 
separate voice-parts out of which the mass of the harmony 
was compounded. The methods of procedure had been 
evolved by adding melodious voice-parts to a previously- 
assumed melody, which was called the 'Canto Fermo,' and 
served as the foundation and inner thread of the composition. 
The result of this method of writing was to obliterate 
the effect of rhythm and metric oi^anization altogether. 
The separate voice-parts somettmea had rhythmic qualities 
of their own, but they were purposely put together in such a 
way as to counteract any obvious effect of rhythm running 
simultaneously through all the parts ; and tximposers even 
sought to make the texture rich and interesting by causing 
the accents to occur at different momenta in different parts. 
By this means they maintained the effect of independence 
in the individual voice-parts, and produced at the same time 
the musical equivalent of the subjective attitude of the hnmui 

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creature in devotion, in which the povera of expreauou which 
belong to the bod^ are as far as possible excluded. In other 
words, the music represents the physical inactivity of a con- 
gregation in the act of Christian worship, wherein — unlike 
some Pagan religious ceremonies — muscular manifestations are 
excluded, and everything is confined to the activities of the 
inner man. This is the ultimate meaning of the exclusion 
of ihythm from the old church music. To the old composers 
rhytiim evidently represented physical action, the attrihute 
of the perishable body, and was therefore essentially secular. 
And the singular subtlety vnth which the whole scheme of art 
was contrived so as to exclude rhythmic effect is one of the 
most remarkable instances of the justness and consistency 
of unconscious instinct, when working undisturbed by things 
fflctemal to its real motives. 

But the effect of this was almost to exclude rhythm from 
tlie best music altt^ether; for nearly all the higher kinds 
of music which were intended to be used outside churches 
were constructed upon the methods which the Church com- 
posers had evolved, for the simple reason that there were 
no others. So, in fact, there was very little secularity even 
about the artistic kinds of unecclesiastical music up to the 
' latter part of the sixteenth century. Genuine madrigals were 
written on the same polyphonic principles as church music; 
and many of them were as serious in style. A self-respecting 
composer would hardly venture further iii the direction of 
secular style than a littie relaxation of the rigid obser- 
vance of the rules of the modes and the high grammatical 
orthodoxies, and a little guety and definiteness in melodious 
and lively passages. No doubt madrigalB became contaminated 
before the end of the sixteenth century, for secularity was 
in the air. But the system upon which they were based, and 
the Bubtieties of art which were the pride of their composers, 
were not capable of being applied in real undisguised secular 
music ; and, as is well known, the ' new music ' when once 

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it waa thoroughly establiBhed very Boon killed them. They 
were too delicate flowers to stand the rough handling of.Mie 
worldly methods. The s^le of both Sacred and Secular Music 
of the most artistic kind waa too much hedged about by rule 
and prescription to afford many indications of change, or 
material for revolutionary composers to borrow for alien 
purposes. But, juat as before the Reformation, even in the 
innermost circles of the Church, there were men who were 
in favour of reform, so in the drcles of artistic musical 
production the tread of things may sometimes be discerned. 
It is interesting to note that indications of tendencies towards 
the secular style appear in choral music before the end of the 
sixteenth century most frequently in the works of the Nether- 
landera, and in the works of the Venetians who took them 
for their models, illustrating thereby the higher vitality of 
the Northern races, which had made them so prominent in the 
Reformation, and in later times induced their maintaining tibe 
highest standard in the ' new music ' when the Italians relapsed 
into sensuousnesa and the languor of formality. In the great 
days of the choral style the true Italians showed the highest 
instinct for beauty of tone, and the compoaers of the Netherland 
school much the most force and intellectuality. While genuine 
Italians of the Roman school, such as Palestrina, seemed to 
um at quiet and easy flow of beautiful sound and passages 
apt and natural to the onger, the Netberlandera and their 
followers used simple chords, and even tbe repetitions of 
chords, and progressions which are curious and wilful. 
Iasso's music often seems to imply the intention to wrestle with 
the ideas su^ested by the words, and to use deliberate harsh- 
nesses which imply a disdain of the claims of mere beauty, 
and even to delight in making the hearers a little un«>mf ortable, 
in order to brace them and make them think. A curious 
paasage, 'Nolite fieri ucut equas et mulus,' in the second 
penitential pealm is a fair specimen of the aomewhat conscious 
ingenuity which was one of Ijasao'B characteriatict. It appears 

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to be iDtended to suggest the stubborDness of the mule, which 
had. prob&bly established its ch&nicter eves in the nxteentfa 
century. The passage also illustrates, his love of toying with 
a succeBsion of chords in a manner which implies a changing 
attitude towards Counterpoint; but of that side of his cha- 
racter the following passage from the third penitential psalm 
is even more striking: — 





M dk.oB • H-ila >. . . . 




^' -'ir r f"^ 



■M db-on-B- rta 

H dll-M- 

•• ■ ita > m« 


tit Di db ■ M ■ H rii ■ 



M dl*.M ■ H-lM ■ . . . 



■ lU H dk-M-H-rb k . 





=^1 ■ . - - 



4H =1 



The actual texture is undeniably polyphonic, but in reality 
the passage is a rery ingenious sophistication of a succesmon 
of simple chordB, wUoh drop each time (with two paren- 

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tbeses) upon the pivot of the third which is common to each 
pair of chords'. Reduced to its amplest terms the patai^ 
is as follows: — 


Such poBsages are in some ways at Tariance with the 
ordinarily accepted view of the beauUful old choral music, but 
there are two promineot points in which they are also at 
variance with the later secular music. The intricate crossing 
of the accents in the voice-parts evidently obliterates the effect 
of rhythm altogether; and the progressions of the chords, 
however distinct the cho^ themselves may be, are clearly not 
suggestive of the familiar system of modem tonality. So 
in the serious works of the moat enterprising of the great 
composers of the Choral epoch, the only features which 
prefigure the art of the ' Nuove Muucfae ' are the prominent 
use of chords as chords, and the neglect of mere sensuous 
beauty in the intention to express somewhat pointedly the 
meaning of the words with which the music is associated. 

These points are, however, rather indicative of tendencies 
than embodiments of new methods, such as the speculators of 
the ' New Music ' could avail themselves of. And, as has before 
been said, it is the more evident from this consideration that 
the methods of pure choral music were not capable of being 

' The punge nuy b» oompued with tha introdoction to the fogiM in 
Beetharaa't Sonotk, Opu 106, wb«te tlw mme ifitotn of pragreiaioD ii and 
on a mnoh gnndsr w*la. 

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transformed for genuinely secular purposes; and those who 
initiated secular music were quite right in perceiving the fact, 
and attempting a style for their solo music, and ultimately for 
their instrumental music also, which had next to notliing in 
common with the pure choral art of the sixteenth century. The 
true antecedents and fundamental principles of the new style of 
secular art have to be looked for in the secular music of the 
people. And the factors which are most universal, most 
permanent, and most essential to such secular music are rhythm 
and definite metrical oiganization. Though in artistic secular 
music and sacred music of the choral kind, rhjrthm seems 
to have been so persistently excluded, there can hardly have 
been any time in the history of the human race when men 
refrained from dancing; and where dandsg ia, there must 
be some kind of rtiythmic music to inspire and regulate it. 
Not much ancient instrumental dance music has been preserved, 
but even the earliest mediaeval secular songs always have 
a rhythmic character, which indicates that they once were 
connected with dance motions. In the aatoniafaing early secular 
motets consisting of several tunes to be sung simultaneously, 
such as those which are preserved in the MontpeUier and 
Bodleian MSS., numerous popular songs are embedded, in 
which, nohnthstanding that they must have been altered 
a little to accommodate them to some kind of endurable 
harmony, a very prominent rhythmic character is still dis- 
cernible. As an example may be taken a fragment from a 
motet of the twelfth or thirteenth century (Ex. 3), compounded 

J... „ . ■- 

if r p f .rrr f i<°-p i''°<'<°Ti 


u ^ .. u .^ ...... p.^.„ 


d. qri. .» . In 

li 11- ('■ II" 1" 1 

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■nod Iwi.doi Aw 

k} ,■ f r — j- 

1 r r 1- 

r 1 [" ' I'—w- 

" 1 r r — f^ 

-1 — f-F— 

1 '" ' - ^ 

-* — 

of a French popul&r aoag, ft Li^n Hong, and a nonBeiiBe part 
reiteratiDg the word *R^;iiat'; and the two songB when taken 
by themBelves will be fonnd to be very rhythmic and genially 
secnlar. Actnal dance tunes of so early a date are naturally 
very rare, but one is quoted by CouBsemaker, from a thirteenth 
century MS., which has the important feature of reiteration 
of a definite musical phrase {Ex. 4). 

jljJ'J^lJj'j l !^ 

The famous English tune, ' Sumer is icumen in,' which is also 
attributed to the thirteenth century, is remarkable not only on 
account of its rhythmical character, hut also on account of 
the obvions attempt at supplying a harmonious accompaniment 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


blow-Ath Dud ud ^rlngUa tikt in> - 

The iosttnct of composers of popular rhythmic music very 
soon shoved them that the methods of contrapuatal art 
were unsuitable as accompaniments to rhythmic tune, and 
so they tried to invent successions of simple harmonies, 
whicti served at once to enrich the general effect, and 
to support the voices. In 'Sumer is icumea in* the scheme 
amounts to little more than an ingeniously sophisticated 
device, in which a phrase of four bars is repeated over 
and over again throughout. Responsible composers of high 
artistic instinct did not give their minds to such things, 
and the standard of art seems to have remained stationary 
for centuries. Occasionally a great composer in a sportive 
vein produced a secular song in parts which approximated 
to a harmonized tune ; and as time went on the popular 
songs of the streets were occasionMly made available for the 
more serious-minded musicians by being arranged for several 
voices in a simple manner not unlike a part-song. As the 
influence of the people asserted itself more and more, artistic 
methods, growing faniiliar, were employed by nameless com- 
posers in such popular forms of music as Frottolas, Villotas, 
Villanelle and Balletti, which were somewhat looked down 
upon by serious artists, but nevertheless are often quite neat 
and attractive. A feature which is important in these littie 
works is the growth of facility in umple harmonization. The 
regular grouping of the rhythmic phrases, which was necessary 
in dance tunes and in songs written to regularly constructed 
verses, compelled composers to 6nd chords which could succeed 
each other as blocks, and as time went on the human mind 

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b^an to feel a new significance in ihar retationships ; and 
through this influence rhythm ultimately became the most 
potent alembic in tranaforming the old modes into the modem 
Bcalea. But this process took a long time to achieve, owing 
to the persistent influence of the tradition of writing in modes 
which composers of artistic aim continued to respect till some 
way on into the seventeenth century. But even in the mxteenth 
century, aa the taste for secular part-singing grew more general, 
coinpOBers sprang up who tried to supply the natural demand 
for music of a more simple and direct character than the con- 
trapuntal works of the Church composers ; and the effect 
is perceptible in some of the earliest published collections 
of madrigals. Arcadelt'g first collection, for instance, which 
was published in Venice as early as 1537, contains a number 
of madrigals which .are very umply harmonized, and present 
few tokens of the familiar devices of counterpoint. As an 
example the following passage from Madrigal No. 3 may be 
taken; — 

Hadrigil No. 3 fnnn 11 primo Libro di M>drig>li d*Areadelt % QokUro. 

Ito. «. Tsnetiii, 1537. 


A familiar example of the same simple and direct style 
is the still popular madrigal of Festa, 'Down in a flowery 
vale/ which dates from about 1554. As the century went on, 
and men got more and more acpustomed to the effects of mere 

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harmonizatioa, serious art became infected hy devices which 
really bad a secular origin ; and great mastera sometimes 
shoved perception of the efiect of contrast to be obtained 
bjr alternating passages of simple chords, in which the voices 
moved umultaneously from point to point, with passages in 
which the elaboration of counterpoint was employed. But 
meanwhile instnimental music be^n to be seriously cultivated 
to a certain extent. Many composers, deceived by the similarity 
of a group of stringed instrumeuts playing in parts to the 
grouping of voices, thought it sufficient to write instrumental 
music in vocal contrapuntal style. In this direction next to no 
progress was made. The form was a mistake altogether, and 
alien to the genius of instrumental music. Much better indeed 
was the popular dance music written for stringed instruments 
in combination, which soon took the lineaments and general 
plan and disposition' of phrases which became familiar later 
in Suites and Partitas. LJvely examples of such muuc date 
from as early as about 153T, when Attaignant published 
a collection of Gaillards, Pavans and Branles in Paris. As 
characteristic example of such movements the following couple 
from Tielman Susato's collection of dances, published in 1551, 
may be profitably considered. In these the influence of the 
modes is still strongly apparent, but the clearly-marked 
rhythmic figures, and the division of the movements into 
sections with double bars indicate a growing perception 
of the true principles of instrumental music in the matter 
of definite structure^ which is almost entirely absent from the 
choral music of the time, as well as from the instrumental 
music written on choral principles. 

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|J//'i 'i^.'i'i;/, ,",";'i' 

' ' ' ' ■ "^ r I ■ '^ r r I r ' ^ ^ 


i: : p- ii'i^ 


1 n o -i i< 

J. J- J 1 

J J i.j ^ ^ 

t/r r 

If 1 r f\. . r If Ls . . 1 ; ^ ^^-m 

- > {^ 

The general tendenciea of the time were illustrated in organ 
miudc and music for domestic keyed instnimentB, which was 
produced in plenty during the sixteenth century. But in these 
lines composers were inclined to maintain, in Tarioua guiaeSj 
the contrapuntal principles of the eariier art, and did not 
anticipate types of artistic procedure which came into practical 
application in the experiments of the speculators in ' New 
Music' The line they took led to independent developments. 

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which may be more intelli^blf considered later, as ' Links 
between the Old Art and the New ' (Cbap. III). 

The most powerful mfluence in the direction of simple 
harmonizatioD was exerted by the lute, which was a very 
popular domestic instrument. It was peculiarly unfit for 
contrapuntal effects ; and though composers, orerbome by 
custom, often tried to suggest contrapuntal texture, the fact 
that they were struggling to produce music in a style which 
was unsuitable drove them in the direction of modem methods, 
possibly earlier than with any other kind of instrument. The 
struggle is apparent in examples like the following by Hans 
Neusidler which is dated T536 (Ex. 8). 

Neusidler produced other examples which are quite instrumental 
in style and definite in rhythm; but it was very natural that 
lute composers of taste, who were accustomed to associate the 
highest class of music with contrapuntal methods, should have 
gone on for a very long while trying to devise means to suggest 
good part^wiiting. We even find composers trying to write 
•omething of the nature of a fugue for the lute, and they also 
endeavoured to arrange madrigals and similar vocal music 
for it; and it will be seen later that the lute was used to 
support the voices in part-singing, which seems to have had 
some effect in simplifying the style of the vocal writing. But 
it is necessary to avoid being misled by high artistic exceptions 
and struggles agtunst the natural genius of the instrument. 
However much composers tried to present muucal forms which 
belonged to the province of Choral Art upon these delicate 
instruments, the inevitable fact remained that clanging the 
chords was the natural procedure, and the natural basis of any 
exclusively appropriate form of lute music. And it followed 
from the lute's being the favourite domestic instrument in 

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cultivated and refined drcles that muBtcal people gradoalljr 
became more and more habituated to the sound of chords as 
chorda rather than as incidental results of combined voice- 
paite. The lute was by no means incapable of rendering 
mdodious passages. On the contrary it was peculiarly aensi- 
tire and capable of expression, so long as there was no necessity 
in the melody for the pretence of long sustuned notes. Tbe 
most simple and natural style for the instrument was either 
rimple chords whose motion coincides with thet motion of the 
melody, as in modem hymn-tunes and many part-songs; or 
melodic passages to which chords are here and there added 
to accentuate the rhythm and supply the essential harmonies. 
The lute was capable of playing notes rapidly in a sin^e part, 
and the performers evidently attained great dexterity in this 
respect. But in respect of harmony it was happier in clanging 
the chords at an easy distance apart; since chords quickly 
succeeding one another would require too much motioo of the 
hand, and sound fussy. Hence it was even better suited to 
serve as an accompanying instrument, or to supply cliorda 
as accompaniment to melodies played on itself, than to 
play rapid rhythmic passages in chords. The process of 
tranntion from the quasi-contrapuntal style to the more 
apinof»iate style of simple melody with accompaniment, 
presents some very interesting features. The habits of choral 
mouc, and the attitude of mind engendered by it, predisposed 
composers to imitate the effect of different voices unging 
together by distributing their melodic phrases and figures in 
all parts of the scale. A singulariy apt illustration of this 
transitional state is found in a dainty little Pavan by Don Luis 
Milan, printed in Valencia in 1536 : — 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


U. .J'.'TJllJjJjlj ,j ,!_, J 1 . jJIJji^ 

if r ■» 

r ' 

!* «• rf-r cur 
-nri.r' i ■ = 

|J|i Irfl 

hii -A'- -■<■ 1 M- r ' — ' i--^^ 

■ f J Ji; 



^' ' ' rtr = 

!■ '" =^ 



, II 1 1 


In tfaU the intentioa is otmondy to write melodic pauages with 
ftocomparament of simple chords ; bnt the treatment besm coa- 
qiioiioiu tnoes of choral habits of thought. The flowing melodic 
pMWge which in the first bar is giro to the treble, is in tke 
fourth bar taken ap by the tenor. In the fourth bar from ttte 
end the quaver motaon is maiittained by giving the finrt four 
qtwven to a quasi-treble voice, and tbe last four to a quam-tenor 
nto again. The persistent feeling for raedmds derired tnm 
part-un^ng led to other very curious features which are h%faly 
itUntratin of the mevitaUe continuity of artisdc devtAopmoit ; 
for compoaen woe constantly impefled to suggest the familiar 
formidaa dt cadences and so forth, whit^ weK neceaaary (or 
'OORSlmotive CtEect, but were, as a matter of fact, imponible 
on their instrument. 

The inaptness of some of these formulas is betrayed 1^ (be 
fact that the lutenists merely wrote the notes exactly as they 
aeaot them to be played; and thecetoreiu presenting a passage 
oootuomg a fluc^nsion, «r parts moving at different monaents, 
the notes often seem to fly about in a most inconsequent 
manner — the same melody being required to represent the 

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pre^iaration in one part, the motion of tncAher part which 
would make the diicord, and tlie reaolntion td the discord. 
The quaintest feature in such a procen ia that the actual 
diacord (vhich in the ch(»al formula waa Uie moct important 
point of ail) is often actually miaaed out. Two illustrations are 
affwded by the Pavaa of I>od Luis Milan, p. 17, The ninth 
bar presents the familiar formula of a suspended Krenlii (Ex. 
10), The last bar but one represents the equally familiar 
formula <rf the suspended fourth (Ex. 11). 

But in both cases, owing to the exlgeocies of the instrumeot, 
the Hamlet of that particular plot has to be left out ; and the 
discord, carefully ^epared uid resolred, does cot exist except 

Lute munc continued for the greater part of Ha enstence 
to be li^le to makeshifts of this kind. Bat in the great 
mass of masic of all tSmes tlie transference of formulas and 
mediodB belonging to one branch of art to anoAer to 
wbich they are really unsuited goes on in ces san t ly. Yet the 
distinctire traits of different branches are amply miuntaiued 
by the amount of the actual music which is justly a^x>r- 
tioned to the conditions of presentment. And bo it was with 
the lute. Composers strove in vain to present formulas of 
polyphonic choral art. The limitations of their instrument 
made these impossible. Id spite of their aspirations itih^ had 
to find new types of idbenrace, and to cdtinte dfects viddi 
were genuinely appropriate to their delicate and subtle instru- 
ment. On keyed instruments it waa perfectly easy to plav 
music in parts; and even until br on into the seronteent^ 
century a great deal of muuc for domestic k^ed instniinents as 
c 2 

_y Google 


well as for the o^an was written on the same lines and prin- 
ciples as choral miuic in the torm of Canzonas, Ricercari, and 
Fantasias, The very facility for writing such music hindered 
composers from realizing that instrumental music needed 
a distinct style of its own, and principles of structore and 
treatment which had scarcely been thought of in the golden 
age of choral music. The disabilitiee of the lute for such 
work forced composera to look for a style of music wbidi was 
more apt for it, and hence it was that, both as regards style and 
method, lute music began to approximate to genuine instru- 
mental style, and to establish types of artistic procedure and 
formulas of ornament before any other branch of instrumental 
art. It was not only the most mature and complete branch <^ 
instnimeotal music in the latter part of the sixte^ith century, 
but the only one which attained to any d^ree of gmuine 
independence from choial traditions. Music for bowed instru- 
ments lagged more than half a century bebiad. Harpsichord 
music, when it rerired in the latter part of the next century, 
drew many of its types of ornament and form from the music 
of the lutenists, and even the grand and imbending organ 
adopted forms of ornamental cadences which appear to hare 
been first of all employed by the lute composers. As an 
example of the development of technique, of the clear hanDonic 
structure of the cadence, and of the type of ornament which 
wUl be found later ena in the works of such great masten as 
Sweelinck, Frescobaldi, and Froberger, the following is very 
Bu^;e8tive; — 

O. A. Timn. V^tant, 1593. 

, Google 


This vben reduced to its Bimplest terms is the foUowiog 
cadence of the fumiliar harmonic kind : — 

More important in relation to tfae style of the * Nuove Miuiche ' 
than the derelopment of techniqae, vas the undisguised recog- 
nition of the principle of accompanying a single melody part 
by nmple harmonies. Of this kind of music an excellent 
illustration is afforded by the following passage from a Pavan 
by JoUo Ceaare Barbetta, published in Venice in 1569 (Ex. 14). 
Bz. 1«. PKna» Setlimft dette k TodtMhlmt. 

The strong pulses of the rhythm are hen Toy clearly marked ; 
the harmonic successons are perfectly definite in tonality ; and 

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the initial Bucceesioa of chords forma the baaia of a variatitKi 
when the tune is Tesnmed at tha aevente«Qtb bar. So that 
some of the most essential features of true instrumental music 
are ab«ady here displayed. 

Still more interesting and completely to the point are cases 
in which a late is used to supply diords as accompuiiineiit 
either to roices or to other instmmenta playing in melody. 
Of this type of musical art there fortunately happens to be 
a specimen in Mie shape of a duet for two lutes by Vincentiu 
Galilei himself ; the very man who is reported to have led the 
way in the new speculations. And the interest is enhanced by 
the fact that it belongs to the year 1584, which appears to be 
just about the lime when Galilei made those attempts in vocal 
solo music which are recorded tta the first experiments in the 
style of tlie ' Nuore Musiche.' The duet, in which the soloist 
plays an ornate melody to a simple rhythmic accompaniment of 
chords for the second lute, b^ns as follows : — 


IS. TnoKiTio Qajjlmi. 


[j-fTtcf/t^f i f fttf i iaff^ 

r ^ J l, i d, l,i; i| IJ ,/ 

' U fj I J n !T!U 

frrJ^TT r r f>f f r" 

The preliniinariea and antecedents which were nece88M7 
before it was posrible to venture upon the experiments which 
characterize the seventeenth century so signally, were thus 
more or leM achieved before the end of the previous century. 
The perceptioD of chorda aa actual entities began to be trace- 

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able even in Church muBic early in the century, especially in 
the music of the composers of the Netherland school and thdr 
disciples in Venice, though they remained somewhat incoherent 
in their tonal relations. It was the influence of the lute which 
confirmed and strengthened Uiese growing perceptibos, and 
helped in the direction of the employment of simple chords as 
an accompaniment to soloists, whether singers or performers on 
instniments. The pn^ress towards systematizatioa of the chords 
in the direction of the modem principles of tonality was partly 
attained in dance tunes, but it was not an absolutely necessary 
antecedent to the new kind of music ; and, in fact, the influence 
of the Boodes only disappeared by slow degrees dnriag the 
sercnteeath century. The recognition of rhythm as a factor 
in artistic music was indicated in instrumental dance music, 
and eren in the kind of light choral music which was some- 
times used to accompany the dance; such as the fn'T'li^r 
' Belle qui tient ma vie ' in Thoinot Arbeau's Orchetograp/iM 
of 1589. But the element remained to a great extent dormant 
lot a time in the new departure ; partly, perhaps, because the 
Italians then, and since, showed a comparative inaptitude and 
disinclination for dance music, which is traceable through the 
derelt^ment of their opera for nxtre than a century. For the 
declamatory part of the solo music tb«« was quite an ancieDt 
tradition in all countries; for not only Utni^cal pmee bat 
secular stories and poems, and portions of miracle plays, had 
been rendered in a kind of semi-mdodiaoi chant for centuries ; 
and no. great development in this direction was required, for 
tiie first attempts at such work by the composers of the 
' Nuove Musiche ' were of a very simple kind, and accompanied 
in a very simple manner. For the more melodious portions 
of their works these composers had the types of the people's 
songs, which were very faappUy followed in France and 
England; while in Italy, composers, proceeding at first with 
a higher artistic intmtion, worked out umple principles of 
melodic form for themselves. 

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Such fitful premonitianfl ot change in the muncal atmo- 
Bpbere as had been perceptihle here and there in all known 
branches of art for a great part of the sixteenth century, 
diaped into definite and unmistakable conriatency dniing ita 
last twenty years. Hitherto the rare and occasional experi- 
ments lacked coherence and deciaiveness. Composers had but 
little real occanon to look beyond the bounds of the existing 
methods of art, within wtuch there was plenty of room to 
exerdse their powers. But by the end of the century the 
geneial aspect of things was changed. Palestrina, Lasso, 
Vittoria, Marenzio, had achiered things which seemed almost 
to exhaust the utmost lesourcea of an art so circumstHibed, 
and men who felt that tbe possibilitiea of musical experience 
had by no means been exhausted, turned about to find a 
flolulion of the problem of genuine undisguised secular art. 
Instinctively feeling that such things aa secular dance music, 
secular songs, and also lute music, were of a totally different 
order from the choral music which was employed in Church 
services and madrigals, enterprising lovers of art, who longed 
to enlai^ the bounds of human artistic enjoyment, bethought 
them of the traditional use of music in ancient Greek dramas; 
and of the possibility of enliancing the meaning of poems 
by wedding them to music on a wider scale than that of 
mere popular baUads. Tbey reflected that, as one kind of 

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mosic expressed sacred emotions, another kind might wortbOy 
express secular emotions and the situations in human life 
which give rise to them. They surmised that if there was 
a province in art for voices in combination there surely must 
also be a province for ungle voices. This seems obvious enough 
to those who look back apon the story from a point of vantage. 
But in muucians of that time it required a considerable d^^ree 
of enterprise to venture into a country of which they knew 
next to nothing, and to attempt forma of art which had befn 
ignored by the greatest composers for generations. 

The singular honour of bringing the vague aspirations into 
actuality, and decisively turning the course of musical produc- 
tivity into a new channel is always attributed, probably vrith 
jofltice, to a group of friends of artistic and literary proclivities, 
who are reported to have met to discuss new theories and 
make experiments in the combination of music and poetry, 
at the bouse of Giovanni Bardi, Count of Vemio, in Florence. 
All the works actually produced by these enthusiasts before 
tiie year j6oo have disappeared; but, being literary men as 
much as musicians, they themselves placed a good deal on 
record with regard to their early aims and achievementa ; 
and their own reports are fully supplemented by copiq)iB 
accounts given by Giovanni Battista Doni of somewhat later 
date. From these sources the information is gained that 
the first composer who actually took the field was Vincentio 
Galilei.' This composer, to whom reference baa been made 
in the previous chapter, studied his art under the theorist 
Zailino (1517-1590), and was chiefly notable for hie skill 
as a performer on the lute, and for the many admirable 
compositions he had made for that instrument, (See page 23.) 
He is reported by Doni to have been the very first to attempt 
monodies for a mngle voice; and to hare made a bc^ning 
with a setting of the scene of UgoUno from Dante's Jt^ento ; 
which he sang to the accompaniment of a 'viol.' Doni 
reports that some people were pleased and that some laughed. 

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To jndge bjr the artiatk standard d the later worka of the 
same kind which have survived, it seema very natural tiat 
musicians who were versed in the secrets of the perfect art 
of choral composition might well have been amused by nich 
infantile experiments. But Galild and his fellows saw the 
matter from a difieient pcnnt of view, and he tried again 
with a setting of the Lamentations of Jeremiah. The dates 
of these early experiments are not given; but we are toU 
it^ another place that Emilio del Cavalieri was the inventor 
of the recitative ; and that be produced a work in the new 
g^le as early as 1588, wlien it was performed at the 
marriage festival of a Florentine Grand Duchess; and that 
be produced two other works called 71 SatWo and La dU- 
penutione di Fikna in 1590, and 11 giuoeo delta eieea in 1595- 
As a set-off, Horazio Vecchi, one of the foremost composers 
of the old style, attempted to bring the mature art of choral 
munc into the service of the stage by composing tlw music 
for a kind of play called Anfpamatso in a madrigal style; 
setting the words, even the dialogue, for many voices to 
sing in parts unaccompanied, while the action was carried 
00 apparently in dumb show. As this work is a curiosity, 
and served as an excellent proof of the unfitness of the 
old style for dramatic purposes, some illustrationa are worth 

It begins with a kind of prolc^e for five voices, which 
is really a crude attempt to use vocal part^muaic for the 
purposes of recitation. The artistic effects of counterpoint 
are almost entirely eschewed ; so that the movement becomes 
little more than a succession of chords, in which the same 
note, and the same chord, are frequently and uncontrapuntally 
repeated, with a view of fitting more perfectly the phraseology 
and oratorical accent of the words with notes that are apt 
to be sung and apposite to the situation. 

Digitized by Google 


IJ.'g.''/' MM' 


. Il lUn 

- ■■ - lo cU on-taD ■ iilu. . '. tim ■ 

p^l l_ 


X r 



. a 

1^ r 



The method of treiitment has already been refened to, and 
an example hj Arcitdelt of the same kind of part-munc 
giren on p. 13. The passage is therefore suggeBdve. For 
though it does not present the lineaments of the ' New 
Miuic ' in the anoompromising nmidicity of CaTalleri and 
Peri, it shows the change of attitude working in the mind 
of a representatire of the old order of composen ; and an 
endeavour to arrive at declamatory effects without abandoning 
altogether the resources of long established methods of art. 

It is aa well to remember, however, that the work is in 
the main a piece of buffoonery carried out with such resource* 
of high musiciaoahip as are rarely applied to such purposes; 
and it suggests the possibility that Vecchi was perpetrating 
a joke at the expense of the heroes of the ' New Music.' It 
he had meant to present a serious example of the manner in 
which the problem of theatrical muse might be solved, he 

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certainly would have taken a aeiioiu subject, and treated it 
seriouely. But whatever his intentuiD in this respect, the 
work is a very great curiosity, and most su^estire. 

There being no accompaniment, the dialogue has to be 
distributed amongst the choir of singers. It begins witli 
the Master Fantalone calling his servant Pedrolioo; who 
answers in broken French-Italian that he cannot come because 
he is in the kitchen; whereupon all the rest of the hous^old 
sing: 'Ah, rascal! what are you doing in ^e kitchen?' 

UTT-r' 6 gr^-L-^ir ■ rli^ ^ 8 n 

Fl> - n . IlD, doT- ■• nr nor* a t^ Vit . n . 

lin, Pl.-n.-lln, Pta.™ . Itot 

qnlBto, „~^ 

M* . It . . Bain t»- n - lai ah'k lb in CO . 

m J^i^bfr-r .i — LtL r r. r 1 i -■ — r i r 

Ahl U>n>, Ah »D, chB fu W lite «.d • ul 

HI - \ ^ \-r..r J \ ^ r r nr" s r \r 


U-iv, Ah eu,duiaitD Itlnoa-il - uT 

The distribution of the voices in this case is natural enough, 
however comic. When the composer takes upon himself a 
more serious air, he occasionally writes a passage of beautiful 
music in the true style of the great choral age. But the 
difficultiea entail compromises which are quaintly absurd. In 
Scene 5 of Act II, Fnilla, Pantalone*B servant, endeavours 
to persuade Isabella not to comnut suicide. The words are 
put into the mouths of the three lower voices in a style 

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EamiUar in our own English madrigida. Isabella aoswers 
'Let me die' in very excellent music, which ia put into the 
moatha of three upper voices; and this leads to an Uterca- 
tion :— Frnlla, ' You shall not : ' Isabella, ' Yes, I will : ' Frulla, 
* Put down yom- weapon ! '^which is carried on in alternation 
of three lower and three upper voices. But inasmuch as 
there are only five parts, the middle part, which acts as 
ft pivot, goes on all through, and, as it were, carries on aa 
altercaUon with itself. 


Dahl iH-eU • 

Sb ■ ■[ BO ■ Ij ■ 


SaaU-ai, f(-iA *, tM-pon fU I'M ■ bI* 

This will be sufficient to indicate the manner in which 
tbe dialogue is managed. Among other features are a 
comic choma in bogus Hebrew and a kind of serenade 
which *I1 dottore' sings in a balcony, 'con voce soavisuma 
e amorosa,' which is interpreted as a four-part madrigal. 
One <A the greatest curiosities in the whole work is an 
anticipation of the empty conventional Subdonunant-Domi- 
nant-Tonic closer which becomes so distresjungly common in 

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the Italian Opera of the ^ghteoitji century, and it chiefly 
{amiliar to moduli audiences in Mozaif a operas. It seems 
like a fnocking laugh aniTing two centuries too soon I The 
passage be^s as followB, and is repeated five times : — 



/ j 1 ^ 







T.-d», V.-di, 

r r ir 








^- ■,■ 

-f r 1 r" 










This worii was bnt a kind of instructive parenthesis, and 
could not produce any kind of conviction in the minds of 
those seeking for dramatic expression ; and it posubly helped 
to the dedgive acc^ttance of the metliods of the new school, 
infantile as they were, by suggestbg at least the direction 
which could not profitably be followed in the search for 
secular ideals. 

The first work of the new kind which actually survived in 
its entirety was BuritUee, the poem of which was written by 
Rinuccini, and the music composed by C^acopo Peri; both of 
them members of the enterprising fraternity, bent <hi stdving 
the question of the ' New Music.' It was first perforand in 
Florence in i6oo, and has the fdngular distinction of forming 
the actual starting-point of modem opera. Its general plan 
served as a model upon which Buccesstre generations of 
oomposers fouilt and elaborated, adding new artistic dences, 
intaiHif3dng expression, widening the scope and enridung 
the effect, branching off into various schools, and manqni- 
lating their musical material in accordance with difEerences of 
temperament and attitude towards artistic problems ; but 
never leaving a gap in the constant development of operatic 
art, £rom the initial stimdard of the slenderest simplicity up 

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to Ute Tdaminoiu elaborationB of the most passioDate modem 

The scheme of the play wtm well thought out from a 
fomal point of view. It b^m with a prologue recited 
hy Tngedia personified, consisting of seven Terses set to 
a simple piece of declamatory m^dy, with a short and 
limple Ritomello at the end of each Ferae. The following is 
the first Ters e with the Ritornello (Ex. %6) : — 


I mt-ta, ttk 

>^ MB ■ fl ■»• - 


r-, 1 



Al p« 


tm ■ to 


- k 


1 '■' i i " 

-/4 -4 






-? r^i^-^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


The actual play then b^Ds vith discourse <rf sundry slupberds 
in recitative, interaperBed occaaionidly by a few bars of very 
simple chorus. Then Euridice appears ou the scene, and joins 
in the discourse for a while and departs again ; then Orpheus in 
bis turn comes in and joins in the dialogue, which is diverufied 
by the entry of a shepherd named Thyrsis, who plays the only 
extensive piece of instrumental mnsic in the whole work on a 
triple flute, intenpeising ibe diriuona of the Sintonia with 
remarks of his own. These new characters are ultimately 
joined by Dafne, who tells them that Enridice has been bitten 
by a snake, and is dead ; and the first half of the work ends 
with short passages of chorus interspersed with dialogue. The 
second half of the work introduces Orpheus in the company 
of sundry deities ; first with Venus, and later with Pluto, 
Proserpine, Charon, RhadamanthuB, and other deities of the 
infernal r^ons, to whom Orpheus addresses himself, en- 
deavouring by the power of music to obtain the release 
of Euridice and her restoration to the upper air of earth. 
This scene is almost all in redtatire with ' the exception 
of a chorus of some twenty bars at the end. The final 
scene presents the same locality as the first, with much the 
same pastoral company } to whom Orpheus, bringing Euridice 
with him, re-enters, expressing his joy in not particularly 
ecstatic accents. And the whole work ends with some little 
passages of chorus, which are rdterated alternately to make an 
apologue ; the effect being enhanced by dancing. The direc- 
tions being ' Ballo a 3, Tutto il coro insieme cantano e ballano,* 
The plan of the play is thns innocently formal, and the mumc 
is equally innocent in its informality. But a uncere and 
intelligent intention shines through the slender resources, 
and the style being throughout of the utmost simplicity, the 
main points of effect, such as the prologue, the episode of 
Thyrsis, the little choruses, and the proportionate extension 
of the final chorus with dancing, can easily be seen to have 
beeo very effective to minds which were absolutely free from 

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any experience whatever of theatrical rqireflentation accom- 
panied by music throoghout The muaic, as it stands on 
paper, consists merely of a single line tor the accompaniment, 
with fignres to indicate the chorda to be nsed by the players, 
and a mngle line for the singer's part; except, of course, 
when t^e rare passages of chorus occur, which are in various 
numbers of parts, but extremely umple in style. In the 
preface which is appended to the printed edition, Peri records 
that the orchestra consisted of a gravicembalo played by 
Jacopo Corai, a chitarrone (a laige lute) played by Qrazio 
Montalvo, a lira grande played by Battista dd Vidino, 
and a liuto grosso played by Gioranni Lani. No separate 
parts are given for them in the scon, and it is not possible to 
say whether they had parts, or speculated independently on the 
basis of the indications given by the figured bass. Peri himself 
is said to have taken the part <^ Orteo, and Caccini's daughter 
Francesca that of Euridice. 

The recitative, though for the moat part little more than 
musical conversation^ at times showa traces of expressive 
intoition. As when Da&e comes to announce the death of 
Euridice; and when Orpheus expresses his despair both on 
earth and in the lower regions. The latter passage indeed 
is one of the most remarkable in the work, and almost the 
only one in which any anticipation of Monteverde's devices 
can be found. It is as follows : — 

X ml d^r papto-tJiddniemu.ll. i^ Qwntf ml^s-n nr Urn 

'l- p ,. rJ I - ^ J I .1 , J ^ ,) J ■ 

- - n (to: '•no. lA-at.m^.'Ual fi" !<*> • *"> 

_^ jsi ■ ^ A 

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. - - bn«-ln-b 

J7i J J 




» 1 


— p— 

— 1 1- 








J. JJ J 







1=5 Fi * tt hfi tv-t-= ^1 1 

^■— ^H " 1 Lp fiJ 1 

ITie scale of the dioruBes may be judged from a portion of a 
final cboruB to which the pertonnerB were directed to dance 

(Ex. sa). 

lili' 'inpj^ii/ i'i'yrii,!^! 

I BloBf B-^r ah* d'al-to u»i - U M-n» 

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Of tuneful toag, at passionate feeling, there ia scarcdy a 
trace feom fint to last ; and the inatrumental accompaniment 
never exceeds the limited datjr oi aupporting the voice, and 
neither by harmony nor figore adds anything to the expieanon. 
The ideal of the composer seems to have been aatiafied with 
setting the words to any auccesaion of sounds which could be 
ctMiveniently sung, and the rare discords used in the accom- 
paotment amount to no more than a few sospeniuons which 
are occasionaUy treated in rather an unconventional manner. 
It is all very quiet and unpretentioQs, and the implication is 
that the audience were pleased more by the novelty of the 
thing and the scheme in general than by any intrinsic effect 
of any kind. 

Another setting of the same ' tragedia * of Euridice made its 
appearance in print just at the end of the same year ilSoo. 
This was the work of the composer known then and rince 
as Qiulio Caccini (detto Somano], who was a very prominent 
member of the band of enthusiasts who were promoting the 
new music. The first act of this work has been reprinted 
from a copy of the first edition preserved in the Berlin Museum, 
and from so much it would appear that the favour of the 
puUic was rightly bestowed on Poi's wotk. Caccini's version 
is, if anything, more colourless than Peri's. The Prologue is 
not so musical : the instrumental episode of Thyrais is wanting. 
The recitative presents the same umless circuitousnesa, 
and has even fewer moments of melody and expressivenetp. 
The chief pcnnt in which the woric differs from Peri's is in 
the more frequent use of florid passages for the solo voices, 
and in a treatment of the chorus, which is a little more free 
than Peri's, though by no means more artistic. The vocal 
flourishes are interesting as representing the first introduction 
into Operas of a feature which in later times became 
offensively prominent. The ^camples in Caccini's work are 
interesting as showing the avaketung attention of musicians 
in Italy to matters of pure vocalization, which point is 

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accentuated by the fact that Cacdni himself was a ginger, 
and that hia daughter Francesca was one of the fint famous 
lady aiugera of modem mnaical hiatory. An example will 
■how that Cacdni attempted to make his omamenta inter- 
esting by variety of motion. 

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Before proceeding with the conndention of the rapid diffurion 
and cultivation of auch secular mnuc, a singular and isolated 
e:q>eriment, which was of the nature of a parentheus, deserres 
some notice. This was the attempt of Emilio Cavalieri, who 
was credited by Peri with the invention of rmtative (p. 26), 
to apply the new methoda to a aacred drama. Many 
experiments had been made in the sixteenth century in 
putting Biblical stories and events io the lives of saints on 
the stage, with a certain amount of munc, to attract and 
educate the people. The most notable of these experiments 
were the performances instituted by Philip Neri at the Oratory 
of his Church, Sta. Maria in Vallicella, in connexion with 
sermons and ecclesiastical functions. The music of these 
works does not appear to he attainable now, and report only 
says that, with the view of popularizing the performancea, very 
simple and rhythmic hymn-tunes were introduced, such as are 
Icnowa as 'Laudi Spirituali.' These were quite different in style 
from the rect^nized devotional church music of the day, and 

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much more aJun to the popular iongs in lirelineBS and um- 
plicitjr of gtyle. The perfonnancea undoubtedlj^ attracted much 
attention, and it n generally held that the fact of such works 
having been performed in the Eamoug Oratory waa the origin 
(rf the name of Oratorio bang ^ren to sacred dramas set to 
music. Cavali^'s * Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpo/ 
which is the first Oratorio which has survived, though only 
in mannscript, was performed, like the previous sacred dramas, 
in the Oratory in the early part of the same year, itioo, which 
witnessed the appearance of the first surviving Opera, 'Euridice.' 
This work is far more interesting in detail than the secular 
experiments, and presents features which mark Cavalieri as 
the strongest and most imaginative of the representatives of the 
'Noove Musiche* at that tame. The work comprises no less 
than ninety numbers, most of them short, and none showing 
much power of development. It begins with a remarkably fine 
solo tor a bass voice, in a declamatory style, well laid out, 
vigorous and expressive, the whole of which is given in the last 
volume of Bumey's .fiw'ory. This is followed by short choruses, 
solos, dialt^es, recitatives, and one lively movement, which 
has evident kinship with the 'Laudi Spiritual!' introduced 
in the eariier Oratorios, during which ' il coro si parte cantando.' 
After the first act comes a long instrumental sinfonia, written 
in five parts, and laid out with evident intention of attaining 
the effect of lo^cal design. It b^^s with a slow introduction, 
written in contrapuntal style (Ex, 34a). This is followed by a 
movement which is evidently meant to be lively (Ex. 34 b). 
The upper part appears to be intended for stringed instruments. 

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baring florid puaagea aD thnni^b, to the accompaniment of 
ilow^-moTing chords. The bass having thus tramped up nine 
•tepa all the way to the A^ vhich serveB as the dominant 
for the Cadence into the dominant key ; then, recommendng 
on the B above the baas stave, trampa all the way down 
again; the upper part continuing its lively figure the while. 
And by this simple means the whole movement is systematized. 
In the relation of the two movements to one another, and the 
oontraats of style, the whole dindy prefigures the ' French ' or 
'liullian' Overture. The second act contains nmilar move- 
menta to the first, and ends with a short five-part chorus and 
another unfonia. The interest increases in the last act. 
No, 71 is an elaborate solo for an 'Anima beata,' answered by 

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I cbaroM ot ^Anbne be&te,' all for higfa maces, and contahuag 
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llieii followB a Bimple quartet for Aninui, Intelletto, Corpo 
and ConugUo, and No. 74 is a cborup of 'Aniote dannate,' 
in wbicli an excellent effect ia obtained, by , moUonleasneSB 
and the use of the low voices, to gaggoA the nttenuicea of the 
damned, aa a contraat to the lively passages an^ the high roices 
of the blessed. 



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Then theie are several solos, in wliich Intelletto and 
Conuj^o cany on discuudon, and the work ends with the 
alternative of a four-part chorus to which the characten 
are directed to dance, or an dght-part chorus in somewhat • 
simple contrapuntal style. For the performance of the work 
very elaborate instructions are given, moat of which do not, 
bowerer, concern the musical aide of the queatdon, Cavalieri 
emphasizes the obviona neceamty of the aoloiflta having good 
voices, good ears and good productions. He also says that 
tiie aingeis must have capacity of pathetic expression, and 
power of ewdling and diminishing the tones; and also have 
equal respect for the ctHuposer and the poet, is unging 
cleariy, and being particularly attentive to the articulation and 
ei^reaaion of the words. 

The directions with regard to the accompaniment are, that 
it should consist of a lira doppia, a gravicembalo, a diitar- 
rone, and two flutes, which were to be placed behind the acenes. 
It is also added that, if a violin played the soprano, it would 
have 'buonianmo eSetto.' The chonia were directed to have 
places allotted to them on the stage, part Bitting and part 
standing, and when they aang they were to stand and be in 
motion, with appropriate geaturea. Dancing is also recom- 
mended in eeveral places, and the steps proposed are those 
of the Galliard, Canary and Corrente. The whole scheme 
is more full of variety and thought than the works of the Opera 
composers, and it seems that the art might have progressed 
in a somewhat different manner from what it did, if Cavalieri 
had not unfortunately died in the year in which the work was 
performed. It so cornea about that neither of the men vrbo 
head the list of Opera and Oratorio composers took any part 
in the further development of their branches of art. For, 
though Peri survived, nothing else of his is known but the 
*Euridice.* Howcvct, the movement, once started, waa taken 
up with great esgemesa. In the line of Oratorio there was no 
apparent successor to Cavalieri for some time, but in the 

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genuine secular line s coiwderable namber of compoBere came 
forward, and many of their experimental compoaitioDS have 
annived. In the majority of these, nothing very striking. 
in the way of progreaa ia discermble, though moat of the 
compoaera vriio tried the new atyle had views of their own 
abont the manner in which, and the purpoaes to which, it 
might be applied. Banchieri, for instance, as early aa 1601, 
produced a little work which looks as if it was intended for 
domestic use, comprimng singing and acting, vrith elaborate 
directions for performance. Caccini put forth an important 
treatise describing the method of the new art, inclnding 
a description of the inflexiona to be used in the new kind 
of recitative, and several examples of settinga of short poems, 
according to the new lights, for solo voice and figured baas. 
Aa these early attempts in solo song with accompaniments are 
of great interest, the following veree of a sa<alled aria is worth 
attention : — 

to U 


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The lollowing is the charmiag opening phrase of 'Amarilti, 
mia bdla,' which is here entdded a madrigal ;— 

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Ab representing the elementary phase of the ' New Munc ' 
the setting of Rinucdni's 'Dafne,* by Marco da GagUaoo, 
which was performed in Mantua and published in Florraice 
in 1608, must be mentioned. This work is on the same 
lines as the works of Peri and Caccini, with page after page 
of recitative interspersed with occasional tuneful momenta and 
a good many florid passages for soloists, some of which are 
diaracteristic, on account of the ciirious feature of repeated 
notes, which is so often met with in Montevmle's works. 
Gagliano's choruses are a little more extensive than Peri's and 
Caccini's, and there are also several little passages simply scored 
for instruments, and even a 'hallo' for instruments at the end. 

In all these works, which must be grouped tt^ether w 
representing the most primitive form of modem secular music, 
the same traits and mannerisms present tfaem'selvea. As a 
noticeable example may be quoted the formula of the cadence, 
in which the voice-part anticipates the harmony of the final 
chord, while the penultimate chord is sounding; but instead 
of keeping to the same note, as is usual in more familiar times, 
the voice-part moves to auotiier note in the final chord. This 
is of such frequent occurrence in the works of these primitive 
writers, that it almost seems to mark the period and s^le, 

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Two exainplea will be fDund in the prolagiie to VerPt 
'Enridice' in the fiflli and serenth ban (p. 31). The device 
peiwsted for a connderable time, aod counterputa of it are 
met with quite at the end of the century. 

Another device is the ending of a phrase with a spondaic 
repetition of a note or a chord. This formula seemB to have 
been particularly attractive to the Italian mind, and is almost 
annoyingly frequent in worka of this period. For instance, it 
occurs three times in Peri's prologue, ^ven above, p. 31, and 
as there are seren verses, it is heard twenty-one times before 
tite actual play commences. In Cacdni's case the same occnrs, 
and in a chorus in Gagliano's 'Dafne,' 'Biond' Arcier/ it 
occurs seven times in fifteen bars. Such features empbarize 
the helplesBnesB and slendemess of resource of these early 
composers. Their idea of artistic methods seems to be at the 
lowest possible standard. The interest of the performances 
must have rested mainly in the novelty of the whole experi- 
ment, and the instinctive feeling that it might lead to some- 
thing. Human beings are often capable of b^g interested 
in things which have no intrinsic interest, but surest a vista 
of posnbilities which excite the imagination. There is nothing 
particularly interesting in laying a commonjdace foundation- 
stone, but those who take part in the function feel that it is 
a symbol and token of the building which is to he reared upwi 
it, and the occamon takes impressivenesa from what it pre- 
figures. So it must have been with the witnesses and audience 
of these infantile experiments. They felt that the line adopted 
was full of possibilities, and that the foundation was lud on 
ground which was good enough to build upon extensively. 
And it is clear that composCTs took a hopeful view of lite 
rituation from the esgemees wiUi which the new line was 
taken up not only in Italy but in various othsr coimtrics, 
almost immediately aft^ the first notable experiments had come 
before the world. Many of these early eSwts have considerable 
importance in the story of the new departure in the tine of 

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secular ut, but they are completely OTenhadowed by the pro- 
ductions of the remarkable composer who, as early m i6o7> 
put a new aspect upon the movement, and so far distanced 
all his contemporaries, that for some time the whcde coume of 
its progress seems to be summed up in his peculiarly daring 
and unique musical personality. 

Not only the powers but the training and experience of 
Claodio Montererde were conspicuously different from those 
of the first secularists. He was a thoroughly trained musidan, 
well grounded in the mysteries of the contrapuntal church art ; 
and had had a long experience of practical musical work before 
he came before the public in the capacity which has ever after 
made him conspicuous in musical history. As he was bom in 
1568 he was a man of mature years by the time the * Nuove 
Mu«che' had got well under way, and had had plenty of time 
to mature his powers and his views. It is a matter of some 
moment that he had been for some time profesnonal viol 
player in Uie Duke of Mantua's band ; for the experience of 
such inatrumental music as he had occasion to take' part in 
must certunly kave been a powerful determining factor in the 
direction of his heterodox energies. It was evident that the 
ground on which the orthodox musicians and c^ritics of the day 
Eooiid fault with him, even before he launched out into the 
rt^nq of opera, was the use of chords and progressions 
iHiich were at variance with the traditions of choral art. The 
(dd music of the contrapuntal style was all founded upon the 
idea of what was suitable to be sung without any instnunental 
accompamment. Voices imaided can only take certain notes 
in connexion with others, of which the relative pitch is easily 
remembered or estimated. It seems easy enough now for vtoces 
to take all manner of discords, because all musical peojde 
have got used to them through constantly hearing insbn- 
mental mumc. But when people had really heard very few 
discords, and such only as were accounted for by the 
persistence of a note which had first been in harmony with 

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iU fellows becoming discordant by thdr moving on^ it seemed 
barbarous to expect nngen to pitch upon notes which were 
at variance with natural harmony. It was doing violence to 
human instinct to ask a singer to take a note which made 
with any other g^ven note an interval which jarred upon the 
nerves. It seoned ss difficult, theoretically, to make sure of 
the pitch required for such an interval as a major seventh or 
an augmented fonrth, as to ask a man to sing in tune what 
was in itself out of tune. But instruments can take mechani- 
cally any interval whatever. Given the place where the string 
is to be stopped or the particular key to be struck, there is no 
inherent difficulty whatever in sounding any conceivable discord 
which could be invented. Monteverde had no doubt been 
brought face to face with this fact liirough his experience of 
viol playii^, and as he most frankly of all mmicians of his 
time rq^arded music as an art of expressioa, and discords as the 
most poignant means of representing human feeling, he very 
soon b^an to rouse the ire of those who were not prepared to 
sacrifice the teaching of centuries and their own feeling of what 
really was artistic without protest. To the sensitive critical 
instinct of those who always felt their art and tested it through 
its relation to human voices it seemed like an impertinence 
that he should presume to write such simple things as ninths 
and sevenths witiiout duly sounding them first as concordant 
notes. It was so completely at variance with the whole inten- 
tion of their art that it struck them with consternation. And 
well it might, for small as these first steps were they presaged 
the inevitable end of the placid devotional music. The sudden- 
ness of the poignancy which unprepared discords conveyed to 
the mind implied a quality of passionate feeling which musicians 
had never hitherto regarded as within the legitimate scope of 
murical art. They had never lutherto even looked throng 
the door which opened upon the domains of human passion. 
Once it was opened, the subjective art of the church school, 
and the submissive devotionalism of the church composers 

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wu bound to come rapidly to an end. Men tasted of the 
txee of knowledge, and the paradise of innocence waa thence- 
forth forliidden them, Monteverde was the man who firat 
tasted and gave his fellow men to eat of the fruit; and 
from the accounts given of the effect it produced upon them 
they ate with avidi^ and craved for more. The effect was so 
complete indeed, that sacred muuc, in order to maintain itself, 
had soon to adopt secular mannera, and to become dther 
histrionic or purely trivial. Monteverde's own instinct aeeon 
to have led him in the direction of human emotional expression 
from the first. It seems more likely that he was carried away 
by the impulse than that he was incapable of learning the rules 
of counterpoint. There are a good many madrigals by him 
that are quite in the orthodox style, and some of them are 
extremely dulL On the other hand it must be confessed Uut 
when the impulse was upon him it seemed to intoxicate him, 
and he wrote passages which look rather as if he had taken 
leave of bis musical senses. His time of probation was suf- 
fictoitly long, no less than twenty-three years, and bis first 
publication of choral music appears to date from 1584. His 
first appearance in the field of the * Nuove Muaiche ' was the 
outcome of his appointment in 1605 as Maestro di Cappella 
to the Duke of Mantua, in succession to his old master 
Ingegneri. The Duke's son was engaged to the Infanta of 
Savoy, and Monteverde was called upon to write an opera in 
the new style to grace the occasion. Rinuccini, the same poet 
who had written the 'Euridice' for Peri, supplied the poem 
for Arianna, which appean to have been produced in 1607, 
Unfortunately the whole of the music except one singular 
fragment has disappeared, and that has posubly survived owing 
to the great impresnon produced by it — as, in the parlance so 
often met with, 'it moved all who heaid it to tears.' This 
fragment, which is the lament of the deserted Ariadne, is 
undoubtedly very remarkable ; as it is not only even extrava- 
gantly at variance with the old traditbns, and crude in the 

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exoMs of ezprestton, but it is cast in a form which completdy 
pfefigora the aimple oi^anization of the ' Aria form ' of later 
tiiuei— having three definite portions, of which the last is a 
repetitioD of the fint, and the central portion a strong contrast 
both in the grouping of the essential harmonies and the style 
a! Uie music. To show how strong the departure was^ it will 
be M well to pmnt out the nu>re obvious technical peculiarities 
in the fragment, which is usually given as follows :~- 

(■) ^ (0 (3) (4) 

(5) (fi) 

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In the second bar a serentli which is much haisher than 
• dominant wventh is taken without preparation, and the same 
. ocean again in the fifth bar. In the dghth bar consecutive 

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fifths between the solo voice and the basa are barely di^uued. 
In the deventh bar a different fleventh from the first is taken 
with scarcely a hint of a preparation, and in the thirteenth 
a discord of a peculiarly harsh description is not only taken 
in a very startling manner, but is harped upon and prolonged 
M aa to produce a specially poignant effect — a kind of stnun 
upon the nerves which certunly ministered to the ezdtement 
of sensibility which is said to have been aroused in the audience 
at the first performance. The crowding of so many features 
which were quite unfamiliar to the audience into such a short 
passage was like a defiant manifesto. It is the very first surviv- 
ing example of the decisive departure in music in the direction 
of oncompromimng expression of a secular kind, and from it 
seems to follow continuously the long story of the development 
of the hiatrionic branch of art which passed through Monte- 
verde'a pupil Cavalli into France, through a strange and 
interestang phase in the music of the Restontion period in 
England, then arrived at one important crisis in Gluck's 
work, and culminated in the works of Wagner and his recent 
followers. Not less important than its expressive character^ 
isticB ia the definitenesa of the design. The idea of distributing 
definite features of a movement or musical work of any kind so 
as to produce the effect of demgn, crops up now and agun 
from early times. For instance^ a very fine 'Chanson s^ulaire' 
of Josquin, 'Adien mea Amoun' is in the simple form of an 
aria with corresponding b^ianing and end, and a passage of 
contrast in the middle. But men seem to have adopted such 
procedure without conviction ; and even the earlier composers 
of the *Nuove Musicbe' seem to bave had very little idea 
oi the value of any ot^;anizatbn of the kind. Monteverde*8 
fragment, however, completely prefigures the tendency in the 
direction of definite deugn iduch later, after many hentations, 
dominated one branch of art completely, and indeed became 
the bane of one period of Italian art. So in the short compass 
of one little fragment are embodied the qualities which distia- 

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guished the two great divisions of music&l art, namely^ Uiose 
which are the first essenUals of the purely histrionic composen 
on the one hand, and those which are the essentials of the 
abstract composers on the other — which hare nerer been more 
pronounced than in recent timeB. 

By a angular piece of fortune Montererde hinwdf pot 
on record a Tersion of this very Augment, the complete 
authenticity of which is beyond criticism, by turning it into 
a madrigal, which exists in tjie set published by him at 
Venice in the year 1620. As a sample of his extraordinary 
renturesomeness in choral writing, and 'of the influence which 
the 'Nuove Musiche' was destined to exert upon this branch 
of art, a portion of this madrigal is worthy of being inserted. 
The daring treatment of the discords and progresaionfl is far 
more conspicuous in the form of choral music, and it is bo ' 
strongly at variance with commonly received orthodoxies for 
such kinds of music, even in modem times, that it is easy 
to sympathize with the astonishment of his contemporaties 
when one sees his work in such a fonn. 


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Montererde's success with 'Arianna' was quickly followed 
by a second work of the same kind. His 'Orfeo' was produced 
at the CoDTt of Mantua in 1607, and was published in Venice 
in 1609^ and is preserved in its enUiety. We have therefore 
in this case ample opportunity to observe in what directiona 
his method differed from and outstripped that of his prede- 
cessors. One fact that strikes the attention from the outset 
is the much greater importance of the instrumental element 
In the work. Instead of h^;inning at once with the vocal 
prtdogue, the work opens with an orchestral 'toccata.* In 

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biB muiner of dealing with tfaia prelude, Monteverde showi 
his keen perception of appropriate eSect. He had no models, 
but he evidently felt that the function of such an introduction 
was to arrest the attention; and to attain this he simply 
made the movement a rugged cacophonous tan&re of trumpets, 
accompanied by a persistent reiteration in the baas of the 
ground note of the harmony and the fifth above. 

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In Buch barbarouB and characteristic work he ii quite at 
home, and ia its way it is & stroke of genius. Whea he 
attempts anything more intrinsically musical, he is not always 
eo BuccesBful. The instrumental ritornello which foUows the 
toccata is thoroughly clumsy and awkward, though at the same 
time it is characteristic and definite, and serres well oiough for 
the purpose of form when he reiterates it no less than five times 
between successive passages of recitative which are put into 
the mouth of *La Musica' by way of proline. After this 
cmnefl the first act of the drama, with the usual declamatory 
recitative of the period ; but, unlike the earlier samples, this 
is not allowed to go on for long. An extensive chorus is 
introduced with dancing, and this in its turn is followed 
by more instrumental music, and similar procedure is followed 
throughout. The d^ree of variety when contrasted with the 
scheme of the earlier works is very notable. Not only is 
the dialogue constantly interspersed with nnfoniaa, ritomellos, 
choruses, and dances, but the composer endeavours to get 
variety of effect of a more subtle kind by diversifying the 
groups of instruments which play the ritomellos and accom- 
paniments to the voice. Thus one ritornello is directed to 
be played by two chitarroni and clavicembalo, and two flutes. 
Another by five viole da bracdo, a coutrabasso, two gravi- 
cembalos, and three chitarroni. A long scene for Orfeo ia 
accompanied sometimes by organo da le^o and chitarroni, 
sometimes by violins, sometimes by cometti and by two double 
harps. In one part there is the accompaniment 'plan piano' 
(or three viols, and a contaabasso. A sinfouia, also 'pian 
juano,* is to be given by viola, oi^ano da iegno, coatrabasso, 
and viol-da-gamba. Moreover, the writing for the instruments 
is not mere roice-parta in disguise, but shows a genuine instinct 
for instrumental style. The violins occasionally rush about in 
headlong vivaci^, as in the following passage: — 

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^'^^i^^ ^^^^t^ l^ : 

The cornetti and double harps have also to beatir themBetveB 
vigorously in a way which suggeatfl tliat there must hare been 
a considerable amount of executive talent available amongst 
the performers. The treatment of the voice-part, again^ shows 
an immense advance on the standards of the earlier composers 
in the conception of vocal effect, and makes a cooaidenble de- 
mand on the capacity of the ungers. The recitative frequently 
approximates to melody, and the ornamental passages are 
free from the mere mechanical roolade* of scale passages 
and formal figures; and are characteristically devised with 
variety of detail such as would tax even very efficient vocalists 
in modern times. The passage which combines the most 
extraordinary ornamental passages with some very fine decla- 
mation is the following solo for Orfeo from the third act: — 

pfrft^Pfrrr a 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



• Tr,r-trr,.f- f . r ,. , r ^S 

ifttx - - da ini tH-w-nnl In 

IIoUbI^ U ooa-for-ta al 

r nf- 


-^ 1^ I 

The general plan of the work indicatea a high degree of 
inBtJDct for general effect. All the acts end with masuve 
chorus passages and a sinfonia. The character of the musical 
material is well diversified. There is a chorus of spirits with 
'echo effects, and the last vocal piece ia a duet for Apollo 
and Orfeo to be Bun|; as they mount to the heavens, which 
ii broad and masculine and very characteristic. The whole 

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work with all its crudity ia nTadons with cootrirance and 
readiness of reBOurce; and, considering the elementary state 
of the mumcal dramatic art when it was written, it is one of 
the most astonishing products of genius in the whole range 
of music. 

The appearance of 'Orfeo* together with the 'BaUo delle 
ingrate,' which was produced on the same occasion, inevitably 
established Montererde's position as the foremost represen- 
tative of dramatic music of his time. He had so completely 
outpaced his fellows, and so unmistakably hit upon the true 
style for histrionic music that he seems for a long time to 
stand as solitary as a mountain peak in a lowland country. He 
had so completely worked himself away from the influence of 
the ecclesiastical and madrigal style, that his essential secularity 
seems to have come from a new quarter atb^ether. But, 
unfortunately, performances on the scale which suited bis 
particular gifts were restricted to the fortuitous functions of 
great houses, such as matrimonial festivities, and comings 
of age, and the great cn«monial occasions of political life; 
and he had but few opportunities for the exercise of hie 
powers for many years. The greatness of his reputation 
appeals to have induced the authorities of St. Mark's, in 
Yenice, to offw Mm an unusuaUy high salary to accept the 
positioii of Maestro di Cappella at that famous church in 1613. 
And bis work of various kinds was thenceforth connected with 
the inspiring Queen of the Adriatic. Here he brought out 
some very unmadrigalian madrigals in 1630, among which is 
the version of 'Lasciatemi morire' alluded to above (p. 49). 
In itisi he produced some very siupriaing church music for 
an ecdeuastical function in honour of Cosmo II of Florence, 
and in 1624 he had a fresh opportunity to write for the stage, 
and produced a la^ work called II Combatiimento di Tan- 
credi e Clortnds. A passage from this work is so highly 
suggestive of the growth of lus dramatic ' instinct that it 
demands insertion here. 

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f — f r I T H-fJiii I f p p F 


rJ -1 1 • , 1 ■ 1 ' J J ^ 

"-" • 

I ■ - " ■ 

1 "J J i i 1 J 

1 -J i i i 1 

J • l~J~J J J 1 J 1 .1 J J J 1 

- Un - M, ■ qiutl a quill d 

' r r r fr 

The \at of the violins in rapidly repeated notei is a 
feature which, at such a period, marks most significantly the 

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composer's acute senae of dmnatic effect. To andience* of 
those days it must have produced the same effect as a very 
fierce tremolando in modem times. It ia not at all unlikely 
that the effect was Montererde's intention. It is the first 
known instance of its appearance in music; but alter this 
time 'tremolando/ as a direction for instrumental music, 
becomes tolerably frequent. In s dramatic senae the treatment 
of the latter part of the passage is even more ronarkable than 
the mere technical instrumental device. The uncompromising 
throb of Ae rhythm, the absolute silence at regular intervals, 
the obstinate pendstence of the chord, the dropping away 
of the vitality, like a pendulum coming to a standstill, all 
show the intensity and truth of the composer's insight. This 
particular passage is, moreover, one which most dedsivdy 
connects the pupil Cavnlli with the master Monteverde, as 
will be seen hereafter. The example which shows the 
master's influence most conspicuously is ^en on page 145. 

The works which followed the appearance of the 'Com- 
battimento' were somewhat of the nature of parentheses, and 
belonged to different orders of arL However, it is difficult 
to pass by such works as the Scherzi Sfuticali which came 
out in 1638; for in a different and lesa agreeable way they 
certunly illustrate the tendencies of the time. They were 
probably intended for domestic use, and may therefore be 
tairiy compared with the madrigals of eariier days; but the 
oontnst is even painfully in favour of the earlier music, and 
the falling off ia artjatic qualities, elevation in style, and 
technical interest is almost startling. 

The scherzi are nearly all for three voices and instruments; 
and the style of the music has suspicious likeness to popular 
tunes. They are light and gay, and illustrate the awakening 
sense of serious musicians to the claims of tune to be admitted 
in artistic mnnc. They also illustrate pointedly the tendency 
towards definite organization in a formal sense, for elaborate 
directions are given for performance. The voices are to be^ 

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by unging a verse; then tiie instromenta are to play a ritoi^ 
aello, which is different from the vocal music, but about the 
same length ; the voices are then to sing the rest of the 
verses of Uie poem, and the ritomello to alternate with each 
verse till the poem comes to an end. The fbllowiug are fair 
samples of the style, and are notable among other things as 

earty illustrations of excessive use of passages in thirds, such 
as are familiar in the most trivial modem Italian popular 
music. It suggests the posobility that Monteverde himself 
adopted the device (of which it must be confessed he was 
inordinately fond) from the streets ! 

The rest of Monteverde's works seem for the most part to 
have disappeared, though some of them may yet come to light 
again in a foigotten comer of some little-known library. He 
produced 77 it(W((;o ^Wi/o in 1629, Proserpina }iapiia,&Tegalta 
mumcal drama, in 1630, and a Mass for St. Mark's in 1631. 
The year 1637 witnessed an event of the very greatest moment 

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in modern mnsical hiatoiy. This was the opening of the 
fint pablic opera house in Europe, the Sad Casaiano in 
Venice, for which Montevnde's works were naturally in 
much request. He wrote for the new opeia house a worh 
caDed L'Atbme, about the year 1639. Moreover, the house 
of San Casaiano stood but a very short time without a rival, 
for Uie opera house of St Mark's soon followed, and iu 
this Mouteverde's 'Arianna' was revived, and two new works 
of his were presented for the first time. La Nozze di Bnea 
con Lavima, and 71 Ritomo tCVUate. And in 1642 the 
last of his works of the kind, L'Incoronazione di Poppea, 
was produced; and in 1643 he died, and was buried In the 
Church of the Fntri, having assured the universal acceptance 
of the new twder of secular music, and established the 
methods and style which were essentially appropriate for the 

There were many other composers who tried their hands 
at the new kind of art, and though they all seem but 
pigmies by the side of Monteverde, they most of them 
pronde something to show how the movement progressed. 
According to Delia Valle, the first composer to introduce 
the new style in Rome was Paolo Quagliati, of whom be 
speaks as his harpsichord master, A work of this com- 
poser's was printed in Rome in 161T, called Carro di 
Fedeltit d'Amore. The title says it was * rappresentato in 
Roma da cinque voci per cantar soli ed insieme.' There 
are indeed several interesting features in the work. It con- 
tains duets, quartets, and other combiaationB of solo voices. 
It b^;ins with a short prdude, called as usual ritomello, 
which is scored in two lines; and there are a good many 
indications for special instruments to be used in different 
parts of the work. There is the usual amount of recitative, 
and some very surprising ornamental passages for the soloists, 
showing the general diffusion of the taste for vocalization and 
the gnjwing taste for vocal display, 'StraU d'Amore, &vole 

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recitate in Mu^ca/ by BoBchetd Boachetto, made its appear- 
ance in Venice in 1618; 'La Morte d'Orfeo, Tragicomedia 
pastorale con Musiche di Stefano Dandi' appeared in the aame 
city in 1619. 

Among the composers who had great reputation in the 
eariy part of the century was Dotnenico Mazzocchi, who wrote 
elaborate madrigals as well as works in the new theatrical 
style. His 'Favola/ called La Catena d'Adone, which was 
printed in Venice in 1626, ia suggestive of the tendency 
towards 'tuneyneaa' which ultimately led to the absolute 
domination of the opera by the typical arias, and to the 
exclusion of the dramatic element altogether. The ioclinar 
tion towards nmple harmonization of simple melodic phrases 
is to be found here in every department of the work — in 
a little sinfonia for the third scene. 



in a six-part cboms of nymphs and shepherds, in part of an 
'aria a tre* for Venus, Amore and Adonis, 

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and in the final chorus : 

I*.^.« son 


-■■ J-JtJ-^ 

» JI'J*" 

-'-1 -' ji J " „.i 

Technically the work is not a whit better than Montererde'a 
woriis of twenty yean earlier. But it runs more smoothly, 
partly because there is so much less in it. It is indeed 
significant, espedally through what it iKcks. The object is 
so evidently not to make the most of the subject and the 
■itaation or to interpret the words, but to supply something 
pleasant to listen to. Even as early as these works, therefore, 
the tendency of Italian art to drop the histrionic and dramatic 
element is apparent. 

It is equally apparent in 'II S'Alesaio, Dramma Muaicale 
poato in Mosica di Stetano Landi, Souiano,' which appeared 
in 1630. In certain ways, there are signs of advance in 
practical application. There are ginfonias with marks of 
expression such as 'pianos' and 'fortes,' very uncontrapuntal 
cfaomses with much too much of the cheap device of repeated 
notes and other similar features ; which indicate that, as the 
Italians got to understand their business and develop their 
(ewmrces, ihey took less advantage of the opportunities to 
achieve bigfaer results, than to plot out works on a large 
scale witbont any real artistic conviction except such as the 
i4>piDvaI of an inartistic public supplied. 

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iNflTBUHBNTAb mufiic had been tending towarda emanci- 
pation long before the be^nning of the Berenteenth century, 
though the ugns and tokens of its awakening were irr^fular 
and disconnected. CompoflerB eeem to have been dimly con- 
Bcioufl that the metboda of choral mtudc were not completdy 
satisfying when words, which gave the clue to the moods the 
music expressed, were absent. The most critical among them 
must have also felt at times that to give passages to instruments 
which were not characteristic of their peculiar aptitudes, or 
to fall short of the full effect that might be obtained from 
them, was to fail to justify their employment. Tet so depen- 
dent are even men of the highest genius upon the discovery 
and development of artistic methods and piinc»ples that even 
the greatest composers of the latter part of the sixteenth 
century failed entirely to write morements, or works on any 
extended scale for instruments, which are consistently instru- 
mental in style and construction. They could hardly have 
made up their minds indeed whether there was a distinct 
problem of muuc without words at all. Conservative minds 
recc^^nized the formulas of church art as the touchstone of 
good style; and the more reserved natures and such as had 
any sense of personal responsibility took every fresh step with 
caution. This would especially be the case with men of great 

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position or reputation. They would not be sufficiently certain of 
their ground, and the risk of doing something ridiculous would 
l>e too great, especially in works which they put forward publicly 
as representing dieir artistic ideals. This is perhaps the reason 
why instrumental style at first made most progress in the 
range of domestic music. There is a great difference between 
making a conspicuous failure in the intimate circle of a man's 
prirste friends, and committing an absurdity in the presence 
of a lai^ number of strangers. Even eariy in the sixteenth 
century, as has before been pointed out, composers had made 
considerable progress in the direction of true instrumental 
style and instrumental principles of form in lute music. In 
music for groups of viols they were persistently misled by thdr 
apparent similarity to groups of voices, and generally laboured 
too much to produce elf^nt roice-parts in disguise for all the 
instruments, and to carry out methods of art which were 
more appropriate to voices. 

The event proved that there were three possible lines upon 
which muuc in true instrumental style might be achieved. 
One was to continue working on the groundwork supplied by 
many centuries* experience of choral writing, and to manipulate 
< voice-parts ' so as to be more suited to instrumwta, and more 
conducive to instrumental effect. The second was to develop 
and expand the dance forms, and to find out how the various 
instruments could be best used to enforce the rhythmic and 
melodic elements in such music; and to discover how to dispose 
several dance movements bo as to set off one another by con- 
trasts and affinities. The third was to experiment in season and 
out of season in the unexplored re^ons of virtuosity, and to 
make a coherent whole out of passages of brilliant effect The 
first course appealed most to the higher type of musicians, and 
its ultimate outcome was the instrumental fugue ; the second 
appealed to musicians whose instinct for instrumental style 
was abnormally acute, and who were most susceptible to 
rhythm and definiteness of form; and the third appealed to 

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those who were more performers than composers, and whose 
venturesomenesa in the search after ^ect was only restrained 
by the risk of making themselres ridiculous. 

The branch of art in which progress towards maturity went 
forward most rapidly by change in the style of the details was 
organ mnsic. It may be surmised that orgamsts had excep- 
tionally favourable opportnnitie« for testing their experiments ; 
and the appointmeote to important posts b^g generally made 
to men who were thoroughly well trained in the highest forms 
of art of the older and more solid style, there was less likeli- 
hood of venturesomenesa unchecked by developed taste leading 
them into useless and unprofitable extravagance. Considering 
the artistic reserve which characterized their work, the speed 
with which organ miunc progressed towards maturity of 
thought and style is very remarkable. For reasons which it 
would take too much space to discuss, some of them also rather 
speculative, Venice took the lead in this branch of art. In 
that splendid roll of famous musicians which makes the list 
of the organists tmd 'chapel masters' of St. Mark's even from 
the fourteenth century, no names are more suggestive than 
those of Andrea Oabrieli, Giovanni Gabrieli and Claudio 
Merulo. Andrea was veiy much the senior of this inta«sting 
group, having been bom about 1510, while Merulo was bom 
in 1533, and Giovanni Gabrieli not till 1557. However, 
Andrea must have been a man of great character and enter- 
prise, and was one of the foremost leadera in the new paths 
which in his time were hardly more than guessed at. The 
basis of most of his work is the tradition of pure chonJ music. 
But it is a point of very great importance to note that in 
translating choral forms into instrumental tenns, composers 
were almost immediately impelled to make the subjects much 
more definite, and to use tbem much more connstently and 
■ systematically throughout a whole work, than had been the 
practice in choral music. In the old devotional mnuc not 
only were the subjects very indefinite, but inasmuch as the 

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wordSj and . the mood suggested by the words, were conatantlj^ 
chaugiDg, a 'subject* which was rather prominent at the 
be^oing of a movemeot was very soon lost ught of. The 
munc floated along indefinitdy, without more intriiuric cohe- 
rence than the general character and mood suggested. But 
directly men b^an to compose music without words they found 
this sort of rambling unbearatde. They felt the imperative 
need of some definite musical idea, and of some principle of 
order underlying the succesedve presentations of the idea. 
Hence, among the first indications of awakening sense for 
instrumental effect must be counted the appearance of definite 
subjects, and their muntenance throughout the whole of a 
movement. There had been a good many compositions before 
Andrea's time (and indeed there were many after) which set 
out as if they were going to be complete fugues, but whose 
composers g&re up thdr ori^nal subjects after the first 
few bars, and took to something else; just like a person of 
undeveloped mind trying to tell a story and forgetting before 
he gets half way through who the principal characters are. 
It was the process of discovering the error of this old way, and 
finding a more satisfactory vray of distributing the Buccessire 
appearances of the principal subject, and the succession of 
keys which gave the best impresuon of orderliness, that led 
to the completion of the form of the instrumental fugue; which, 
after being perfected as an instrumental form based upon 
andent choral lines, harked back to choral music, and in its 
developed form, by means of unlimited repetition of words, 
became for a time one of the most coniqiicuous of choral types, 
Andrea Gabrieli evidently saw certain essentials of instru- 
mental muuc quite clearly. In a 'Ricercar,' in the first mode 
transposed, which b^;ins as follows, — 


TTf i TTT 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


he not only maintaina the eaaential promineace of the subject 
right dirough the whole of the long movement] but he intro- 
duces it seTeral times in double augmentation in the course of 
the movement, and at the end in ordinary augmentation twice 
ovw — the last time in the treble as foUows : — 


-1 -.J 




The device emphasizes the awakening perception of mumdans 
to the importance of the 'subject* in instrumental compoai- 
tiona ; as it su^ests its reo^nifion as a text^ the reaffirmation 
of which in conclusion gains ao much additional weight 
by being put into longer notes. In this respect Andrea 
Gabrieli was a pioneer of great importance; but not in this 
abne. His instinct for instrumental style made him fully 
awake to the poasibiUties, it may ahnost be said necessities, of 
ornamentation in inatrumental music. The unadorned sim- 

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plicity of the actual easential notes which u appropriate to 
choral music, when used in instrumental music gives an 
impresnon of baldness. The mere tact that instruments are 
capable of dealing eanly with decorstire appliances makes 
them ahnost necessary. This was becoming patent to many- 
composers eren in the tixteenth century. It has been atea 
that ornamental passages were almost a matter of coarse in 
lute munc. The more serious surroondings of o^^ munc 
periiaps induced oi^^ists to be rather cautious in using them ; 
but ncrerthelesB, in the latter part of the century, organists 
were adopting with quaint deUberation the practice of repre- 
senting essential notes by omamraital figures, and filling vp 
gaps with rnns; and in these matters Andrea GabrieU was 
wdl to the fore. As an example of the innocent devices which 
were adopted when the decorative part of modem music was 
jnst beginning to come to life, the opening bars of a caozona 
of his on Crequillon's 'Uug gai berger* may be quoted: — 

i^ \ '-!rC^^^P^ 

• I . 1 

When once brought into recogmtion (Mvamental passages 
soon . pervaded all kinds of instrumental music. Canzone, 
ricercari, and &ntasias were all adorned with strange runs and 
turns; and canti fermi were accompanied by a new kind of 
counterpoint, ia which, though the parts were applied like 
the old vince-parta, the notes were too rapid to be song. 
(See p. 85.) There was one form of art, however, which re- 
quires especial notice because exuberant glorification d the 
ornamental was its special object, and because it illustrates 
the utter helplesaness of even great minds wbea there are no 
solid grounds for artistic specnlation to build i^n. The 
r 2 

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toccata was a piece of muaic which seems to have been 
ncogaixed as the form in which an oi^niat was to show 
his fancy and hia dexterity. It aeems likely that it was the 
outcome of early experiments in extemporization; and com- 
posers soon found that they could only attain their objects by 
i^oring the traditions of the old choral style, and devoting 
themselves solely to the invention of rapid passages and massive 
effects oi sound. Here again Andrea Gabrieli was in the fore- 
front, and supplied examples which are highly su^fealive. The 
following, from a toccata of his, will serve to illustrate the 
fact that the early composers had no idea what to do when 
they b^an to indulge in runs and arp^gios. To the hearer 
the run was a run and needed to be nothing more; and the 
composer merely took any succession of chords which happened 
to be convenient, and added scale passages to taste. 

i L^jj jirP Tn i jT^ oa 'y^i ^uxj i 

\!i^^iii<iiiif> \ iHfiii'iifri^i 

, Google 


Scale passages of this plain description were characterifltic of 
the music for kej'ed instruments in all countries, until the new 
secular music had gained some maturity, and had enabled men 
to see that omamenta require some coherent substratum of 
chord-progressiona to make them intelligible. The indications 
of progress in this ornamental department are to be looked for 
in the better organization of the passages in respect of melodic 
contour and successions of chords, variety of grouping and 
phraseology, and aptness to the sentiment or style of the piece 
of music in which they appear. 

Very considerable advance was made even in Andrea Oabridi'a 
lifetime by his younger contemporary Clandio Merulo, who was 
bom in 1533, and became first organist of St. Mark's in 1567. 
He was essentiaUy a performer-composer, and expanded the 
form of the toccata in a manner which shows a very remark- 
able sense of virtuosity. He managed to infuse interest into 
his scale passages by manipulating the contours so as to 
present the appearance of definite musical figures; he intro- 
duced a great varie^ of shakes and omamenta to vary the 
florid element, and buUt them upon successionB of chords 
which are tonally more coherent than the incooseqaent pro- 
gresuona of hia predecessors, who were always hampered by 
the traditions of the church modes. He, moreover, carried 
out a scheme of design which had been vaguely prefigured 
by Andrea Gabrieli, introducing quiet, slowly-moving passages 
of imitation or chords as a contrast to the pass^es of 
brilliancy. The whole aspect of his works is rich in detail; 
bizarre, it is true, but in the main dignified and distinctively 
instrumental. A toccata of his in F begins with slow notes 
as follows ; — 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


It 800D wamiB np witli more rapid passages ; as aa example of 
which the following may he taken, in which the Buccesrion 
of the hannoniea is perfectly I(^;ical and coherent. 

j i J 


The paasages of definite contour are made to anawer one 
another, and the clow ia elaborated as follows : — 

One of the strangest things in the musical history of that 
time is that, in spite of difficulties of communication, o^an 
composition and organ playii^ pn^reased in all countries very 
rapidly and on very ainiilar lines. Qiute at the end of the 
axteenth centnry and the beginning of the next there were 
great organistB all orer Europe. There were in Italy Lujzasco 

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Luzzaschi (1545 to 1607), oif^uiut and Maeatro di Cappella at 
Forara, who vaa looked upon by leading munciaiu ti hia time 
as one of the greateit oi;g«niat8 and muaiciaDa of Italy ; Giacomo 
Brignolj, wfaoae drcnnutancea are unknown, but who published 
remarkable orgao music early in the Krenteenth century; 
Criatofano Malvezzi, who was Maestro di Cappella at Florence ; 
Antonio Mortaro at Novara, Gioranm Oabrieli at Venice^ and, 
greatest of them all, Oirolamo Frescobaldi in Rome (1584-1647). 
In the Netherlands were Ian Pieterzooa Sweelinck of Amsterdam, 
and Peter Comet of Brussels. To England belonged Peter 
Phillips (though his career was mostly spent at Soigniea in the 
Netherlands), John Bull, and Orlando Gibbons. In Germany 
were Simon Lohet at Stuttgart, Johann Stephaoi at Liinebuig, 
Christian Erbach at Augsburg, Samuel Scheldt at Halle; in 
Bohemia was Carolua Luyton at Prague ; and in Lisbon there 
was Manuel Rodriguez Coelho. The similarity of their progress 
in method aeema to illustrate the fact that mental activities are 
subject to the same laws as other modes of motion ; and that, 
given the seme conditions, men starting from points which 
are intrinncally identical mil arrive at similar mental products 
even without much communication with one another. All 
these admirable artists seem to be moving under the same 
impulses and to be constantly arriving at similar artistic results. 
A fantama of Peter Phillips or Comet piewnts the same kind 
of appearance in the treatment of the decorative material as 
a toccata of Merulo's, with but a alight flavour of the hush- 
ness of B^le characteristic of Northern nations ; in the same 
way a canzona by the Italian Brignoli, in free fugal form, 
shows the same tendencies in respect of tonal qualities and 
natural flow of the harmonies as a fugue by the German Lohet. 
The organists who represent the average <rf that time — and it 
was a high one — ^were all making steady and similar progress ; 
and the principles which underlay tbdr work were the same 
everywhere. But the personal elem^it told in the application 
of the principles, and the giants who ou^taced their fellows 

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through sheer force of genius supplied the most vivid illustnitioas 
of the tendencies of their time. 

Two heroes of the craft espedally overtopped all their fellows 
in inventiveness and scope. In Amsterdam Ian Pieterzoon 
Sweelinck held crowds in delighted admiration, and gave an 
impulse to the noble school of Northern Organists which 
reached its ultimate climax in the person of John Sebastian Bach, 
In the South, in Rome, Girolamo Frescobaldi exerted gway, 
possibly with greater audiences and with greater advantages; 
and, as far as actual production goes, achieving greater results. 
But Sweelinck was considerably the senior; and twenty years 
in music, at a time when the art ia moving ahead rapidly, 
is almost as much as a century in relation to other lines of 
human mental activity. Comddering the difference of age, 
Sweelinck's best compositions arouse quite as much astonish- 
ment as Frescobaldi's. Unfortunately, very few are known ; 
and till recently he was scarcely more than a name, highly 
respected, and believed to have been great, on trust, because 
he was the master or inspirer of the great school of Northern 
Organists aforesud. Such of his works as are now attainable 
are, however, quite suffii»ent to establish his personal artistic 
character ; and both his triumphs and his defects throw strong 
and penetrating Ught upon the evolution of muucal methods. 
The mark of Venice is upon him, though probably not on 
account of his' having spent any time to speak of in that 
famous centre of the art. He is commonly described as a 
pupil of Zariino and of Gabrieli. But now that some few 
facta have come to light about him, it seems hut littie likely 
that he could have been at Venice for any time in the flesh, 
however much he was drawn thither In the spirit. He was bom 
either in Deventer or Amsterdam in 1562, his father, Ian Pieter 
Sweelinck, being organist of the Old Church of the latter place. 
He was thrown upon his own resources very early, as his father 
died in 1573, when he was but eleven years old; and there 
seems good evidence that he was appointed to the organ at 

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Amsterdam eight years later. The common report that he 
went to Venice is probably based on the traces of Gabrieli'g 
infloence in his organ vriting, and on the admiration he pro- 
fessed for Zarlino, His compositions prove unmistakably 
that be was a performer of a very high order ; and they are 
marked by the spirit of enterprise and experiment which is 
so conspicuouB a featmre in the works of the many great 
composerB who were coimected with Venice. That he was 
a master of the ari; of counterpoint in its later phases is 
proved by his four^part psalmH, aa well aa by many complicated 
passages in his iuBtrumental compositions. But the style 
nearly always rings of what was then the 'modernity' of 
the early yearB of the seventeenth century. Even bis vocal 
compositions present such features -as repetition of complete 
phrases, and bold intervals in subjects, which are anlike the 
Ayle of the pure masters of the church choral music. In his 
instrumental compoations he displays the mastery of well- 
accented polyphony to admiration. The texture is sometimes 
very rich, and he moves over wide spaces with a grand Sweep 
of the wings which betokens large conceptions and readiness 
of resource. But on the other band, when he ventures out of 
the range of artistic methods which he understandfl, and 
experiments in mere displays of virtuonty or obvious organ 
effects, be often descends from the utterance of great and 
Impressive things to little better than babblings of childhood. 
Like so many of bis fellows, Sweelinck was often bewildered 
when he set out on excursions in scale passages. Sometimes 
they are introduced with a spasmodic splutter, which subsides 
before it bas got any way on, and leads to nothing whatever. 
At other times there are whole pages of umless scale passages 
like those of Andrea Gabrieli, accompanied by equally aimless 
successions of chords. When he had a fugue-subject or a 
canto fenno to ke^ him steady, there aeems to be more 
sense in his decorative exuberance, but he did not seem to 
think it necessary, at all times, to have anything beyond the 

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passages to attract and retain attention. He has also to 
pay for his temerity in other ways. As a famoug player 
lie erideatly tried all sorts of experiments on his auditors; 
among which stand oonspicuous some tricics in ' echo ' 
effects with different manuala, which aie singulariy childish. 
The following from a fantasia in C will serve to show the 
manner of snch ventures i — 

^ J J J J,„ — ,. . ^ J J J J. 

r rrrr ■ 


r^^r' ^ I r/^^^|= 

And It may be fitly mentioned in paanng that 'echo' effects 
must hare been very popular, for not only are there two 
' Fantasias in the maimer of an Echo ' in the slender number 
of his known compositions, hut mmilar echo experiments are to 
be met with in all branches of instrumental music of that time 
. and a little later, and even in a few choral compontdons such 
as those by Orlando Lasso. Tet these comparative failures of 
Sweelinck are but side'Ughts illustrating the human qualities 
which were one essential part of bis greatness. His aim is 
generally to carry out some idea wiach will lay ludd of his 

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audience, in grand lines of general effect. A favonrite device, 
and one which shows the instinct of the performer, is to begin 
with a simple subject and accompany it with quiet and equal* 
pacing passages: — 

then by d^frees to introduce quicker and quicker notes, 
creanng in elaboration till matters come to a ciiaie : — 

then to b^^ afresh at a qideter lerel with new features, and 
to make matters warm and busy in some new way : presenting 
the subject in new U^ts, 

J J 

—I — , 

r r rTTY.Yru. 

sometimes is augmentation and inversion, and Tn*lcmg the 
network of ideas crowd together more eagerly as the move- 
ment proceeds and rolls into the final close, in which wildly . 
whiriing passages are prolonged while the final chord establishes 
the complete circuit of the work. 

Such is the scheme of tiiose works of his which are moat 
completely successfol, such as the Fantacda above referred 

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to, which is probably the first organ fugue od a grand scale 
known to history. Such, again, in a kindred department, is 
the fine fantasia called 'Ut re mi fa sol la,' which stands as 
No. Ii8 in the collection called Queen Elizabeth'* VirgifuU 
Book, to which further reference must be made later. The 
impresaioa which Sweelinck makes in the story of the muuc 
of his time is a very imposing one. Owing to his venture- 
somenesB his style is not by any means conristeut; but in 
the movements in which he is venturesome only within the 
bounds of methods which he understands, he moves mth 
weight and dignity which justify his pre-eminence in Mb own 
time and the honourable prominence of being the first great 
representative of the Northern school of oi^anista, who were 
the finest in the world. 

But even more pre-eminent in his time, the foremost of 
organists, and one of the most interesting musical personalities 
of all ages, was Girolamo Freacobaldi. There seems to have 
been a glamour about him, as there was about Lasso, which 
has lasted on and prevented people from ascertaining the 
obvious facts of his life till quite recently. Even the date 
of his birth seems to have remained a mystery for several 
hundred years, though any one could have seen his baptismal 
certificate at Ferrara, which settles the matter in favour of 
the year 1583, making him a little over twenty years younger 
than Sweelinck. He has commonly been reported to have 
been a pupil of Francesco Milleville, a Ferrarese who became 
organist of Volterra. According to Frescobaldi himself, 
Lnzzasco Luzzaschi was his master, which seems Ukely 
enough, as that famous musician was organist of Ferrara 
Cathedral. He is said to have travelled to Bel^um about 
1608, where he published a set of madrigals, and where it is 
thought Ukely he came across Peter Phillips and Comet. His 
own reputation was by that time very great, and it was in the 
same year that he was i^pointed otgamst of St. Peter's in Rome, 
in soccesrion to Pasquini. He continued in this important 

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poet, drawing crowds to hear tug perfbrmancefl, till 1628, 
when he went for a time to Florence to be organist to the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand II. In 1633 he returned 
to Rome, and resumed hia place at St. Peter's. In the hut 
year of Ms life be is said, for unexplained reasons, to have 
been organist of St. Lorenzo in Moatibus; and he died in 

His works for oigan and cembalo are the moat important 
of all such works produced in the early part of the centnry, 
and they cover a good deal of ground, Freacobaldi shows a 
great inclination for speculative enterprise ; but he was endowed 
with such a high decree of artistic taste and judgement that 
it rery rarely led him into extravagance. Considering the 
time when he lired, it seems very remarkable that he could 
maintain such a consistent individuality of style, and an equal 
level of genuine interest, throughout long works for a single 
instrument. Moreover, the interest is rarely aroused or main- 
tained by mere superficial virtuosity. With him the art passes 
out of the range of such barren and uncertain productions as 
the early toccatas; and he generally ums rather at interesting 
the intelligent than at astonishing the crowd. When he is 
in the mood for astonishing any one, he prefera to astonish the 
experts. There is but little trace of modal restriction in his 
work, but he maintained the methods of part-writing which 
were derived from the old choral styl^ and was remarkably 
successful in transforming the 'voice-parts' into an instru- 
mental style. Hia fugues are for the most part in livelier 
style than the slow, smooth, flowing long notes of earlier 
masters, and more instinct with rhythm. As an example of 
one of hia lively subjects the followbg from tiie second book 
of toccatas may be taken: — 

I lii'llj^., I 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



Frescobaldi'B fugues are probably the earliest which con- 
sistently show the organization of the modem fugue, with the 
regular exposition, episodes worked upon subordinate or 
'counter^ subjects, and weU-maintained rariety of treatment 
of essential features. His viradous fancy is sometimes shown 
in rery characteristic experiments in rhythm, as, for ezam|de, 
the following from the Fiori 3fttnca/i : — 

r'" U 

■ U-lf 





He also ventures occasionally upon extreme and curious 
chromaticiBms, which do not always seem so spontaneous to 
modem ears as the other features of his work. 

In his canzonas and capriccios he shows great scope of inven- 
tion. For instance, in the canzona No. 3 from the lairo 11 
tU Toeeate (1637) he begins with the subject in 2 time, — 

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and after fonrteeo ban comes to a close, and be^na a new 
treatment of the subject in | time: — 



Then he taliea up an ingenioas variation of the subject wiUi 
a new, lively counter-subject, in J time, — 

and after another tn-enty bars changes to -^ time, and presents 
yet anotha variation of the subject in a more flowing B^le. 

Then, after a while be changes back to -} time, and after giving 
occasional references to his subject, comes to an end with a 
passage brilliantiy and richly woven of semiquaver figures : — 

■^ f^-^ l^^ n 


This pauage is additionally interesting as prefiguring processes 
used by Buztehude and J. S. Bach. An iUnttration of the 

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former'B expamdon of Frescobaldi's device will be found oo 
p. 123; a yet further expansion by J. S. Bach will be 
found at tbe end of the first part of the well-known passa- 
caglia in C minor. The device of frequently changing the 
rhythm and time-signature is a great favourite with Fresco- 
baldi, though there are haidly any words to mark changes of 
speed except an occasional 'adauo.' But it is clear on the 
face of it> and from the important preface to the toccatas of 
1614, that slow and quick motions are meant to be freely 
interchanged. His love of presenting variationB of his subject 
is very marked. Among remarkable examples are the capriccios 
on the Bergam&sca and 'la Girolmeta' in the Flort MtiticaU, 
and the capriccio on * Ut re mi fa sol la ' in the first book of 
capriccios published in Venice in 1646, which, in gena«l plan, 
resemble the canzonas above described. He not only uses 
the device in large wraks, but in the short pieces which were 
evidently intended as interludes in the church service; in 
which he takes the plainsong of the Mass, such as the Kyrie, 

and weaves around it an intricate network of contnqiuntal 
devices ; — 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 






J= 1 

^T^ >- 


HU senae for tonality Beems remarkably keen, and be even 
uses the relations and contrasts of keys as a basis of ayatematic 
design, in a manner which seems to anticipate the perc^tion 
of modem tonality by the greater part of a century. For 
instance, in a Ricercar from the Fwri Mtisicali, he be^s 
with the following slow subject, — 

which is successively taken up by the other parts till it gets 
into the bass. Once in the bass, it continues to be r^terated 
in that part for the rest of the movement, but at constantly 
changing levels in the scale, thereby making a pioloDged 
•equence. The modulations induced are ungulariy aystematic. 
In the fint haU of the movement a complete circuit is 
made illustrating sharp keys in the following order: — 

_y Google 


In the Hecond half a revene drcuit UluBtrates flat keys i 
the following order^ — 

bringing the music back to the original key, which is happily 
confirmed by a tonic pedal, A parallel experiment will be 
found in Dr. John Bull's treatment of the ' Ut re mi fa sol la ' 
form described on page 92. The indications for the use of 
pedals are very rare, and it cannot be ascertained with any 
certainty whether Frescobaldi wrote special passages for them. 
There is a toccata in Libro II (1637) in which a series of 
very long holding notes in the bass persists throughout. 
The implication seems to be that some other device than the 
pedals so familiar in modem times was used for holding down 
the notes. 

Besides his solid and spacious fugues, canzonas, toccatas, 
and ricercari for the oigan, he produced a considerable quantity 
of smaller works for cembalo. The most important of these 
are in the two collections published in 1637 for 'cembalo ed 
oigano,' vphich comprise interesUng and elaborate examples 
of balletti, coirenti, passacaglins, ciaconas, and gagliardi ; and, 
most important of all, several sets of variations called, in the 
collections, partitas, which are written on such various themes 
as a madrigal of Arcaddfs, an *Aria detto Balletto,* an 'Aria 
detto la Frescobalda,' 'I'Aria della Romanesca.' In all these 
there is an elevation of treatment which, notwithstanding the 
inevitable difference in style and technique, shows a kindred 
artistic sjnrit to the modem Brahms. Great as his popularity 
seems to have been, he evidently works from his own artistic 
standpoint without condescension to the unintelligent, endea- 
vouring to woik out his artistic conception without stint of 
resoiu-ce or attempt to mince hard sayings. He stands 
completely apart from the secularists who were developing 

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the Nuove Musiche^ and has but little in common with them. 
Their aim was to develop a new branch of art qtute inde- 
pendent of the traditions and methods of- the old style ; while 
he was foremost among those who linked the old art with tfie 
modem, by adapting the methods which had been developed 
in the preceding centuries to the requirements of a great and 
dignified branch of instrumental music. 

Before proceeding with the discussion of the Organ Music 
of the successors of Frescobaldi, a very singular parenthesis 
requires attention, partly because it had but little bearing on 
the ultimate tendencies of the new secular styl^ and partly 
because it stood in the same relation to the old style as the 
oigan music of this transitional period. Both Sweelinck and 
Frescobaldi had contributed their share to the music of the 
lesser keyed instrument commonly known as the 'cembalo* 
in Italy, and the virginals in England. But it was in the 
latter country that music for the domestic keyed instruments 
was specially cultivated about this time. The elaborate nature 
of some few of the pieces in Mulliner's MS. Collection (which 
dates from at least as early as 1565) shows that music for 
domestic keyed instruments had })egan to assume tiie lineaments 
of an independent branch of art in this country at a very eaiiy 
date; and the amount of music for virginals which was pro- 
duced here about the beginning of the seventeenth century is 
positively prodigious. The greatest collection of all is that known 
&ncifully as Queen Elizabeth's Virginai Book, a very beautiful 
MS. preserved at the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. Over 
twenty English composers are r^reaented in this volume alone; 
and besides this, there is Benjamin Conyn's virginal hook 
containing ninety-eight pieces by various composers, and Will 
Foster's contuning over seventy pieces, both of which are at 
Buckingham Palace ; also the dunty little volume called 
Lady NeviU^a Book, which contains forty-two pieces, all by 
Byrd (and all written before 1591); and the famous Parthenia, 
which was the first book of such music printed in England, 

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and containH the daintieat work of Byrd, Bull, and Orlando 

These collectioDs represent an enonnouB number of solo 
morements of various kinds, which throw a flood of lij^t 
on the ideas of composers about instrumental music at 
that time. The moat obvious forms ate the dance-tunes, 
very staid and discreet in character, and by no means 
ostentatiously rhythmic. Such are the pavans, galliards, 
corrente, allemandes. Then there are arrangements of vocal 
pieces, eccleuastical and others — there are preludes, which 
are in most cases mere successions of chords serving as the 
substratum for scale passages, and such rapid and brilliant 
devices as the dexterity of the performers and the inexperience 
of composers in such matters could extend to. More impoi> 
taut than these are the fantasias, which take many shape* — 
some of them being long and elaborate fugal movements, 
some complicated structures after the manner of the toccatas 
of the Italian organ composers. And, most important and 
most oumeroua of all, the seta of variations on oxlesiastical 
canti fermi, dance tunes, and popular tunes of the day, such 
as 'John, come kiss me now,' 'All in a garden green,^ 
* O mistress myne,' * The woods so wild,' * Put up thy dagger, 
Jenuny,' * Bonny sweet Kobin,' and so forth. 

There were many reasons why variations should have been 
so profusely cultivated by the composers of those times. No 
means nor system had yet been devised for constructing a 
movement of any extent, except upon contrapuntal principles 
of some sort. And even in this deliberately-moving country 
composers were beginning to be conscious that fugal methods 
did not cover the whole ground of possible instrumental music. 
Dance movements and song tunes were too short ; and repeating 
them over and over again, except as accompaniments to actual 
dancing, was not a satisfactory artistic procedure. But they 
were capable of being expanded by filling them full of copious 
ornaments, and the repetition of either dances or song tunes 

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became intelligible when variety was attuned by mauipa- 
lation of detail. Composen did cot for a long while 
find out the device of making the same tune or 'theme' 
appear in different lights, so as to make studies of different 
aspects of the same story uoder changing conditions, as in 
Robert Browiung*B Atnjr and the Book, It took a long 
probation of artistic culture to realize such a conception^ and 
it was as yet quite alien to th«r view of art. For the roost 
part they were too near the banning of things to give 
thdr attention to much more than details. The question 
of moods and emotioos, especially in instrumental music, was 
but dimly and rarely discernible. Moreover, in these early 
days, intricacies and ingenuities of a technical kind were 
almost inevitable, because composers were so limited in thdr 
range of harmony and modulation. The greater part of 
their harmony consisted of diatonic common chords, for 
chromatic harmonies and complicated discords had not yet 
dawned upon them as dther attainable or desirable. Formal 
tune they hardly recognized as a factor ia art at all. 80 
they were driven back on all udes upon technical devices 
.as the mun source of interest; and technical ingenuities in 
writing variations amounted mainly to diversifying the contra- 
puntal accompaniments of the tune which served as the basis 
tor the variation. The most mechanical variations amounted 
to little more than adding counterpoint in fint, second, and 
third species to the tune, which served as canto fermo; for, 
though counterpoint was adopting new instrumental manners^ 
the prindples of its application remained the same. The 
composers of finer quality found means to apply their various 
contrapuntal devices to purposes of general effect; and they 
unconsciously gravitated in the direction of rhythm and defi- 
nitely figurative treatment ai the accompanying parts. As 
in the o^an mnsic of this time, the steady progress from mere 
mechanical scale-passages to free and varied muucal flourishes 
is easy to trace, almost step by step — and the transition may 

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be compared, as analogous, with the much earlier trauBition 
from counterpoint of single different Bpedea to actual florid 
counterpoint. While the use of rapid passagea had only 
come into existence for less than a century, it was no wonder 
that composers were puzzled how to deal with them; but 
the more they used them, the better they grew to understand 
how to mould them into musical figures, and to fit them on 
to progresMons of harmony which had artistic and intelligible 
reasons for existence. Excellent illustrations are afforded by 
the later composers of the Elizabethan period. A comparison 
between the following passages from Famaby's variations on 
'Tell me. Daphne,* and Andrea Gabrieli's toccata quoted on 
page 68, will be sufficient to show the rapidity and character 
of the progress made. 

V- frP ' ' 

r_ i 


n^ j^ 


n^r^^ i M - rffff ^ 

^ ^ ^ 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


But though progress was made in groupiDg the rapid notes, 
and making them more artisticaliy coherent, there is little to 
be found of types of the formulas of accompaniments, repeated 
notes, arpeg^oB, and broken or sophisticated octaves, which 
are so familiar in modem muaic. This was partly owing 
to the fact that direct rhythm is so conspicuously absent from 
these early compositions, and that mere successions of chords, 
such aa are necessary to rhythmic music, were not congenial 
to their composers ; and partly to the fact that they still pre- 
ferred ornamental passages constructed mainly on the principle 
of coDJunct motion, which was the tradition of the choral 
music to which they were habituated, and the true basis of 
all their coonterpoint. 

But, nevertheless, the rare examples of arpeg^o passages, 
broken octaves, repeated notes, and various formulas of rapid 
notes which are devised on the basis of chords, are the 
most prominent features which show any tendency in the 
direction of modem instrumental style in the virginal music 
of the time. There is an exceptionally large amount of 
such features in Benjamin Cosyn's virginal book ; and the 
greater part of it is in the works of Dr. John Bull, whose 
instinct for genuine instrumental effect almost amounted to 
genius. As these features aie very important in tracing the 
evolution of this branch of art, it will be well to give several 
examples. The following is from his variations on ' As I went 
to Walsingham/ which appears in Queen EUzabeth't Vtrginal 
Boot as well as in Cosyn's collection : — 

Digitized by Google 


n^ ^ n^ j-g ^ [^ 1 

In the same set of variationB, which is exceptionally rich io 
ventures anticipating inBtnimental efiect* of much later date, 
occurs also a singular example of rapidly repeated notes : — 



A much more musical experiment, which, however, ia quite 
as far removed from the contrapuntal methods, is the following 
from the same set of variations : — 


Luj U=a LiiJ [ju JlU 

• t i' f — 

^ fn ^^^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google. 


PJ ) I .: -J I 



If the pieces in thia collection to which Benjamin Cosyn's 
own name is attached ore his composition, it implies that he 
was a great admirer and imitator of Dr. John Bull; it has 
even been su^ested that they may really be by the latter, 
and they contain passages which, in respect ot mere ingenuity 
in contriving brilliant passages suitable for two hands upon^ 
a key-board, are quite worthy of the famous virtuoso. As 
examples, the two following excerpts from a ground to which 
yie name of Benjamin CoByn is appended are noteworthy : — 

l ifi. F^ ■ n ■ ^j ■ ,F| ■ 1 1] n n 11 

T-^-L-L ' - T'^i a ^' 

Bull's Variations called 'The King's Hunt' in Fortter't 
Virffinal Book (altogether a different work from that in ' Queen 
Elizabeth's Book') must also be recorded as exceptionally full 
of anticipations of modem inHtrumental style. 

These singular andcipations of genuinely instrumental pro- 
cedure are, however, very rare in any music of the period; 
and the majority of the English composers for the vii^inals 
preferred to apply contrapuntal methods with such modifications 

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as appeared suitable to the oeceasities of the situation. As has 
before been mentioned, the art of writing variations amounted 
for the most part to little more than the addition of various 
kinds of counterpoint, in the form of runs as well as figures, 
to a single-part subject. And this was the case io other forms 
of art besides Variations. Indeed Tallis' ' Felix namque ' of 
1563 in 'Queen Elizabeth's Book,' and several of the pieces 
in Mulliner's Collection (see p. 83), such as *Te per orbem 
terrarum' by Redford, 'Gloria tibi Domine' by Blytheman, 
Dr. John Bull's master and prototype, and * Felix namque ' 
by Farrant, show that composers went to work deliberately 
to add parts to the canti fermi, in a free instrumental style 
of counterpoint, on precisely the same principles as had 
been practised in choral music for centuries. There were, 
however, forms of art which showed progress of develop* 
ment in the modem direction, and of these one of the 
most curious and suggestive is that often described as 'Ut 
re mi fa Bol la'; in which the first six notes of the scale 
are taken in long notes and repeated over and over again, 
with the accompaniment of infinite variety of contrapuntal 
devices. The use of the formula was as universal for a time as 
the use of the tune of ' I'homme arm£,' as a canto f ermo, from 
Dufay to Carissimi. The form serves as a kind of connecting 
link between the variation form and the fugue. It differs from 
the usual form of variations, because the group of notes spreads 
over a much smaller space. It differs from the fugue by 
reason of the much less artistic and systematic oi^anization. 
In fugue the recurrences of the subject are intermittent, and 
are varied by episodes which have a distinct function in the 
general scheme. Whereas in the 'Ut re mi fa sol la,' the 
recurrences of the formula are almost incessant, and are regu- 
lated by no such laws as regulate the recurrence of subjects 
in the fugue. But this characteristic lends itself in some 
degree to more individual originality in the manner in which 
the formula is presented ; and the devices employed show 

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the varying degrees of artistic sense in the composers very 
effectually. The commonplace composers are content with 
reiterating the formula at the same pitch, but the more 
inventive and enterprising composers resort to very ingenious 
devices to enhance the interest of the proceedings. For 
instance, William Byrd, in one of his examples in the Vtrffinal 
Book, starts the formula in irregular notes, tiiereby giving it 
the character of a musical subject : — 

, j^^ i j ■> -ijjj i ^-t^-iu^ 




J ^ 



As the movement proceeds be introduces the formula in slowly 
tramping semibreres in the treble, and presents it in a series 
of sequences which rise by degrees through nearly thirty bars, 
warming up to an excellent climax. Then the formula is 
given in the bass with a rapid version of it in quavers as an 
accompaniment, making a very animated effect: — 

/3 /a_ _ jri^ji^r j^ 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Then there comes & change of time to ^^ and the formnla is 
presented in various new lights, the various forms chasing 
one another in a sort of merry banter, ending in a coda. 
In another specimen by the same compoBer the formula is 
presented in zigzag, which makes quite a muHical figure, and 
lends itself to various mgenious devices. 

An example by John Bull is one of the moat curious ex- 
periments in all the old vii^nal murac, as each presentation 
of the formula is given at a different level, inducing the 
most unusual modulations. It begins by going from G to E 
and back again in the treble, then from A to F(, then from 
B to Gf, then from DI' to Bl>, and so on. The follovring 
example will illustrate the kind of subtlety with which he 
achieves an enharmonic transition : — 

The process of marching up and down is continued till the 
key of F is arrived at, a minor seventh above the starting 
point Then, with a subtiety of perception in respect of tonal 
effect which was hardly to be expected at such an early 
date, the principal key of 6 is missed out; and the formula 
is taken up in Al^ in the bass, marching up and down as 
before, rising each time a tone, and therefore a semitone 
higher than in the previous circuit: the successive initial 
points being Air, Bl^, 0, D, E, and Ff from which G, the 

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principal key of the movement U reBumed. Then there are 
chaqges of time, and the composer indulges in some of his 
lavouiite ingenuities in ctobs accents (Ex, 77), while the treble 




"" " r^ 

-f — r p, ■ 7 

■ n 



r.r, .<■ 


' r_^i" 

'- ' -' ' .^ 


marches up and down four times at the same level, thereby 
happily re-establishing the tonality of the principal key which 
had been so cfFectoally obscured by the previous proceedings. 
As a piece of speculation the whole composition is carried out 
with remarkable ingenuity, and the idea of setting the balance 
light by r^terating the formula in the principal key at the 
end is a striking instance of early instinct for tonality, and 
the justness at that particular moment of John Bull's judge- 
ment. There is also a fine example by Sweelinck in the same 
collection which illustrates his remarkable instinct for general 
effect in much the same manner as his fugal fantasias already 
described (p, 75). The treatment in this form of art, as in 
the movements based on canti fermi, was necessarily rather 
contrapuntal. In other forms graces played a conspicuous 
part. Indeed, the instrumental composers from the beginning 
of the seventeenth century rejtnced in glides, trills, runs, tums> 
and ornamental devices of all sorts, much as a Highland piper 
does still ; and any man who had any clums to nrtuod^ felt 
^ a Idnd of obligation to decorate, enliven^ and adorn the plain 

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Bubatratutn of any dance tunc or other piece of muBic chosen 
for performance on the virginals with all the skill that he could 
display in such adornments. Very interesting and curious 
examples of such work are Peter Phillips' arrangements of 
madrigals by Lasso, Marenzio, and others, which show his 
ideas of the proper way to turn choral pieces into effective 
instrumental pieces, A few bars of Luca Marenzio's 'Cosi 
morire/ and the corresponding ban of Phillips' arrangement, 
will be sufficient to show the character of such work : — 

Hz. 78. 


T— i — ,- ( .1=^ 


1 r ^1 


^ r J iJ .1 


Petes PBium. 


i \ 

" - -^ ' ' 

The Preludes, which are so numerous in these early collec- 
tions, consist of little more than strings of runs and ornaments 
and occasional arpeggios based on more or less incoherent 
successions of chords. As music they generally appear com- 
pletely barren to modem sense. The same is the case when a 
programme is specified. Both Byrd and Frescobaldi attempted 
battle pieces, and it is doubtful which of the two succeeded 
in appearing the more childish. 

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The following is part oE a * Capriccio sopra la Battaglia * by 
Frescobaldi : — 

■jr] ii ^frr|;j-i iiTirri,ri.u^i 

J-3 3 3 j- 

The following is part of the battle piece, b^ Byrd, in Lady 

\!' hrrrinr.rr 


— I .. 1 



There is a work in the Virginal Book deaciibtng various Btates 
of the atmosphere by Tomkins, which is only a little less 
infantile because he resorts to contrapuntal devices. The 
most successful example of this kind is Byrd's ' Bells,' a large 

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proportion of which represents very pretty fancy, and muucal 
perceptbn. The idea of bell music has become discredited 
through the run babblings of empty-headed music makers, 
but Byrd here shows that something may be made of it. 
The idea suggested is of a couple of big bells ringing slowly 
and persistently in the haas, and being joined by all sorts 
of little peals which make profuse Tariations of rhythmic 
connterpoint with the big bells and with themselves. 

There is a sort of innocent gaiety about the invention which, 
barring a good deal of superfluity, succeeds on the whole 
admirably because it treats the matter with contrapuntal 
methods which Byrd well knew how to apply with artistic 

Of works or movements belonging or approaching to the 
Sonata type there is no trace in all these early collections. 
Composers had hardly b^un to think of ' Subjects ' in the 

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modem sense. One part at a time was the boundary of 
thw imagination; and they were only beginning to recog- 
nize tiiat change and contrast of key conld be used as a 
means of structural effect. They were evidentiy pleased witii 
the effect of repeating a phrase at a different level, with 
sequences and simple modulationB, such as from minor to 
relative major, and vice versA, but they r^arded such 
things mainly as isolated facts. Indeed the whole of the 
methods, princq>lea, style, technique and material of the 
most important type of abstract instmmental music had yet 
to be thought out almost from the b^i;inning. The early 
Vii^al music dierefore leans more towards the old order of 
art than towards the modem. It is a conspicuous fact that 
nearly all the greatest writers, such as Tallys, Byrd, Mortey, 
Phillips, Sweelinck, Orlando Gibbons, were great representative 
masters of the old choral style, and that thdr choral works 
present very slight deviations from the purest form of the 
ancient art. In such matters they were whole-liearted in their 
attachment to the old traditions, and it seems to follow that 
they judged th^ artistic products, even in instrumental music, 
by the high standard of the earlier time. The influence of 
the style of the eziperimenters in the * Nuove Muuclie ' is hardly 
to be found in any of the Virginal and Oigan Music of the 
time. The responsible masters moved with deliberation and 
circumspection, and such of their works as maintain a dose 
connexion with the traditions of the older choral art, in respect 
of part-writing and the simple diatonic motion of parts, have 
the highest intrinsic qualities. In this line Orlando Gibbons 
shines at his best. *The Lord of Salisbury lus Pavin,' and 
the 'Fanta«a of foure parts' in the Parthenia, are among 
the best things in this peculiar branch of art; and not 
less remarkable are some short Fancies of his in Cosyn's 
hook, which are entirely unknown to the world. Byrd, 
in the main, presents an equally lofty standard; though 
he has not the same warmth and tendemesa. He was 

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infinitely prolific, but inclined to be angular and capricious, 
and over-ingenious. But in his aoul there was a great fund of 
genuine musical Bendbility, and a touch of mysticism, of whicb 
be would not let the world see too much. One of his most 
perfectiy delightful pieces is in I^y Nerile's book, which 
is of ae early a date as 1591. In this cdlection he seems 
sometimes in a gentle and tender rein, and sometimes even 
playful, aa in the ' Battell ' ; as though he laid aside the 
Bererity of his views as an artist out of consideration for 
the lady for whom tlie book was made. In contrast with 
these is Giles Famaby, of whoBe work examples are ^ven 
on p. 86. It is for the most part singularly modem 
in feeling; the tone is warm and genial, and the texture 
free from archmsm. He even indulges in little movements 
on the same scale as Songs without words, which are full 
of quaint charm. But of all the English instrumental 
composers of this time Bull in some ways looms largest. There 
is something uncanny about him. His powers were very com- 
prehensive indeed, for when he chose he could wield the 
resource of the contrapuntal style as well as any man. But 
it is mainly as a speculator in virtuouty that he takes such 
unique rank. His instinct in the direction of brilliant effects 
was so abnormal that he anticipated some of the devices of 
modem pianoforte music, such as manipulations of arpeggios, 
by the greater part of a century, as has been pointed out 
above (p. 87], but Ms taste and standard of ideas were very 
uncertain. When he ia busy with virtuo^ties be is often 
utterly empty ; and this may have been the reason why com- 
posers of his time so rarely endeavoured to adopt the devices 
be invented or the style they represented. Then after his time 
circumstances were not favourable, and so it comes about that 
there is a gap between his speculations in a quau-harmonic 
style of figuration and the trae harmonic style of later times. 
For the cultivation of music for the domestic keyed instru- 
ments fell off considerably after the first quarter of the 

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seventeenth century, and attention was tninsfeiTed to music 
for strings. So Bull's enterprising experimeota led to 
nothing for a long while, and by the time a similar impulse 
uoae later the aspect of the art had greatly changed; 
and the uses of the arp^gio were made to serve for 
purposes that even Bull, in his weakest moments, had not 
thought of. 

After Frescobaldi's time Italy soon ceased to be the 
headquarters of oi^an music. The attention of the ablest 
composers was attracted in directions which were almost 
incompatible with the production of weighty and characteristic 
works. The musical public, such as it was, had no taste for 
a severe style, and though a certain number of cx>mpoflers 
were sufficiently efficient as musicians to write Huent contra- 
puntal works, the tendency <^ organ music was rather in 
the direction of deterioration than advance. Germany, on 
the other hand, sprang into extraordinary activity, and 
became the centre of artistic progress in this branch of 
art throughout aU ita most prosperous days, Oi^an music 
may indeed be said to be the first branch of art in which 
Germany asserted herself as an independent musical nation; 
and even the great achievements of her composers in the lines 
of choral music, which were among the greatest glories of 
the eighteenth century, were arrived at through the adaptation 
for vocal purposes of the style they had evolved for contra- 
puntal o^an works. 

The fearful havoc caused by religious wars in the earlier 
part of the seventeenth century had almost crushed music 
out of Germany. But by the middle of the century the worst 
of it was over, and the de^ reli^ous fervour which was 
characteristic of Teutons found vent in various new forms 
of religious music. And inasmuch as the organists were leaders' 
in the revival of this art, and choral music was rather back- 
ward in the Protestant parts of the country, it seems as 
though all the healthiest energies of German composers of 

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tlte time were exerdsed in compoaiQg miuic for their church 

The Gennan organiats were^ howerer, clearly divided into 
two groups, which were the natural outcome of the difference 
of attitude towards religion in the different states to which 
they belonged. Most of the southern oi^anists were attached 
to Roman Catholic churches, and maintained some kinship 
of style with the Italian oiganists of the previous geDeration. 
At first the difference is but slightly perceptible, for as long 
as nether Northeners nor SontbemerB had developed any iagb 
d^rree of elaboration of detail and figure there was not much 
room for diversity of style. It was mainly in the process of 
developing the elaborate dettuls of ornament and figure that 
the' dispositions of the respective groups grew more and more 
distinct, and that the innate vigour of nature of the northern 
composers carried their branch of art to its highest culmina- 
tion, while the southem style dwindled into comparative 

In the first generation after Frescobaldi the southem 
organists did nobly. The most interesting composer among 
them was Johann Jacob Froberger, a Saxon, who was actually 
Frescobaldi's pupil towards, the end of that composer's life. 
He stands somewhat apart from his fellows, through being so 
early in the field, and belonging to the short period before 
Italian art had settled down into the culture of the smooth, 
facile and melodious style, which was most unpropitious to 
the oi^an and to every form of reli^ous music. Froberger's 
works show truts of the rugged and forcible qualities 
which a littie later were characteristic of the northern oigan- 
ists. The influence of his enterprising master is frequently dis- 
cernible. Frescobaldi had divined the noble and engrosnng 
effect of chains of suspensions, which partly arises from the 
unlimited power of the organ for sustaining tone and driving 
home, with a kind of unbending remorselesanesa, the powerful 
impressions produced by successions of interlinked discords. 

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He also diyined the advantage of adorning the substratum of 
such successions of stimulants by complicated ornamental 
passages. Froberger adopted these devices and expanded 
them in various toccatas vrith remarkable success. The con- 
nexion of master and pupil may be seen at once in the 
following example from Toccata No. 2 :->— 

Another trait of the master which conies out very oon- 
spicooosly in the pupil is the tendency to make rash experi- 
ments in chromaticism. As has been previously pointed out, 
Frescobaldi sometimes makes experiments of such kind, that 
seem strange even to ears accustomed in recent times to the 
unrestruned profusion of notes alien to the diatonic series. 
Frobe^er, flawing auit> seems sometimes to get almost lost 

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in a maze of conflicting accidentals, as in the Following 


^ 'rrlr>'Ktr'^'^ 

4~J'J I i ■ ! lj ^-r^ 

Frescobaldi had improved upon the early types of chaotic 
scale passages by making his rapid passages take something 
of a definite contour; Frobei^^, agftiHi betrays a new stage 
of formalism, by adopting certain types of florid passages, 
and using umilar contours in different works, in a way that 
almost becomes a mannerism. His close kinship with his 
master is illustrated in the following passage, which may be 
compared with example ^z : — 




Another trait which Froberger seems to have caught from his 
master is the sprightliness and vivacity of the subjects of 
his fugal movements, such as the capriccios and canzonaa. 

Moreover, in the plan of such movements, and the treatment 
of the subjects, he seems to follow the lead of his master, 
expatiating upon his subject first in one time, such as j, then 
chan^g it, for example, to f or |, and presenting quite 
new aspects by way of contrast; varying also from quick to 
sbw, and vice versfi, to get plenty of variety and scope of 
expression. Thus in Capriccio No. VII, the subject is 

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giren out as follows, (a). After a while it 'a produced in 
& rariatioii, (b) — 

Further on in yet another variation, (c). And finally in the 
following remote form, (d) : — 

The moflt rich in interest of Froberger's compomtionB are 
the twelve toccatas^ in which the growing sense of effect in 
the Bcho(d of pertormer-compoBera is strikingly evident. Most 
of the other compositionH, auch as the fantasias, capriccios, 
ricercari, canzonas, and even a remarkable example of the 
Ut re mi fa lol la form above described (p, 90), are varieties 
of tngal movements, which show considerable aptitude for in- 
venting characteristic subjects and contriving ingenioua Bchemee, 
Froberger also occupied a very important position as a per- 
former and composer of Clavier music, but the consideration 
of his Suites must be deferred till chapter viii. 

Among the southern organists Kaspar Kerl had great reputa- 
tion. Like Froberger he was of Saxon origin, and was sent 
to Borne about 1649 by Ferdinand III to study under 
Carissimi. The most important appointment he held was 
that of onanist of St. Stephen^ in Vienna. The work by 
which he is best known is the oigan canzona which Handel 
scored, added words to, and incorporated, with a slight 
emendation of a couple of ban or so, as a chorus in Itrael 
in Egypt. This, howevw^ does not throw much light on 
his style. He appears, from t^e very small amount of bis 
work which is available for examination, to have been rather 
dry and unsympathetic when in a serious mood, but at 

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other times disposed to fall in with the cheapening devices 
which were the increasing characteristic of the southern 

A far more interesting and inventive representative of the 
southern Btyle was Geo^ MuSat, the date of whose birth is 
given as 1635. He describes himself in the Preface to h^ 
I^trilegium primntm as having lived in Paris tor six years, and 
having sedulously studied LuUi's style, which is discernible in 
bis orchestral works which will receive consideration elsewhere, 
but not in his organ works. His first recorded appointment was 
as organist to the Archbishop of Salzbui^ from 1664. From 
1687 till his death in 1704 he vras ' Hof-Oi^anist ' of Paasau. 
The work which gave him a great position among composers 
of oi^an muuc is the remarkable collection of twelve Toccatas, 
one Ciacona, and two Arias, which was published under the 
titie of Jfparatut Mtuico-Organisticus in 1690. The scope 
and scheme of these Toccatas is very irregular. They all 
comprise sections of a bravura kind, su^estive of brilliant 
improvisation; most of them also comprise short fugal 
movements, and portions of slow moving passages of linked 
sweetness long dravrn out, in which suspension is interlaced 
with suspension, without so much harshness as characterized 
the northern school, hut with much the same perceptiou of 
genuine organ eCect. There is no rule as to the order in 
which these various portions succeed each other. Sometimes 
the toccata dashes off with wild whirling passages of semi- 
quavers, such as the following, which is the commencement 
of Toccata No. 5:— 

_y Google 


Sometimes it begins with solemn slow moving harmonies, 
sometimes with passages even approaching to harmonized 
meiodjr. There are nearly always some pleasant and even 
poetical sections in Adagio to afford contrast to the brilliant 
passages, of which the following from Toccata No. 6 will serve 
as an illustration : — 

rTj -n j- 

-m-n I 


~J75 13 A^ 


yUiUhm^ i ^S^ ^ 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


The fugal portion usuaUy comes in the middle. But it 
ta noticeable that the aubjecto are generally very Hhort, the 
answers often overlap, and the development is hardly ever 
very extensive. 

The following is the beginning of a short fugue in Toccata 
No, 6 :— 


& .ii j .i i i m \ J^, 




The fltyle is singularly smooth, fluent, simple, and pleasant. 
There are hardly any rugged angularities, and tew crudities. 
Though the effect is often rich, the works are not very 
elaborate in detail. The use of obvious forms of figure is 
noticeable aa illustrating the lack of intense concentration 
which distinguished the southern composers from the northern, 
and was evidentiy one of the reasons of their nltimate lack 
of success as organ composers j since the organ, being so 
incapable of actual immediate expression, cannot dispense 
with artistic interest of detail, and afEords no opportunity to 
disguise by passionate accents and crescendos and diminuendos 
the baldness of familiar and commonplace formolaa, Oeoige 

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Muffat stood juat on the verge and barely escaped occa- 
BioDal collapse into obrioug emptineBS. But the general 
warmth of his style, and a certain vein of poetry and eenti- 
ment which pervades nearly all bis work, sustatn his claim 
to be one of the foremost composera of early oi^an moaic. 
He was probably the last among the southern school of Roman 
Catholic German organists who held a poeitton of high 
importance in the art. 

There was, however, one composer who stands as a sort 
of link between the northern and the southern schools. Johann 
Pacbelbel was bom in Nuremberg in 1653. Either a roving 
dispoution or uncontrollable circumstances drove him to move 
much from place to place. The earlier part of his career 
was spent munly in such Roman Catholic centres as 
Ratisbon and Vienna, and he ia said to have been Sub-' 
Oi^nist at St. Stephen's in the latter town when Easpar 
Kerl was Oi^(anist. Later in life he was successively at 
Eisenach, Erfurt, and Stut^art; and the latter end of his 
life he spent in his native town of Nuremheig, where he 
was organist of St. Sebald, and where he died in 1706, 
His early experiences in close contact with the work of the 
southern oi^anists influenced his style and the texture of 
his work through life. He learnt from them to aim at the 
practical rather than the poetical, and to r^ard ori^ality 
of detail as of small account in comparison with clearness 
of design and an easy flow of elegant counterpoint. By a 
happy accident he produced two important groups of works 
which illustrate respectively Roman Catholic and Northern 
Protestant branches of art. The first of these is the admir- 
able collection of ninety-four 'Interludes to the Magnificat.* 
With r^ard to the origin of this work it must be explained 
that a custom had grown up of playing short interludes on 
the Oi^an between the successive verses of the Magnificat; 
and the custom was adopted from the Roman Church by the 
German Protestants as a natural concomitant of their adoption 

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of the recital of the Magnificat in Latin. It aeemB probable 
that the little interludes were usually extemporaneous. But 
several composers had written definite sets of little movements 
for the purpose ; including Scheldt in the Tabulaivra Nova, 
and Kerl in the Modviatio Organica super Magrdficat Octo 
Tonorum. Pachelbel's collection, which comprises a set for 
each of the eight tones, consists almost entirely of compact 
little fugues, which illustrate in many ways the essential 
difference between the attitude of southem and northern 
organists. The purpose for which they were written neces- 
sitated their bring short, and tbur being short made it 
difficult to vary the plan of the movements much. Pachelbel, 
perhaps unconsciously, accepted the Mtualion so far that, 
having found a scheme which appeared satisfactory and 
effective, he adopted the same procedure almost without 
exception throughout, suggesting a curious parallel to the 
invariable identity of the Aria form in another branch of 
southem art. Each fugue has its complete exposition as 
a matter of course, generally representing four parts. When 
that is completed a short digression is made into some 
nearly related key, for variety's sake, and then the subject 
is taken up in the higher parts of the scale for a while, the 
lower parts and pedals being ulent; and the close is ap- 
proached by bringing in the subject in the bass, so as to 
give a sonorous and satisfjdng effect to the ear; and the 
whole is generally rounded off by a short coda, the musical 
material of which has in most cases nothing to do with the 
subject-matter of the fugue. The three examples of more 
exten«ve fugues in this collection also afford proof of 
unvarying choice of procedure. They all consist of three 
divifflons ; of which the first is a short compact fugue on 
one subject with full close, the second another short fugue 
on a different subject, and the third a fugue on the two 
subjects combined. It is conceivable that these may have 
been the types which suggested J. S. Bach's superb fugue in 

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A minor (Fautasia and Fugue, Jah^. 36, BachffeieUxchqfl) 
which is precisely on the same lines; for there is no doubt 
that Bach was well acquunted with Pachelbel's worlis not 
only through family connexion, but through study of them 
ineritably attracted by their masterly qualities. These triform 
fugues of Pachelbel naturally do not approach the interest 
and richness of his great successor, but the scheme is of a 
nature which could not be carried out without considerable 
technical facility. The subjects of the best of the three 
(No. 8 of the set for the eighth tone) will help to throw 
light on his method and style. The subject of the first 
little fugue is as follows : — 

The subject of the second, which is carried out fully on the 
same scheme as the rest of the fugues in the collection, is 
as follows: — 

In the last division the two are combined from the very 
first, aa follows: — 

i fl' r-tfff I I f f r r u u 't I ^^^ 

and are reiterated throughout with conudoable varie^ of 
treatment, including double counterpoint and stretto of most 
dexterous kind : a short passage is worth quoting to show 
the resourcefulness of the master : — 

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iJjffi,^j]mJ?3^J7B,WJ^^ ^^ 

J, ... ,J | J J J', . ^j^rf*^ 

M^atJa^K J ^™ ^ 

C-cJj ^JlU 'f ^ 

When the remarkable facility thus displayed is considered 
there are certun qualities and features of his work which 
become more surprising and more Bu^;esti7e. The fugaes 
are for the most part strangely inconsequent in detail It 
ia not only that the composer hardly ever makes any use of 
what is technically known as the counter-subject, but that 
eren when the accompanying counterpoint to the first answer 
is so definite that it seems as if it would hare been difficult 
not to refer to it again, somehow when the opportunity comes 
it is not there. True it is that in one or two cases, when the 
composer deliberately sets about to do it, a very brilliant 
effect is obtained by the constant reiteration of two subjects 
combined in various positions (Tone i. No, 3, Toneviii, No. 13), 
similar to the fugue in E minor in the second half of the 
' WohUemperirte Clavier' of J. S. Bach, which was as likely 
as not suggested by these examples. But for the most part 
both in ignoring the logical suggestireness of the counter- 
subject, and in the irrelevance of most of the episodes, and 
the strange feature that in a large majority of the movements 
the last few bars suddenly break away from the characteristic 
muucal figures of the movement and are made up of som^ 
thing altogether different, the indifference of the Boutbmi 

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type of compoaera to the more intimate debuls of tbm work 
is apparent. Paclielbel himsdf in snch cases is like a man 
who talks extremely well and even brilliantly, but not always 
to the point. At the bottom of it is the southern composer's 
instinctive disporition to turn towards the public for his 
justification, when the true northern composer would deal 
with equal sincerity with details as well as with general 
design, as equally representing his personal convictions. 
Apart from these considerations it is noteworthy that 
Pachelbel hardly ever makes any attempt to connect the 
subjects of his littie movements with the plainsong of the 
tone. The only conspicuous exceptions are Nos. i and z 
of the ' Magnificat tertii toni,' the first of wbieh is one of 
the few movements in the collection which is not fugal. 
The subjects vary in character a good deal, but for the 
most part they are rather lively than dignified. They are 
fairiy instmmental in style, without bang incisively cbarac- 
teristicj except in singular cases in which he makes use of 
rapidly repeated notes, a device he seems to have been 
specially fond of, and of which the following is a good 
example : — 


imjffljm i JTpj J 

rrrf i^rfpt 

Of the more ordinary subjects tiiose given above to illustrate 
his triform fugues are sufficientiy characteristic. 

The extent to which Southern influence impressed itself 
upon his mucdcal character is also perceptible in other forms 
of art, such as Toccatas and Ciaconas, which are often 
admirable in effect and facUe in workmanship, and contain 
brilliant examples of his technical inventiveness in virtuosity. 
But it is in one branch of Oigan Music especially that he 
shone out with great distinction; and it is really a very 

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curious example of the intricades of the evolution of art that 
a composer thoroughly saturated vith the methods of the 
Roman Catholic organists should have made use of them 
most effectually^ in the form of art known now-a-days as 
the Choralt>or»piel, which belonged exduaively and character- 
LsUcally to the Teutonic Protestant Church. Of this form 
it will be necessary to give some account before discuBsing 
Pacbelbel's connexion with it. 

The influence which the German chorales exerted upon the 
German Protestant organists was of the utmost importance, and 
Uie seriousness and deep feeling, which were engendered in 
their attempts to set them and adorn them, were answerable 
for a great deal of the nobility of their oigan muuc. Roman 
Catholics had their traditional ancient phunsong, which had 
a special kind of sanctity; but the slender hcAd it had upon 
the masses of the people is shown both by the adoption of 
secular songs as 'canti fermi' in the old contrapuntal muuc, 
and by the fact tiiat Philip Neri and Animuccia, in their 
attempts to attract the masses by congenial music, had recourse 
to the Laudi Spirituali, which were more or less rhythmic 
and simple tunes written or collected for the purpose. The 
Laudi Spirituali were munly artificial products, and, except 
in rare cases, not very impressive or attractive. The chorales 
on the other hand were a kind of religious folk-songs. They 
came spontaneously from the hearts of the people, and had 
their roots in the deepest sentiments of tiie race. The noble 
tunes formed a kind of musical lituigy, and were among the 
most important features la the Protestant Church movement 
in Germany. Upon these tunes the organist-composers of the 
seventeenth century expended all the best of their artistic powers. 
The tunes became symbols, which were enshrined in all the 
richest devices of expressive ornament and contrapuntal skill, 
woven fugal artifice, and melodic sweetness, which the devotion 
of the composers could achieve. The practice had begun in the 
previous century, crude examples of ornamented chorale tunes 

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bdng still |s«seiTcd, by Arnold Schlidi, who waa oi^fanut of 
Heidelberg from ijis, Bud by Bemhard Schmidt, orgtaiist of 
Stranburg about 1577. More artiatic examples remun by 
Smon Lohet, o^Bnigt of Straaabu^ earty in the aeroiteenth 
ceatury, and by Jidians Stephani of Liinebui^ about 1601. 
Swediiick*a moat distinguiahed papilj Samuel Scheldt, also 
produced many good example*. Then the great family of 
the Bacha came on the scene, Johann Heinrich Bach of 
Amstadt, and Johann Christoph Bach and hia brother Johann 
Michel, exerted their beat skill in weaving aolemn fugues upon 
the baaia of the chorale tunes. The methods of treatment grew 
more and more diverse as time went on. The earliest form 
which waa popular was that in which the counterpoint woven 
round the chorale was all based on conspicuous melodic p<Htiona 
of the chcwale itself. Thus Scheldt, in treating * Vater unser 
im Himmelreich,' 



begins a kind of fugal movement with an inveraion of the 
tune in the alto, which ia answered by the tenor in its direct 
position, and by the basa again in the inverted form; the 
real 'canto termo.' of the tune coming laat in the treble. 

= r r' r r r t^'r - 



J „ J I : j J ^ -, 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Sometimes the first tine of the tune served merely aa the 
subject of a fugue, as in Johaon Heinrich Bach's 'Erbarm' 
dich mein, O Gtott I ' When Pachelbel came upon the scene, 
he brought to bear his facility in amooUi contrapuntal writing, 
and produced some of the best Choral-vorspiele which had 
made their appearuice. In his Vorspiel to ' Mag ich Unglilck,' 
be begins with fugal imitations based upon a diminntion of 
the choral tune, so tbat when the tune itself is introduced it 
stands out in tite longer notes with special dignity. 

In this Choral^ors^l he succesriuUy carries the same 
method through the whole piece, introducing each line of 
the tune successively with similar fugal anticipationa in 
quicker time than the tune itself. So the whole network 
of counterpoint is completdy relevant to the special part of 
the tune to which it is apportioned, each phrase being as it 
were caressed by murmuring counterfeits of its own mdody. 
The treatment of the last line is particularly interesting, double 
diminution being used in the accompanying parts. 

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Ms. 100 k. 

r r CJ" 


.J I J - Ji, 


In some of his examples the tone does not make its 
appearance io its full weight for some time, the composer 
toying -with all sorts of subtle imitatkniB of its melodic 
features, and keeping his hearers tantalized and wondering 
till it bursts upon them with all its clearness and strength, 
the more refreshing for having been delayed. A very effective 
example of this kind is the Vorajnel on 'Nan kommt der 
Heiden Heiland,' the first line of which is as follows: — 

The work begins fugally, employing as tiie subject a 
diminution of the melody (rf the chorale, 

lJiJijl^.r^7^f' VV ^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


which U kept well id the {oreground for twentyHaine bare, 
when the chorale bunrts in with the gresteat weight in the 
pedals, accompanied by britliant semiquarer pasaages. An 
iDcideotal point which illuatratea the finenew of Pachelbel'a 
instinct is, titat immediately before the chorale comes in the 
music is taken up altogether into tiie higher part of the scale, 
from which it floats down in chains of suspenfflons into the 
part of the scale in which tlie chorale is taken, Uiocby throwing 
it into grand relief. 

d'U'^ ^ '?*''r I f^ ^""^!' "' i 

-Ti ii J ji- J 



m ,OT Jff ffTi I pfi ^ ^ T j^i 

r I r " 


Methods of this kind evidently led composeis to greater 
fodlity and mastery in writing really musical fugues. The 
chorales appealed to their sentiments, and precluded th^ 

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writdng mere mechanical specimens of ingeniooB futility. But 
there were other methods also. The chorale tune wu some- 
times -accompanied by independent muucal subjects. A umple 
example of tbia form by St^lieder, oi^aoist of Stuttgart, 
?^ch was printed at Strassburg as eariy as 1637, will indicate 
the type. 

?Hti ^- hi-TT 

■1 1 .1 


1" " i '4^ 

'—f^-^ ■ 



' r 

'r'r 'V''i 
l^.J^J'' 1"' 

This kind of treatment was carried to great lengths, the 
ornamental accompaniment being sometimes brilliant even to 
bravura. Again, a further method was to adorn the tune 
itself with infinite variety of graces, suspensions, and expressive 
figures} and when these two methods were combined, a very 
highly o^;anized fantaua was the result. With a great master 
like J. S. Bach this form was capable of becoming extremely 
beautiful, poetical, and expresuve; with men of lesser depth 
of feeling it had its dangers, and may be confessed to have 
sometimes lost all devotional character. But even before the 
end of the seventeenth century a very large quantity of such 
music, on a very large scale and elaborated to an extraordinary 
pitch, had been produced, munly by the Danish oi^anist- 
composer, Dietrich Buxtehude, who was one of the most 
interestiDg artistic personalities of the century. With him the 
chorale became the thread of great and elaborate movements, 
carried out with all the resources of effect and figuration <A 
which he was master. 

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In lookiDg at his compomtioDB of tias kind, it ia worth 
while to consider the situations and conditions for which they 
were intended. The devout and ardent worshippers are 
gathered together, and the chorale in which they will find 
the expression of their deepest feeling, is set ; and the familiar 
tune is present in their minds. The organist has to give it 
a preface. The mere bald playing thiough of the hymn-tune, 
as is so crudely done in familiar modem circnmstaiices, seemed 
obviously inadequate to Hie artistic instinct of those days. 
Rather shall the composer take the chorale-tune as a thesis, 
and present thereupon a preliminary discourse. The accom- 
paniments form musical commentaries, which often b«^ in 
few parts, and are taken up and discussed by more parts 
as they enter. When the first commentatory phrases have 
been carried to a good pitch of animation, new thoughts 
strike in, casting new side-lights upon the central thesis, the 
listener meanwhile watching the course of the central tune 
as it pursues its way through all the convolutions and ravelled 
network of figuration and secondary subjects. When the 
composer feels his hold upon his audience complete, he 
suddenly stops the course of his dialogue, and breaks into 
a fugue on a variation of the chorale tune, deferring the 
expectation of his auditors, and tantali2ing them with the 
implied suggestion that there is a good deal to be said on 
the thesis yet. So at last, when the discourse, which has 
enveloped the subject in such a flood of thought and imagery, 
comes to an end with a rush of bravura piassages, the grand 
simplicity of the unadorned tune, taken up by the whole 
congregation, makes a complete climax by the final reaffirma- 
tion of the thesis. The wiuAe form seems like a subtie 
artistic scheme to throw the chorale into relief, and to expand 
its impressiveness to the utmost. The process illustrates as 
strongly as posuble the difference between the Northern and 
the Southern attitude towards mumc. The Northern com- 
posers, dwelling with intense and loving concentration on 

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every detail of thdr work, brooding on its deeper spiritual 
meaning, and glorifying it by the full exercue of intellectual 
as well as emotional qualities: where the Southern com- 
poMTs, taking things more lightly and with little exerase 
of Belf-critdcism, tall into tririalitiea, conventionalities, and 
purely mechanical artifices, and in a branch of art which 
requires any copious exercise of intellect, are speedily left in 
the lurch. 

Buxtehude's methods and schemes in his Chorat^vorapiele 
are various. The principle above described of working up 
subordinate independent figures and subjects predominates; and 
of movements in this form there are examples on every variety 
of scale, from movements as long as very long movements of 
sonatas and symphonies to movements as short as a 'lied 
oboe Worte/ Sometimes the theme of the chorale is presented 
in its native amplidty, as in the following : — 

^ r— "^ r- — l \ j^ r — "ta' r —- 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


But tlie tunes are more often presented in an ornate form, 
of which the following version of the familiar 'Ein' feate Biirg ' 
irill aenre as an example : — 

v" ^ W firf '*' ^-^ — [frr r — fp 1 J ■ — ■ J^ — ■ ■■■—''- — -i 

|t'>» ^ ,n\t,r ,U \lrj/. . 1 .f^i 

1^. .f 

L4J-J :: '~ Sy^ 

Sf-i 1 

t 1 


if P , J — 


1 1 .- . r if rrrfi^ V ^ — ' 


t'r"-a^^ 'r> 


L/ 1 rr 

■^ — F 1 


ii f ■ f.-l 

M'J 1 J U ^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


OccasioDally the oompoeer adopts the imitatire methods 
described above in connexioQ with Heinrich Bach and 
Fachelbel, but not very often, and not very sympathetically. 
In this he shows the more highly developed instinct of the 
genuine instrumental composer. The imitatiTe methods, 
interesting and poetical as they are, seem to look back in 
the direction of arrangement of choral music for the ozgan. 
The part imitated from the chorale tune has almost ineritably 
a vDcal rather than an instrumental character ; and the whole of 
many moTcmenta written on such lines are almost aa fit to be 
Bong as to be played on the oigsn. Buxtehude's examples 
are more genuine instmmental munc. The frequent presenta- 
tion of the tune of the chorale in ornamental terms, the use 
of free figuration, of rhythm and cbaracteriatic phraseology, 
all tend to bring the form more perfecrtly within the circuit 
of distinctirely instrumental style. In this he sets the model 
of the later type of Choral^ortpiel as a form of art, and 
composers who followed hlm^ including the greatest, J. 8. Bach, 
continued thereafter to treat the form as genuine inatnimental 

Buxtehude, fortunately for the world, was fortunate in his 
opportunities. At Liibeck, where the greater part of hit artistic 
life was qient, he had one of the finest organs existing in the 
world, with three rows of keys, and a large pedal o^an of 
fifteen stopa. He also had more than ordinary oi^anists' 
opportunities in what was known as the ' Abend-Musik,' 
which he found in existence when he came, and which be 
himself immensely increased in scope and importance. It 
consisted of performances in church of church cantatas and 
si^ular lai^ works, given with full complement of band as 
well as chorus. It seems highly probable that many of 
his greatest organ compositions were written for such occa- 
nons, for they were inevitable incitements to productivity and 
brilliant performance. 

Id his case the Choral-vortpiele by no means stand so 

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coDsjucuousI^ above his other compositioDs aa in Pitdielbel's 
case. On the whole, the tendency is reversed; and his finest 
achievetaentB are in the lines of more cosmopolitan art-forms. 
He is particularly happy in his passacagUa and the two 
ciaconas. All these begin with sad and expressive harmonies, 
which, in two cases at least, are more and more enriched up 
to a point at which brilliant passages are an almost inevitable 
adjunct of the dimax. With great sense of fitness he intro- 
duces qtuet and reposeful passages by way of contrast, and 
builds up the interest again, meaaure by measure, to the im- 
poedng and ene^etic close. He was in tact one of the most 
comprehensive masters of harmony of the whole century; and 
has an attractive fondness for mysterious progressions such 
as the following from the ciacona in E minor: — 

r^|tjrc:jTnr r^ \ 

■ , i r .r fi f H^ ^^; I, I 

The ckwe of die same ciacona, which has a wonderfully 
massive swing, is as follows; — 

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In the paseacaglia it is worth notiDg that he micB the 
pitch of the ground basB; a practice adopted by Cavalli and 
Liegieaa, as will be presently described, and analogous to the 
treatment of the ' Do re mi fa sol la ' form, and other cognate 
forms, by Frescobaldi and John ^fiull. 

Boxtebude's prelades and fugues hare eren wider scope than 
his ciaconas. The preludes are for the most part extremely 
brilliant. The following excerpt from Prelude No. IX. will 
show how completely he has shaken oS the trammels of the 
choral style in writing organ mosic, and how spaciously he 
coold lay out hia plan : — 


^^ i iSEL]% ^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


The close of the opening section of this prelude is specially 
interesting as illustratiog the continuity of artistic derelopmeat ; 
as it is an expansion of a device used by Frescobaldi, of which 
an illustration was ^ven on p. 79, and which was aliio 
employed by Froberger and yet agun by J. S. Bach (see p. 80). 

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The fugneB are remarkable for the variety of expreauoD 
and scope of the sabjects. Some ci them are pluatire in 
a noble manner. 

n i.q I n 

-77771- J Vji ,. ■■- 


Some are bold and remarkably energetic. 

A fugue in F is notable for the daring umplicity of its 

Mm. 110 ft. 

i rf ."l Tiririr-l l -ninn T lii l i 

J 1 r 

which prefigures in an nnmistakaUe manner one of the 
most pi^ralar of J, S. Bach's organ fugues — a resemblance 
which becomes eren more marked in the method of treating 
the subject. 

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Preludes and Fugues alike are written in many parts, which 
are wielded, even in most complicated momenta, with absolute 

Buxtehude's whole manipulation of detail, harmony, phraseo- 
logy, and structure, is singularly mature and full of life. His 
keen instinct for effect made him deal rather profusely in 
brarura passages, which are the inevitable components of 
virtuosity. Yet the effects are not mere tricks of empty pas- 
sages, but have character and musical purpose, and a definite 
place in the general design of the movements in which they 
appear. His great merit is that his virtuosity hardly ever 
betrays him, and by no means outshines his other great qualities. 
The breadth and scope of his works, his power of putting things 
in their right places, his daring invention, the brilliancy of his 
figuration, the beauty and the strength of Ms harmony, and above 
all a strange tinge of romanticism which permeated his dis- 
position, as Spitta has justly observed, mark him as one of the 
greatest composers of organ music, except the one and only John 
Sebastian Bach. And in John Sebastian's otgan works the 
traces of the influence of Buxtehude are more plentiful than those 
of any other composer. It is not too much to say that unless 
Dietarich Buxtehude had gone before, the world would have had 
to do without some of the most lovable and interesting traits in 
the tUvinest and most exquisitely human of all composers. 

Pachelbel and Buxtehude represent the highest standard of 
organ music at the end of the century, but - they were by 
no means alone in their glory. The number of German 

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organiBts who were composing interestiag and dignified works 
at that time is very remarkable. Among the foremost was 
Gflorg Bohm (1661-1734) Organist of Liinebuig, who had 
almost as consistent a feeling for instrumental style as 
Buxtehude himself, and exercised conuderable ioSuence on 
J, S. Bach. Of great eminence for learning and artistic 
enterprise was Johann Kulmau (1667-1722), Bach's prede- 
cessor at the Thomas-Schule at L^pzig, Then there were 
F. W, Zachau (1563-1712), Handel's worthy Master at Halle, 
W. C, Bri^el (1626-1710) at Darmstadt, Nicolaus Hanfi 
(1530-1706) at Schleswig, Honrich Buttstedt (1666-1727) 
at Krfmt, F, A, X. Murschauser (1660-1737) at Munich, and 
Benihard Bach (i 676-1 749) at Erfurt and Magdeburg, and 
many more, who worthily maintained in their reapectire degrees 
the advancement of their branch of art, and helped to make 
sure and permanent the foundationB of Teutonic Music. 

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The opening of public theatres in Italy for the perfonnance 
of Miuical Dntmaa was an event of immense importance 
in the histoiy of muaical art. The frequent opportunities 
which they afforded to composeiB of hearing their own works 
might well be expected to impel them to develop artistic 
resources, to see the flaws and crudities occasioned by in- 
experience, and to put exuberant theorising to a practical test. 
But actual experience almost always brings some kind of 
disappointment, because some factor which is indispensable 
to a correct forecast is certain to be overlooked. The opening 
of theatres had great efiect, but by no means in the direction 
which the genius and influence of Monteverde seem to suggest. 
Composers heard their own works to a certain extent wttii 
their own ears, but quite as much through the ears of the 
public; and such an attitude is more especially dangerous in 
composera who write music for the stage. For they have an 
audience to deal with which is too laige to be intelligent 
and artistic, and too moch distracted by the accessories of 
stage performance to give concentrated or undivided attention 
to the music. But the favourable verdict of this public is 
absolutely necessary ; for the labour and expense of preparing 
operas is so great that they cannot be undertaken without 
fair hopes of their pleaung the big public; and a man idw 

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provei unattractiTe on a fint venture 11 unlikely to get a 
second hearing. Muncians are therefore under the greatest 
temptatioii to mteh the puhlic, and to r^nlate their matter and 
style accondingl^, without regard to their own individual artistic 
coDvietions. If the pnMic has expreuMcd its approval of com:^ 
thing vulgar and common, the composer gets to think he must 
shrug his shoulders and provide them yet again with what 
they like rather than what he likes, fjven short of vulgarity 
the practical composer has more chance of immediate success 
than the imaginative one, the obvious speaker than the deep 
one, for the ptdse of the public responds most quickly to diat 
which is iulapted to the avenge everyday mind. Hie fact 
that music did not go ahead more quickly in any of its finer 
qualities need therefore be no matter of suriHiBe in l^e face 
of Bud) dangers. la some ways Monteva^ was m(»« favour- 
ably situated for doing something artistically and individually 
remarkable than composers who had many more oj^rtunitica 
of being heard. He could use his own jodgemoit and follow 
his own li^^its without the constant distraction of having to 
pay altentioD to an exacting pubhc. Bat the ideas of the com- 
poseia 1^0 followed him had to be watered down to the public 
tuste. Tbey were nather so [wegnant with vitality, npr so 
iocinve and direct, nor even so varied in character, as his. 
'CbB improvement was mainly practical, extiinnc — improvement 
in the manner of the presentation of the ideas, in the forms 
in i^ch the n>ovements were cast, and also, it may be con- 
feased, in artistic discretion. The ta'vonr of the desire of 
MontCTCcde to expnsa a dramatic moment in adequate musical 
terms, in a period when artistic methods were very limited, 
led him to do things which at times are mmtj eccentric 
and absurd, Irat audi things are purged out of the worica of 
his snccesaon, thou^ with a certain falling off in dramatic 
power. The man upon whom the mantie of Monteverde is 
always conudered to have fallen is known to histmy as Cavalli, 
thoi^ his real name was Calletti &^L He was bonk quite 

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at tlie end of the sixteenth or the b^inauig of the Berenteeoth 
ceatmy, and ttboat i6ij became a member of the chnr of 
St. Mark% vhere Montererde was akeady Maestro di Cappella. 
Later in life, when hia fame had become almost univerBal, be 
became successively ot^anist of the second organ (1640), 
oi^aniat of the first organ (1665), and in the end Maestro di 
CappeUa. He was an eminently characteristic product of 
Vraetian influences, and applied what he learnt from Monte- 
rerde with such success as to attain to a position in the front 
rank of the opera composers of his own time, though after 
ages have taken no notice of him wbateyer, and not a ungle 
complete work of his appears to have been published, even as 
an archaeological curiosity. However, a much greater number 
of hia works than of Monteverde's have been preserved in MS., 
and they do undoubtedly deserve very careful consideration. 

He comes into notice first in 1639, two years after the first 
opera house was opened in Venice, and from that time forward 
he continued constantly to be more and more before the publit^ 
not only in Venice but elsewhere. The important work with 
which his fame b^an was described as an 'Opera seria in 
tre atti e prologo,' and called 'Le Nozze di Teti e di Peleo.' 
It was first performed at the theatre of San Casuano, and 
was evidently on a grand scale. The number of characters 
is enormous. No less ^lan tweo^-nine gods and goddesses 
took part in the proceedings, besides Amoretti, Ninfe, Bac- 
chantes, Nereids, and other accessory personages. The work 
b^ns with a unfonia, which appears to be intended to express 
die toTors of the Coccilio Infernale. In the very first passage 
known of his work Cavalli adopts a typical device which im- 
mediately marks his ardstlc poution. It cousists of repeating 
a single chord remorselessly over and over again, with the 
intention of giving an ominous or minatory effect. This is 
followed by five bars of more varied character, serving effectually 
the purpose of contrast, and ending in the key of the Dominant, 
The stamping up and down of the original chord of E minor 

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is then reBumed, and tlua in its turn is followed by a few 
ban in tbe same style as the second strain, but ending in 
the Tonic of the movement, E minor. 

Oovaato Ihixbxali. Snraoxu. 

,J, Jl J^ il . 1 III r J Jig ; 

f r r r 


r r I n- ^ 

1 J 1 j fil -1 ,1=^ 


.1 1 J 1* s p ^ J, 

Vi ^ 

rrrr rrrr f 

r' f ' 

"T — 



* In AraaUTHlnUwcrlginilllS.; oompnHed hora Into thm tonvefpMK. 
K 2 

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Trifliog as this moyement is, it indicates two importaot 
points in the erolution of Hk fut-fona. The relation to the 
underlying idea of the sitosdon is emphasized bjr the tact 
that, as absolute music, the first two bars are almost too 
sillf to be taken seriously. But with the scenic adjuncts 
and the situatum already in the minds of tlte audience, with 
Pluto, Minos, Rhadamautbus, Megaera, INscordia, and otbcxB 
ID scwiaa, the passage takes aignificaiice, and becomes ratlier 
impressiTe. The other point which is of importance is the 
obrious and deliberate intention with r^ard to design; the 
secood phrase baa no parlicul^ r^ticHi to the situatkHi, but 
it ministers to the form of the whole in a manner which is 
quite effectual, and im^cattt a talent for organization as wril 
as for dramatic expreHsion. This dispoution is also shown 
in other parts of the work. For instance, in a scene for 
M^ei^er aad Thetis m Act i, Sc^te 3, the componrat 
divisions are disposed quite systematically in regular altema- 
Hoa. Thetis b^^s widi a dearly oiganized and tun^ul 
passage of nineteen bars: — 

d-o-d Da' »-r>l on-do-il *) 

, T f^ . ■?! - I J I " =^ 












■ ■ 

which is foUowad by an o i c b es trri ritomeDo based on the 
characteristic figure of the previous solo. Meleager answu^s 
with a contrasting phrase, also tuneful :— 

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gi ee ee cf^ l JJJc ^^'-i'^ 

t 1* Stl-K- da VVMI 

^c ri- j^-J -^+ a i rr,^ 


Tbetia then resuines ber phrase with the ritorneUo> and 
Mdeager repeats bis rene. They then sing a abort duet, 
which is followed by a ritornello. The process u repeated three 
tunes, and the scene ends with a little chorus. The scheme 
of the wbole is excellent, and well carried out, A similar 
tendency towards definitenesa and clearness of construction 
is perceptible in many features of this first work of Cavalli's. 
The pnangea which look ostensibly like recitative are often 
o^anized upon harmonies which clearly indicate tonality, and 
are rounded off into r^ular periods by closes and half closes. 
The recitatiTes are also much more melodic than declamatory 
in Htylei and the muucal material is broken up into abort 
and fairly complete aecdons which are frequently repeated. 
From this point of new it may be fairly assumed that CaTsUra 
curioiis inclination for passages in which a single chord is 
persistently repeated was partly derived from an awakening 
sense for tonal form- — and this tendency may have be^i one 
of the aourcea of his popularity; for it is always a sign of 
the practical attitude which is induced by the infiuence of the 
popular taste upon the mind of the composer, when principles 
ci dengn are adopted which make the ideas easier to grasp. 
Cavalli'a more mature works illustrate this in a marked degree. 
As Car as the artistic materials are concerned, the tendency 
seems to be in the direction of umplification. The treatment 

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of the inBtrumentB shows a sense of inBtnimental style much 
less acute than Monteverde's ; the vocal declamatioii is 
less vivid, and less varied. What dramatic colour is attempted 
it rather in broad spaces than in the moments; and special 
attempts at orchestral effect by varying the grouping of the 
instruments are scarcely to be found. The impression con- 
veyed is that Cavalli found such artistic subtletJes mere waste 
of energy. Moreover, it seems highly probable that the public 
opera bouses had a fixed staff of instrumentalists, while Monte- 
verde, working for spedal occasions, had collected together all 
the various instrumentalists of whatever kind who were avail- 
able, and diversified his score to suit their capacities. In 
Cavalli's score the actual instruments required are not specified, 
but the score, whenever full, is of five lines, and su^ests a 
set of viols and a clavicembalo or lute of some kind. The 
treatment of the instrumental fon^s by all composers of this 
period must be confessed to be thoroughly perfunctory. They 
seem to have ^ven up the idea of making experiments in 
instTumental effect; and in this respect the influence of a 
general public may be discerned to a very marked extent. 
Monteverde had struck out with feverish eagerness in making 
use of every posuble source of effect ; but the composers who 
followed him evidently found that the public did not pay much 
attention to such artistic refinements. The public probably did 
not listen at all to the instrumental parts of the works, and 
composm, seang it was useless to waste their energies, dropped 
into conventional forms of ritornelli which served for all 6c- 
canons; and this practice persisted in Italian operas for the 
rest of the century. The accompaniments to the vocal music 
were affected in like manner ; for composers found that thrir 
aucUences concentrated all their attenti<m upon the solo singer, 
as they did in Italy for all the two hundred years succeeding ; 
and therefore they found little encouragement to waste artistic 
work where it counted for nothing. Consequently opera com- 
posers supplied extremely little by way of artistic method and 

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resource in the inrtrumental departmeat during the century. 
All the slow advance in this branch was effected by composera 
who gave their minds to instrumental munc pure and simple. 
The opera composers abandoned all the openings which had 
been indicated by Monteverde in the direction of genuine 
inatrumental effect and Form, and relapsed into acceptance (rf 
mere mechanical formalities, in which the harmonization is 
clumsy and laboured, and the detuls are crude and ooarBe, and 
give no indications of expecting artistic refinements of phrasing 
or performance in the players. 

In other departments, in which composers found it to their 
advantage to exert themielres, changes were constantly going 
on. Many other composers came to the front simultaneously 
with Cavalli, but, as a representative of the original conception 
of the 'Nuove Muuche' pure and simple, the study of his 
own growth and progress demands first conuderation. And 
though, as has been so often hinted, be by no means approaches 
Monteverde in genius, the characteristic traits and tendendes 
of opera in his time are most amply represented in his works. 
The most successful of all his operas appears to have been 
Gituone, which came out at the Teatro San Casnano in Venice 
iu ]<549. Here at once the practical experience of the composer 
is embodied in the introductory stnfonia. It seems as though 
be ncogtax^ the nselessneas of putting any musical ideas into 
it, or of trying to make it characteristically relevant as he 
had done in his first opera, and merely rc^j^arded it as his 
duty to put down something solid and muaidanly. The music 
is, intrinsically, almost vrithout either technical or spiritual 
interest. But extrinsically it is interesting as one of the first 
examples of the ^ical slow movement which stood at the 
b^;inning of operu and oratorios for generation after genera- 
tion, through all the prosperous times of Handel, and even till 
recent times among those composers who took Handel's practice 
as the orthodox model. It would be superfluous to hiame 
Cavalli tor making such a precedent, for it baa been endorsed 

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bjr tbe imitatKni of folly half the greatest compoBera of the 
modern diBpenaatioQ, Ab loi^ aa the iadiileraice of tiie public 
makes it appeu* that an uaaattsfactory makeshift is adequate^ 
composers cannot be expected to go out of their way to quarrel 
with them. Cavalli supplied his introductory rohmtary With- 
out any notion of makiiig it ^ to his drama, and the rest 
of the world followed suit. The manner of the proceeding, 
bowerer, has some interest in fiew of after developments. Tbe 
overtores of after titues came to bare two distinct plans. What 
was known as the French or Lullian type was t^at in vlucfa 
the masavQ slow movement was succeeded by a fugue, as in 
nearly all Handed's or^tures for operas or oratorios. Tbe 
other form frequently had a slow introduction, but this was 
not an essentia] feature. Its essential features were a well- 
developed allegro in true instrumental form — that is to say, 
not fugal — secondly a Bk>w movement, and thirdly a lively 
finale. This was tbe type -wbieh was munly adopted by the 
Itidian Opera composers, being commonly described as *Sin- 
fonia'; which, after bcang honoured by Haydn, Mozart, 
Beethoven and others, arrived at its complete maturity in tbe 
form of modem abstract sonatas and symphonies. The inter- 
esting points to watch for at this time, therefore, are the 
indications of incipience of the respective types in the overtures 
of the early opera composers. Cavalli in this case offeis very 
little that is distinctive ; snch as there is, is suggestive of tbe 
French form. For though there is no sign as yet of the fugal 
movement, the slow movement is followed by a contrastii^ 
second movement, apparently meant to be a dance-tune, tbou^ 
it Is clumsily designed and clumsily harmonized— characteristics 
which it shares with the Moreeca at the end of Mooteverde's 
Or/eo and the dance-tune from his Ballo defle ingrate, either of 
which might have served as CavalU's model. The point of 
contact with the French type of overture is that in a very 
la^ [HVportlon of these tbe fugue is foUowed by a dance- 
tune of some sort. It is even a matter of tradition that Handel 

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inteiuled a minuet to follow the fugue in the OTertnre to the 
Mesriah. The arriral of the fugue, therefore, in the scheme 
bai to be looked for elaewhrae ; Caralli in this instance aupplie* 
the boundary lines alone. 

In tMs respect it seems tluit Caralli appears in the light 
of a formalist. He did not endearouTj here, to go beyond mere 
practical musicianship. His advance upon the work dE his 
predecnson is nuunly in establislung the principle of an 
orerture in distinct movements, having certain definite lelationa 
of character to one another, such as was ultimately amplified 
into very perfect artistic proportions. 

The tendency, moreover, is quite consistent with his attitude 
in those parts of his works in which his dramatic instinct is 
engaged; for even in these he often shows leanings towards 
artistic procedure quite different horn tliat of his master. For 
thou^ in the most vivid and striking moments of the dramas 
he had to set he adopted a frank attitude towards histrionic 
effect, he was nevertheless unconsciously working under the in- 
fluence of the public taste for tun^ulnesa and of well-balanced 
design in the less salient parta of his work; and without 
seeming to aim at form so much as moat of the Italian 
composers of opera^because he still retained his respect for 
dramatic expresnon — he presents some of the best examples 
of early attempts in definite well-managed design of any com- 
poser in the century. Thus, though Cavalli represents most 
[waminently the histrionic branch of art in his time, and though 
it was to a certain extent through him that the influence of 
Monteverde passed into France and took root there, he never- 
theless also shows the tendencies which led to the absolute 
branches of music, and In some things furthered materially 
the features which distinguished them. It is probably not too 
moch to say that the two tendencies which diverged so widely 
in the ultimate development of the musical art are manifested 
in this case in the one individual: and the effect was to 
make him appear inconsistent. He seems like a wanderer in 

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a new country, threading the tiiomy ways of an tiaumt 
unexplored artigtic n^n, and trying first one direction and 
then another. There were no landmarks, no settled and ac- 
cepted orthodoxieB, no nits. The ruts came indeed with 
astonishing rapidity as soon as composers had found which 
was the easiest road to jog along; but just in Cavalli's time 
composers hardly even knew what part of the compass to 
make for. Montererde bad boldly taken the histrionic road. 
He had made up his mind that it was the right one, and 
there was no one with sufficient force of character to distract 
him by showing that there might be any other. Cavalli was 
not so well off or so independent. He had many very aUe 
contemporaries, some of them more efficient musicians than 
himself. Moreover the public taste for pleasant formal mane 
was evidently getting more and more pronounced, and he could 
not escape it. It is, however, rather by chance than by con- 
spicuous genius that Cavalli embodies the embryonic types (rf 
both the great branches of modem music As the particukr 
Italian composer chosen by the French to show them the 
tughest methods of the Italian branch of the new art, he 
becomes the connecting link between Monteverde and Lulli, 
Porcell, Rameau, Qluck, Spontini, M^erbeer, Berlioz, and 
Wagner. While, in bo far as be furnishes some of the best 
examples known of early experiments in tuneful organiza- 
tion, which ultimately setUed down into the unfortunate aria 
form, he becomes the precursor of Alessandro Scarlatti, Pergoleai, 
Mozart, and Rossini. The variability of his attitude is illus- 
trated by his treatment of the recitative. At times it comes 
as near as poauble to not being music at all — consisting, as 
in the later conventional Italian Operas, of mere gabbling of 
words to incoherent successions of notes, supported by chaotic 
and unsystematized successionB of chords. At other times, 
when he is more himself, the recitative is elevated into fine 
passages of declamation amounting almost to free melody, 
prefiguring the dec^matory methods in which Lull! excelled. 

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which foreahadow dimly the metbodH of the latest Mbools o( 
music dnma. Tskiiig first his relation to formal or stractunl 
development, it must be stud that he showe much more variety 
and inventivenesfl in respect of deugn than later composers 
who complacently settled into the ruts; and he adopts many 
different devices to give the hearer the sense of structural 
orderliness. The form which he seems to favour most, espetnally 
in Giatone, is a kind of atrophic aria of several verses, with 
the same muuc repeated for each verse. In some of these 
the music for each verse is homogeneous throughout; but 
attains an appearance of orderly variety by modulating away 
from the principal key in the middle, and back to it for the 
end — sometimes repeating tbe initio phrases or the ritomello 
at the end, so as to round off tbe whole — a process which, it 
will be observed, tends vaguely in the direction of the familiar 
'Aria* form. Of this form a song, 'Se dardo pungente,' for 
Medea in Act i. Scene 2 of Giaaone is a good clear instance. 
Another design, very frequently met with, consists of a series 
of verses knit together by alternation with an orchestral 
ritomello, with which the whole begins and ends, precisely as 
in Monteverde's Scherzi Mtuicali. Another curiously organ- 
ized type, which is met with very frequently in works of this 
particular period, is that in which each veise is divided into 
two highly contrasted portions. That is to say, tbe first half 
of tbe verse is developed on the bans of one type of murical 
figures, and the second half upon decisively different ones 
which continue to the end of the verse. An excellent and 
even effective example is the song of Orestes, 'Fiero Amor/ 
in the second act of Gtonme; — 




- ^^^ ' ' i''i ' 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 

■x. 114 tk 

The principle of producing an orderly effect by employing two 
highly contrasted sections is illustrated occasionally by having 
a melodic passage to begin with, and breaking into recitatiTe, 
or declamatory music, for the second half. Occamonally the 
root idea is carried out in a very complicated and ingenious 
manner; as, for instance, in a very charming air for Delfa, 
^Troppo soare,' in Scene 13 — which is in this curious form : — 

I A^. A minor, triple time, melodic style, closing in E minor 
— thirteen bars, 

3 B'-^ Dominant of A, quadruple time, recitative — two ban. 

3 C Seven bars in melodic style, like A, triple time, ending 

4 B'. Same recitative as before, two bars in G, % time. 

5 C*. The same seven bars as C^, transposed to E minor, and 
ending in A, the principal key. 

This is followed by a long ritomello based on figures of 
C, and a complete repetition of the series of divisions above 
given, with variaUons and different words. 

These primitive kinds of aria often prefigure the complete 
conventional arias of A. Scarlatti, Handel, Hasse and all the 
rest, in various ways. The atrophic aria above referred to 
practically represents the two first limbs of the familiar 
AMA.. form without the da capo. The da capo is often 
suf^peated by the recurrence of the preliminary ritomello after 

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the contrasting portion, or by the recurrence of a few |diTaaes 
hdaogiBg to the opemng pana^ Sometimei the A^^. 
form makea its appearance complete, but K^hiBticated by 
an odd superfluouB repetition of the second limb of the 
orgaiuzatitHi, nuking A.B.A.B., instead of the conventional 
triform unit — aa though the composer thought it was not 
fair to give A twice, and only let B haTe one dianoe. 
Examples of the complete conrentioiial aria A^^. are 
almost as rare in Cavalli's works as in Lulli's. There 
is one very perfect and charming example ia Ereoie AnuaUe, 
one of Cavalli's latest works, which he produced in Paris 
at the festiritiea in bcMMnir of the marriage of Louis XIV. 
The two contrasting portbns begin as fallows : — 

l if,M, n vj i i\ r \ n ?^i 

.» ■ te,o 

mrt i r rn r ,t^? A 


inrircf i ^ ^ ''^ u J ii 1 i 

«ST-ro imc-MO-ri-m «cil-gilB-aa-H W-la-d-n,**. 

' ^wcamp Milm eatlntht origiiMJeointotigf k but pnt anly, wUeh Iig;! 
aKMt)7 iatt* knw pMt in tb* lownianlBMad. 

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Tla^ti'ldl-M--tc^ M-ro 0( ' (rt> to, At'l 


r nr ' if^i-Hf r rlr»- I f' 


There ia an aria io Xerxes, La beUezza Jugace, Act ii. 
Scene 9, which is of a veiy interesting intermediate type, in 
which the A.B.A. form is, as it were, inchoate; the da capo of 
A. only extending te a few ban, tliough quite sufBcient to 
suggest the form. It is extremely interesting to observe that 
Cavalli had ideaa of design beyond the mere presentation of 
concrete blocks, which is the characteristic of true harmonic 
form. He often shows a clear perception of the function 
of sequences as an element of design (see Ex. 1 1 z). But one 
of the most interesting features in his works, prefiguring the 
use of similar artistic methods by L^renzi, LulU, Stradella, 
and Purcell, is his employment of the device of the ground 
bass. There are fine examples of this form of art in' a 
declamatory recitative in Ercole Amante, which are the more 
significant because of the great and frequent use made of the 
form by Lutli in his operas. 

But the most interesting examples are in a work called 
L'EUogabaio, the MS. of whjch, in the library of St. Mark's 
at Venice, bears his name, though no detuls of the time or 
circumstances of its production appear to be known. In these 
examples he not only shows full appreciation of the unifying 
effect of the ground bass, but also an unexpected appreciation 
of the advantage to be guned by varying its usual monotony 
by transposing the bassj and thereby attuning contrasts of 

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tonally and pitch. In Scene ii is B kind of uia for Alesaandro 
Ceaare, in which the formula of the 'ground' ia repeated five 
timea in A minora and is then tranapoaed to C for three 
repetilibna, and then taken back to A minor for ux repe- 
titionBj then to C again for three repetitiona, then finally to 
A minor again. The following are the initial points of the 
two first dirisions: — 
Be llSk. 


'' ili 'C'' S3 


i| JjJ | j 


jJ: AAiAA4 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Cavalli seenu to hare gtined in scope and clearaea of 
preeentaUon ai be grew dder. Srcole Amente is distingnuhed 
in almost every reject by more niasterly distributioa of com* 
ponent forms, such as the choruses, ritomelli, and passi^^ 
of declamation. It is, moreover, peculiarly interesting and 
impcnrtant as indicating in broad lines the scheme adopted by 
Lulli and other writers of the French school, even up to 
Rameau's- time. The ainfonia, the prolc^e consiBting of 
massive choruses, the declamatory redtative which forms the 
main portion of the acts, interspersed with various kinds of 
arias all wdl devised for histrionic eAeet, and the frequent 
employment of choruses and ensemUe movements to «ad the 
acts^ foresfaadov the almost tnysiialde pcadace of Lulli and his 
followeni. Cavalli's adoptdon of sodi procedure tn this case 
needs full consideration, inasmuch as U is quite aa likely that 
he adopted it from the French as that Ltdli adopted it from 
him. The question will tber^Eore be conndered in connexion 
with tiie French der^pment of Opera; at present the question 
is Cay^li's position as a purely Italian composer. And in that 
reelect his attitude in rdation to expnsaon, iriiid] ^ter all 
was the raiun quality whieh distingniahed his master, is of 
equal importance with his position in relation to structural jH-tn- 
ciples. As has before been p<Hnted out, Mooteverde, working 
in times when technique and methods of art were tot^y 
undevel^ied, struck out, wider the eKciU^ns^t eagendoed 
by hni^ned human situations, mwnly in tiie direction of 
expression ; obtaining his effects by weird harmonies, forced 
progreasoBS, strange intervals, abn^ and startling accents. 
His chief follower, working under the influeace of r^idariy 
oi^l^anized opera performances, and audiences always ready to 
hand, moved in the directioa of practical expontion. He 
pui^;ed oot the mom^tMy vidwices which were oecetsaiy 
to Monteverde, and songfat mtiicr to spread tbe expresnon 
over wider spaces. He sought less to deal with poigaaat 
moments which startled the senaUSties, than to produce his 

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impression by penistence of mood. The case of the ednfonia 
to PeUm and Tketit has already been discussed. The end 
of the first act of Giasone shows a more rivid and artistic 
preseDtment in the same direction. Here the object is to 
create a bkM>d-curdling impreswon fitted for the diabolic 
incantations of Medea. In her piincipal song the effect is 
obtained, as in the sinfonia to Peleui and Tketia, by fierce 
rhythmic innatence of a single chord, interspersed with short 
silences; a process which has been already shown to be 
employed by Montererde (p. 56), and which, at the other end 
of the story of dramatic music^ has a modified parallel in the 
immense Funeral March of Siegfried in Wagner's GStterddm- 
merunff. The other element of effect is the wild leaping of 
the voice from one end of the compass to the other, illus- 
trating the BubjectiTe condilioa of the human creature in the 
horrors of mad frenzy. 


if'i jj^i"'3ii^-- i jjj 



' i:£d^. 

yjji u^ij 

,i.aL, Google 




Jji^ ' is ^^^ 

The intentioD is quite after the manner of Monteverdcj 
though the execution bean the marks of more maturi^ of 
expression than anything now known of that maater. The 
solo following this is a long and remarkable redtatire, almost 
every bar of which shows distinct expressive intentions ; — 

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as. Its. 

JJJJjjj >ij^ jj.jJr 


- ^-M - 


r r •> 

and this again is succeeded by a short chorus of spirits of 
the cether regions, in which a weird effect is obtained by the 
use of a succession of short sentence* of seven syllables, 
interspersed with absolute silences. 


L* BW - U, 

J ...yj.JU- 

V "'• "■ rrrrff 

■n-dX ■ - . . - - Ifroo, CB - iinta. 

That Cavalli was weU satisfied by the effect he obtained 
in the incantation scene in Medea is shown by the fact that 
he used the same device of persistently-reiterated chords 
in a solo in Ercole amante, which is headed *infemale/ 
and is on rather a more extended scale than the scene in 
Giatone. It is worth noting that Cavalli, though rather 
fond of attempting the expressioa of the terrible, admits 
both the tender and the humorous. A scene in Gituene, 
L a 

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between Orestes and Demo the stammerer, is possibly one of 
the first examples remaining of such an attempt at humour 
in early opera. After an amusing scene between the stam- 
merer and Orestes the former singa an aria, and gets on 
swimmingly till near the end, when he gets into difficulties 
with a word. Orestes joins in and suggests the word, but 
Ae stammerer will not give m, and goes on to the bitter 
end, the point being made ingeniously effective as a means 
of deferring the cadence. A dialogue ensues in which the 
atammering gets worse, till at last Demo is so completely 
beaten that he goes off the scene without finishing a 
sentence. Orestes then goes on talking to himself tor a 
whil^ when Demo suddenly puts hia head in and sings the 
word that had beaten him, and disappears agun. The scene 
is evidently an illustration of a persistent impulse to alleviate 
the severity of tragedy by comic episodes, which had manifested 
itself even in the sacred mysteries of the Middle Ages. Such 
episodes continued to make their appearance in serious Italian 
Opera till the opera bouffe and the Intermezzo came into vogue 
with LogToscino and Pergolesi, and rendered them superfluous. 

Before tracing further the immediate connexion of Cavalli 
with the French Opera of the court of Louis XIV, it is 
necessary to consider the development of the kind of art 
which ultimately took possessicm in Italy, to the compile 
exclusion of Uie dramatic style. 

It seems that the vivid and startling nature of Mooteverde's 
experiments, and the success of Cavalli ia adapting his methods 
to the changing taste of Italian audiences, attracted most 
attention in their time, and has almost monopolized the 
attention of historians since; but in reality great part of 
the work of artistic progress, and the development of those 
methods of art which became vital to the composers of the 
latter part of this century and the beginning of the next, 
was done by composers whose names have not echoed so 
loudly down the windy ways of fame. 

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Varioiu great arUstzc centres minutered in different w&ys 
to the sum total of artistic progress. At firBt Florence and 
Venice bad been most prominent; but the composen who 
represent the progressive tendencies of the middle and the 
latter part of the century belonged munly to Rome, whose 
influence was in the directdon of artistic soundness and dignity 
of style. This influence begins to assmne important dimen- 
sions in the works of Michelangelo Rossi and Liugi Rossij two 
independent composers about whom next to nothing is known 
beyond the works that bear their names and the tradition that 
Rome was the centre of their artistic activities, Erminia sut 
Giordano, the one operatic work known of the first named, was 
printed in Rome in 1637. It is full of points which bear upon 
later deveh)pments in almost every department of the art. 
Amoogst the most important features are the instrumental un- 
fonias. It has been pointed out before that the antecedent steps 
to the mature form of the French Overture are difficult to trace. 
In this work we have good proof of the appreciation of the 
exact form in its general outlines. The 'sinfouia per intro- 
duzione del prologo ' is a complete example of the Lullian type 
in miniature. It begins with a massive passage of three bars. 



«<9— ,, 


J .1- 

—J — . 





— 1 


!>' " ^ 




D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


and then breaks off into a free kind of fu^ passage in 

M '' '"'f r *" l' 

E 1 

e/_> L_C L 

t " rrrr » . a 

'■ tr- — ^33 

Ik . - LLUIJ J r ■ ill i| 

/ .. ■ ||.|..|. J 1 rrpf 1 p j 

y 1 n 1 r J J t 1 1 1 r 1 

.1. .. ^ 11 1 



-■'■' J ^ 

and ends with yet another Bhort movement which has the 
aspect of a dance-tune of the period in f time, b^inning 
as followa: — 

Ke. las. 

VIoUm. / 

[if i'h''^V 

if-n - 1 .. 1 



F" 1 =1= 

f i" 1 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



The ednfooia to the Beeocd act, comprisiDg the slow movement 
and the allegro, is even more to the point, as the second 
portion has a more distinctive subject and ia more uncom- 
promisingly fugal. The prologue is also a small counterpart 
of the prologues of the French Operas, comprising choruses of 
Naiads at beginning and end, and recitative and muucal 
dialogae in the middle. The firat act comprises a bright 
and tuneful ' aria a tre,' also a strophic aria in two contrasted 
portions like those described in connexion with Cavalli, 

if..., ■j-M 


— -^ — .— 


« 'ri i-> 


— yy, 

n M 

ij II . 


a at. 

lat-do >1 


F " f 1 1— 1 ■ - =M;J •> ' 

dl IMl-tt 

• d 




-^ SL4- 





1 " r r 

8U pu 


J J 1 , r \ f ri r r r I' f . . a 

rl >J ,] 


M, aha 

In ■ fl( 

to d le 

. Ma 


also plenty of recitative and a rather extensive *Coro di 
Cacciatori' in six parts, with passages 'a due' and 'a tre,' 
and imitations. The second act, as before mentioned, begins 
with a sinfonia, and so does the third, which is the final act. 
They comprise a chorus of soldiers, which is bold and 

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characteristic, with ahout* of * All* anni, all' anni, Tantamra,* 
and there is also a long chorus accompanying a pastoral 
dance, a chorus of demons, and a trio for furies. The wIk^ 
work ends joyously with choruses of zephyrs, and a ballet of 
nine nymphs which appears to proceed while Apollo ascends 
in a car, strewing flowers. 

In an opera by Luigi Kossi, II Palazzo inamtato, of the 
slightly later date of 1642, there are much the same features 
— arias, extensive and artistically written choruses, and ballet 
music, but no introductory sinfonia — unless, as happens in 
some other cases, it ia only appended to some MS. that has 
not come to light. In this work there are attempts at dramatic 
expresfflon somewhat in the spirit and style of Montererde, of 
which a very characteristic exam[de is the following scene for 
Angelica and a giant, which scarcely needs conunent, as the 
poignancy of the cries for succour on Angelica's part are 
patent on the face of the music: — 


AUI lUqiH-l 

'•^-i | 't; r z^ !^^ shl mlpo-tri dl-Hioc- - nT CM dl it ml b 

This side of Rossi's musical character is much less important 
than the conspicuous maimer in which he iUoatratea the tendency 

_y Google 


of the age among the Italians in the directioa of organization 
or torn), and auavity of style in writing for solo voices. In 
tfaia respect he runs parallel with the famous composer Giacomo 
Carissimi, who was probably by a few years his junior. The most 
remarkable examples of Rossi's powers in this direction are 
fotmd in his elaborate cantatas 'a roce sola/ a form of art 
which sttiuned great vogue in the course of the seventeenth 
century, and was cultivated by all the great composers, in- 
cluding Handel, up to the middle of the following century. 
They seem to be the outcome of the eartier monodies, of 
which 80 much is heard in the earliest years of the Nuove 
Muucfa^ but of which no examples remain. It was a form 
which, by ScarlatU's time, had become as completely con- 
ventionalized as the aria; but in the time of Rossi and 
Carissimi it was much more free and varied in the distribution 
of the component features and much more genuinely musical. 
A very remarkable example which illustrates the extent to 
wHch composers gave their minds to matters of form is 
a cantata, Gelosia, by Rossi, of which Bumey gave an excerpt 
in his history, but probably did not notice the elaborate 
intricacy of the construction. Ajb this throws much light 
upon this newly-developing feature of secular music, the 
scheme may be given in extenso: — 

A^. ^, declamatory recitative of twenty-three bars, and 
close, of which Ex. 125 is the opening phrase. 
B*. 4, tuneful — nine bars, b^^ning as 'Ex.. 126. 
. C. \t declamatory recitative of nineteen bars. 

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A*. Same bass as A^, but different worda and varied 

I S^, f , same baas as f , but different words and different 

I C^. \, recitative. Same basa aa C, but different words 

and different voice-part. 

A^. Same miudc as A^, but different words. 
B^. -J, the aame a« B^, with different words. 
C, Same bass and almost the same voice-part as C 

(till last three bars, which are varied to give 
effect to the conclusion. 

It cannot be ascertained when this was written, but a scheme 
so carefully thought out and so successfully executed is weighty 
testimony to the tendency of the time in the direction of 'form,' 
and the rapidity with which composers learned to manipulate 
it. There are many examples by Carissimi which illustrate 
the same attitude of mind. One very extensive cantata which 
has become well known by name through Bumey's having 

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referred to it in his history, and tbrongh a short excerpt from 
it having been published as an example of the early Italian 
style of vocal muuc, is that known as the cantata of Mary 
Stuart. This cantata, like Rossi'a GeUma, contains alternate 
passages of declamatory recitative and of definite tuneful 
passages, the main blocks of which are used for formal pur- 
poses, as in Rosu's case, by reiterating the bass with Tariations 
of the voice-part. Carissimi also in this case makes use of 
a conspicuous melodic feature in different parts of the work 
to unify the actual material. Thus the familiar opening 

ts used fragmentarily towards the close of the whole work as 
fallows; — 




p-^ i r r f ^ "^ 

This is followed by some recitative ; and the close, in which 
the phrase is yet again hinted at, is as follows : — 

•A u • lU dwiiD 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


■ ■.,> . . . i. . , r r . 1=^ 


■,jt J. J | 

The close here quoted entire aeems also to illustrate the 
change from the method of Monteverde of emphaaizing 
expression in detail to the method of conveying it by spacious 
paaaages, a practice which was ultimately watered down into 
the vague generahties of the conventional aiio, 

A very remarkable example by Carissimi is a solo, * Sospiri 
ch* uscite dal tristo mio core/ in a manuscript collection of 
compositions for solo voices made in London for M. Didi£ 
by Pietro R^^o in 1681. This is of a totally different kind 
from the examples of Rossi, and illustrates a more delicate and 
subtle organization, in which relation of contrasting tonalitieB, as 
well as diflposition of the component phrases, plays an important 
part. The solo begins with a three-bar phrase in G minor. 

i»i "jr J,g|J j."i'T';rfr'J^r':lr 

a>..pi.rt Ota 



M diltti 






which is repeated in D minor. This is followed by a new 
six-bar phrase, modulating from D minor to F and back to 
D, which is repeated, with sundry very artistic modifications, 
in such a manner as to return to G and close in that key; 
and 80 concludes the first portion of the solo. 
ax. 1S8I1. 

_y Google 



Tfaeie ia then a middle portion. 

^f' l - | f f fV^ , i/jj I 

.^ ■■ nT r 

■Vr r"|!|r i 

■'1; f^ 

L — . 1 

r V ir^ 



modulating to BP, F, C minor, and back to G minor, all 
admirably artistic in dispoaition of the subjects and phrases; 
and, that completed, the music of the first portion of the 
solo is repeated, with sundry Variations of detail and with 
difiereut words. So that the whole makes, musically, a com- 
plete example of the A,B.A, 'aria form,' with the advantage, 
as compared with the conventional type of Scarlatti and 
Handel, that the words of the first portion are not repeated. 
Carisaimi's instinct for orderliness and clearness of tonality 
was evidently very strong. It is illustrated among other 

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things by his fondneBB for b^aning the declamatory portion 
of a work by a passage representing aolely the tonic chord 
of the movement. The Mary Stuart cantata begins in this 
way, all on the chord of Q: — 

^ ' r J' 







13 ; ; 


> does the motet 'Domine Deus*: 

There is a very conspicuous example at the banning of 

p p.f cerir'^rrrrir enti. 

e r r 1 

Bl Do-ipl-imi 11 . U.<a Am-OKm In >». 

■j •' r- 1^;^:^ 

besides several others in the same work. An example of 
more elaborate texture in Judicium Salonwnw is also worth 
noting: — 



' J. J 

The device is, however, not restricted to Carisumi, but is 
characteristic of the period. The following example, from 

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fine * cantata a voce aok' b^ Rossi, called La Rota, ia 
8 strongly marked as any of Carisrami's: — 

eeifrggcg't i s^^ 

■J bloDdo oti - oa 

Such a feature, indeed, represents the unconscious tendency 
of general artistic feeling. Composers were all more or less 
gravitating in the direction of clear harmonic principles of 
structure. They evidently delighted in the feeling of comfort- 
able assurance produced by thoroughly clear establishment 
of the tonality, either by innstence on the tonic chord, or 
clear alternations of tonic and dominant, or by some other 
similar device. Occasionally, it is b-ue, long continued 
habit induced the use of the obscurer progressions produced 
by thinking of music as in the ecclesiastical modes. But 
principles of modem tonality were gaining ground j and the 
Roman school, represented by such men as Rossi and Carisumi, 
was foremost in accelerating its acceptance, and in estab- 
lishing that smooth and el^ant style of writing which became 
its complementary in the first years of its establishment. 

A matter which had great influence in changing the ultimate 
course of the main road of Italian music was the reaction in 
the direction of the earlier musicianship. The original experi- 
menters in musical drama had been almost utterly inefficient 
in the time-honoured methods of composition which were the 
glory of the previous century. They quite rightly regarded 
counterpoint as out of place in theatrical works; and, as 
theatrical music or declamatory music was the all-absorbing 
object of thm amlHtion, the greater part of the music of 
the early years of the seventeenth century ia characterized 
by an absence of muucianship which ia almost without 
parallel since the beginning of the fifteenth century. But 

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the traditbtui were still in existence, and, when the first fever 
of the new music was getting spent, men turned about 
instinctively to see if the musicianship of the earlier style 
could not be applied with advantage to the halting methods 
of the new. The halting methods were undoubtedly achieving 
something strange, which exerted the influence of an omni- 
present alembic, and caused the old methods to have quite 
a different aspect when they were revived. The growth of the 
feeling for tonality, which was a necessary attainment before 
the development of the kind of organization which is specially 
characteriatic of modem art-forms could be begun, was already 
causing a modification or fusion of the old ecclesiaatical modes, 
and an obliteration of their characteristic features; and the 
inevitable result was that counterpoint lost its ideal purity* 
and never appeared again in the untainted guise of the times 
of Palestrina and Marenzio. Moreover, the secular spirit had 
completely established itself, and the influence of instrumental 
experience in modifying the aspect of passages, and the use 
of ornamental phraseology, all caused the part-writing of the 
new style to be more tree, more full of variety and rhythm, 
and more energetic than of old. The old spirit of pure 
contemplation passed away, and gave place to the vigour of 
action, and to the expansion of human sympathy expressed 
in greater variety of detwl. 

Among the earliest composers who illustrated the changed 
aspect of contrapuntal writing was Domenico Mazzocchi, 
whose works in the new style have already been referred to 
(p. 60). He seems to have been regarded as a very important 
representative of the musicianly branch of the new composers ; 
as he produced several collections of madrigals and vocal pieces 
in many parts, which no doubt show some skill in manipulat- 
ing voice-parts, but are singularly vapid and superficial by 
the wde of the true unaccompanied madrigals of the old style. 

But of all the composers who turned at combining musician- 
ship of the old order with the characteristics of the Nuove 

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Mmicb^ Csrisdmi stands the most conspicuous. His nRtunl 
bent seems to have been towards a more serious style than that 
of his contemporaries, and a lai^ portion of his works vere 
either motets or other forms of church music, or oratorios. 
This latter form of art had not been cultirated with much 
success hy the composers of the new school. They were not 
musicians enoogh to write effective choruses. The attempt of 
Cavalieri in that direction had hardly exceeded the limits 
<rf a nmple homophonic hymn-tune, or a short passage in 
a madrigal style; and in other respects also the composers' 
methods had been too undeveloped, and their ideas too limited, 
to enable them to achieve the interest of artistic detail 
necessary to make the Oratorio-form satisfactory. 

The vigour of Carissimi's artistic instinct evidently led him 
to realize, that music which is not intended to be associated 
with stage accessories needs to have certain artistic qualities of 
its own to justify its existence; and sufficient distinctness 
of suggestion to define the circumstances which are presup- 
posed in the story, drama, or recital which is muucally treated. 
It must necessarily make an immense difference in the quality 
or style of music whether it is intended for the theatre or not. 
Passages which look in themselves obscure, trivial, or even 
childish, may become thoroughly appoute and full of meaning 
and suggestion directly they are combined with a stage 
ritoalion. And it may even be said that music which is 
meant to be given with stage performance has no right to 
be self-sufficient. It exceeds its province and monopolizes 
too much of the attention. The mind is distracted l^ 
elements which will not assimilate. But when music is to 
be unaided l^ stage presentation it must justify itsdf by 
inherent interest of aU kinds, by artistic qualities of design, 
style and treatment, and by such clear indications of mood 
and emotion as shall require no accessories or sign-posts to 
show what is intended. It was the fact that Carissimi gave 
his mind so much to forms of art which were not intended for 

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stage presentaUoD which made him cultivate musiciaiiBliip on 
the lines of the earlier church maatera; and it waa thia alao 
which gare him auch pre-eminence aa a leader in the direction 
(^ tonal form. He appears to hare been so thoroughly imboed 
with the contrapuntal methods, that, eren when writing cantatas 
or psalme for two or three voices^ and solos in his oratorioa, 
he apontaneouslj' adopted the free style which gives equal 
independence to all the parts which make up the hamumy. 
Consequently hia basses are much more free and ene^tic tiian 
the stolid accompaniments of the earlier composers of the new 
school, and the whole aapect of hia work is much more 
mnaicianljr. But it was impossible for him to escape the 
powerful tendencies of his time. The overwlidming influence 
of the secular element of rhythm, and the strong sense for 
tonality of the modem kind, exerted such modifjring influence 
on the internal organization of hia counterpoint that the aspect 
of his progressions and the style of the details are alb^ether 
different from those of the contrapuntiBta of the old school. 
The knre of simple successions of chords is one of Carissimi's 
most marked characteristics; and that in itaelf is enough to 
distinguish his Idnd of counterpoint &om the old style. It is 
difficult to say whether the influence of rhythm induced sim- 
plicity of chord progressions, or whether the simplicity of the 
chord progressions of the earlier masters of the 'Nuore 
Musiche' led to composers tiirowing them into rhythms to 
justify ihat existence. Rhythmic music must inevitably be 
simple and clear in harmonic structure. Even before the 
appearance of the Nuore Mosiche, such rhythmic popular vocal 
forms aa ballette, villanelle and villote were much simpler, and 
more nearly like harmonized tunes, than any portions iA the 
higher classes of art work; the voices moved simaltaneonily 
from point to point more frequently, and mere repetitions of 
notes and chords were more often resorted to. In Carisnmi's 
choral works the change from pure modal counterptnnt to 
modem tonal counterpoint is strongly perceptible. The soc- 

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cefisioiiB of chordB, repre«eiitii]g ph&seg of tonality, are quite 
as euential as the relative motioDS of the parts. Moreover, 
the influence of rhythm extends to the internal oi^anizatioo 
of the contrapuntal whole. The parts, even when moving 
independently of one another, often se^n rh)rthmic, and move 
with a greater freedom and more incisive variety of figure than 
the old contrapuntal parts. This was indeed no new achieve- . 
ment of Carissimi's, for Freicobaldi had given plentiful 
examples of this type of work in his fugues and canzonas;, 
and it is quite likely that his o^anic style of writing may 
have had something to do with the style which Carisnmi 
adopted in writing his choruses. Carisaimi, however, went 
conspicuoualy beyond him in the direction of modem practices ; 
for a great manj of bis choruses are as directly and fnuokly 
rhythmic as a dance-tune. He is very fond of a mmple dactylic 
rhythm such as the following from Jephthah : — 

K ' ! n ■[ E c 1 1 nruMt 

■ gl • Mt M . ( tWL.j^.l 

Also of alternate dactyls and qMmdeesi, as in the follovring 
from the Jut^eium Sahmomt : — 

^iu<^t rtt ff fr^r 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Apart &oin the general difference of style which is pre- 
sented by choral music when rhythmically treated, there are 
differences in the s^le of writing far the individual yoices 
which are significant. True contrapnntat writing presented 
a constant motion of the several voice-parts : but when voices 
are made to reiterate the same note there is no way of 
making the procedore intelli^ble except by ihythm. So the 
appearance of repeated notes or chords is a sore tdgn that 
the b-ue spirit of the old counterpoint in its porest form 
has been lost, and that the secular element of rhythm has 
become inevitaUe. In Carissimi's works this featnre is indeed 
conspicuously prevalent. He does not even confine it to 
semi-religioas or secular works, but uses the device of repeated 
notes in music intended for the CHiurch, as in the following 
passage from a five-part Mass : — 

Imax^al - ik, Ho - 



uol. A, In 

This illustrates the manner in which the methods of the 
new art ceased to be confined to the province of secular 
music, and were brought to bear on the forms of sacred 
music which were the highest ground of the earlier com- 

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poeen; and sucli features went on increaniig u church music 
became more and more debased. 

Though Carisaimi was a more soious motBciaii than 
mcwt of the jcomposers of hia time, be is by no means 
immaculate in taste and judgement. Parenthetically it 
may be observed that he was one of the worst of sinners 
in introdudng extravagant roos and flourishes into aolo 
settings of sacred words. He very often did such things 
very skilfuUyj as in the following cadenza at the end of the 
motet 'Domine Deus'i 

..r^'" ' ' i' Li i '[jjirwj'rfirn'^ i 

and from the histrionic point of view the wildest of cadenzas 
can be made apporite and expressive ; bat from the devotional 
point of view, passages essentially intended to show off vocaliza- 
tion are completely out of place, and are only intdHgible on 
the grounds so frequently ionsted on here, that church muac 
was rinfied afresh, after the revolution of 1600, by introdudng 
the features of purely secular art histrionically — with disastrous 
results to the munc of the south of Europe, and magnificent 
success in the north. Cariasimi was a most important leader 
in the secularization of church music, for he waa one of the 
first composers of church music and semi-sacred music who 

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seemed thoroughly to hare grasped the meaning of the new 
movement in almost all its bearings } and his methods are very 

It is interesting to note that nearly all the choruses in his 
oratorios have a kind of realistic basis. He evidently felt that 
some clear indication was needed to give point to the utterances 
of the human bdngs composing the choruB, and to identify 
them with the particular crowd or group of imaginary beings 
whose parts in the drama or story they had to fulfil. He 
therefore adopted as frequentiy as possible a kind of ejacu- 
latory utterance, such aa short indvve phrases bandied 
from one group of voices to another. He seems to have 
tried to oonjore up in bis imagination the demeanour of 
a crowd In the utuations and circumstances presupposed, 
and to have tried to make th«n sing their protests, ques- 
tions, lamentatjons, rage or pleasure in the manner in which 
many people, moved by a simultaneous impulse, might be 
expected to do. Thus in Daniele the chorus rapidly reiterate 
•Si, si, si.' 



e c ■' 

> •!, d, a, 
' i t t 

81, ^, a, il p«.™, i»-i 

■ I , c a a a B 


pi-tB, pi.n l-tn-da( • 

So, in Jephthah, the Israelites caU to the Ammonites to fly 
or yield in the dactylic passage already quoted on p, 163. 
So, in Jonatf the terrified sailors ask Jonah what and who 

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he ia, when the dnwiog o( the lots abowa him to be the 
culprit who is ^e cKiue of the tempest. 


A aimilar reaUstic device is very effectiyely used in the 
duet of the wrangling women before Solomon in the ludicium 
SalomoHwt — 


'•Jj^eigceci^ ^ 

■1 art i. U Dt *■ dl-ola, tn-u hI qnl^-n 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



Hon B( 

i . U, N« 

- , 


to dl 



- «■■ 


l"> T 1 «■ 1 ■ 1 

at va 

« ■ nt fl 



Tl . 

-p — w 



i . to, 
p ^ 1 


1 • •* 


e » ■ ir 





Dca Ht 

i-ta, B« 








IB »t i ■ W, 

— d— 


. to, am 

to ot 



A different kind of realistic suggestion is implied in the 
wailing choros of the Ammonites in Jephthah : — 


n o.lo.Un-U. a. 11-1 An - -. wa 


F^ 11- "r Ir '1' 1 M 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



Id one of the moat ezpreanTe momenta in all the oratorioB — 
die aong of Jephthah's daughter when she is condemned to 
wander in the mountains — Carisumi combines the effect of 
a wafling passage with the scenic suggestion of the chorus 
of maidens echoing sympathetically the moumful song of 
the exile: — 

Such features show the ideas of the new school germinating 
in new r^iona, under the influence of a higher and more 
serious musicianship. Speaking of Carissimi's work generally, 
it may be said that he is much stronger in rocal and choral 
music than in instrumental writing. In the oratorios the 
instrumental portions are singularly bald, flat, and styleless. In 
this branch of art he was behind his contemporaries. As so 
frequently happens, the taste and aptitude for choral and 
vocal expression detracted from the power of instrumental 
expression. His sympathy was eridently with the human 
dement. His writing for the voice is generally excellent. 
In the superflluity of ornamental passages he is on a par with 

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hia contemporaries' — BometimeB fatile, Bometimes brilliantly 
successful; but in matters of expression, in touching and 
pathetic phrases put with great and subtle, sense of ^ness 
to be sung, he was the leader of bis time. There is com- 
paratively little formal tune in hia woric, and, except in 
cantatas 'a voce sola,' not many definite arias or strophes. 
In this respect also he takes high ground, and endeavoure 
to make his design apt to the moment, rather than to flatter 
the ears of the groimdlingB with some familiar formula. Hia 
immediate followers unfortunatdy adopted a different attitude, 
which in some respects was injurious to themselves and their 
music. His great power as a modeller, as a manipulator 
of the detuls which go to make a well-derised artistic design 
posuble, led composers who followed him to lay too much 
stress on the formal elements. They learnt the trick of 
writing vocal phrases, but disposed them into uniform designs, 
which shortly became so utterly mechanical ttiat even the 
beauty of actual melodic detul does not save them from being 

It is a ungular fact that, whereas Carissimi preseota so few 
examples of formal tune and aria, his two most celebrated 
pupils are specially marked out from their respective contem- 
poraries by evident predilection for them. Antonio Cesti in 
about the middle of the century^ and Alessandro Scarlatti 
at the end of it, both laid great stress on the formal sold 
portJona of their operas and cantatas ; the latter indeed, 
whose poaittOQ must be considered later, baa through his 
excessive and too lavish use of the aria form^ been credited 
by superfidal writers with the invention of it. Antonio Ceati, 
who was born about 1620, and was therefore nearly forty years 
hia senior, had a great aptitude and inclination for melodious 
formality; and his popularity implies a dedsive gravitation 
of Italian taste in the direction of vocal tune of a formal 
kind. As far as can be gathered, from the paucity of bii 
works which are available for examination, be had no great 

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dramatic instinct; and though his diction is more {^b and 
fadle than CavalU's, he has nothing of the musicianabip or the 
intrinsic interest of dtber Rossi or Carissinu. His popularity 
probaUy arose from his works being ctmgenial to the growing 
public taste for pleasant, amiably melodious boIo music. In 
some few morements he shows an advance in perception of 
instrumental style; using more figurate and lively passages 
for his accompaniments than are met with in the works of hia 
greater predecessors. The passages flow smoothly and naturally, 
and produce the effect of better balance and ease, by the 
repetition of figures which are carried through sequences and 
nmple succesuons of chords. The truth clearly is, that even 
in half a century composers were becoming more fuUy con- 
scioua of the effect of the relations of tonic and dominant and 
were less likely to be distracted from their use and to lisrk 
back to formulas which belonged to the modal system ; which, 
though picturesque and characteristic, impaired the easy grace 
of design which was obtainable by complete acquiescence 
with the elementary principles of modem tonality. A good 
many of Ceeti's little arias show a considerable degree of 
artistic dexterity in presenting the essential phrases of 
melody or subject, as is shown in the following opening 
phrases of an aria in the third act of X^ MagtumimitA tP Alej- 

BdJa iuHnow4a al, d, tar-* 

-.ia.-( k I r, ' 'j " iTf? i rr fT^ 



D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


r r/r JliJ ^^^j i F 


Though his most famoiu vork was Orontea, the work which 
\s best known in modem times is La Sort. Of thia there are 
several versions — one at St. Mark's in Venice, another at Berlin, 
and another at the Bridsh Museum, These vonons mainly 
differ in detul of an unimportant kind. The most important 
difference is that there is an overture in the British Museum 
version which is not in dther of the other MS8.; and this 
also becomes important because it presents another example, 
like the sinfonias in Rossi's Ermiiua, of the general scheme of 
the French overture. There is first the solid, slow movement 
aiming at sonority. 





then the lively fngal movement. 

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and then a ^roap of ehort passages in various rhythms to end 
with. One of the complete arias in Act ii. is so short and so 
characteristic of his style that it is worth inserting : — 


=^ h^ i 

, ^■1 J ,1 





The first vocal phrase is then resumed at A, and repeated aa 
far aa £, and the end is rounded off hy a Codetta repeating the 
last two bars before £, slightly altered, aa foUows : — 

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Cesti'B We of a suave and smootfaljr-flowing tune of this aort 
in 3 or 4 tiine was bo great that it become* a maDneriBm. 

The most important of his works which a sljll extant is 
the Porno d'Oro which waa written for great wedding festiTi- 
ties at Vienna in 1667 or 166S. It was evidently intended to 
be a very important display, and appears to have been pat on 
the et^e irith the utmost magnificence, to which a number 
of engravings of the acenes fully testify; and the composer 
put forth the best of his powers. But this only seems to 
emphasize the fact that his gifta lay rather in a melodic than 
in a dramatic direction. There is a very conwderable amount 
of amiable melody diffused through the whole work, but barely 
a wngle trace of anytiiing resembling the intensity of expression 
in detail achieved by Monteverde and at times by CavallL 
Among the noteworthy points is the fact that the work showB 
some tendencies in the direction of the French type of opera. 
Lulli, it is true, had not as yet begun his operatic career, but he 
had written a considerable number of divertissements which 
comprised some of the main features of the later operas. And 
inasmuch as the courts of Europe were inclined to copy the 
manners of Louis XIV's court, it is natural that they should 
have taken every opportunity to assimilate thnr great stage 
functions to those of the French metropolis. This is shown 
in the Pomo d'Oro munly by the overture, which has tbe 
r^;ular sonorous slow movement and lively fugal movement; 
and in the scheme of the prologue, which contains a number 
of chomses for the various nations which were under the crown 
of the Austrian imperial house. It is noteworthy that these 
choruses are unusually free and well written for such works, 
and show Cesti's musicianship in a favourable light. The 
style of the instrumental music is strangely variable. Some of 
the ' sonatas,* which serve as introductions to scenes, and the 
ritomeUi, are in the helplessly stagnant style which was 
characteristic of most of the instrumental episodes in Italian 
Opera in the middle of the century. But occasionally a 

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brilliant and rivaciouB movemeDt flashed out from Ae average 
mediocrity, as if from another sphere. The folloring ritornello 
of the martial Bcene, No, 13 of Act ii, is bo animated that it 
might have been written by Lulli himself : — 

i/S! g rri'i rj'^f' ^ 

i ^{jii '^ i ^g?3 ^i^i^i 

^llJJ U'l^ ^ 

llie composer also shows an unusual amount of speculative 
enterprise in instrumental tone-colour. For instance, several 
solos are accompanied entirely by viole da gamba, evidently 
with the intention of producing a speoal effect With similar 
intention, a solo of Proserpine in the first act is accom- 
panied throughout by cometti, trombones^ fagotto, and regale. 
Another scene at tbe mouth of Inferno comprises a ritornello 
for two cometti and three trombones. Apart from such local 
colour there is a strange absence of even an attempt to enhance 
impreswve Hituatioss. For instance, in the fourth act there 
is an earthquake, and the statue of Pallas tumbles down: 
but tbe music baa not, intrinsically, anything particular to 
say about it ; only when Pallas expresses nnpleasant intentions 
to tbe aasemUed people the chorus sing shnddeiB without 
w(B^, to the extent of a page and a half of tbe score. 

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m^ ^ ' 1 1 

i.jj. jjjj 

The general impression that the work produces, as illustra- 
tive of the tendencies of the time, is that the histrionic and 
dramatic elements, bo powerfully emphasized in Monteverde's 
works, hare entirely dropped out of the scheme of the opera 
composer's intentions, giving place to tuneful and el^ant sob 
music. The utmost direct expression attempted is pathetic 
and tender melody on one hand, and on the other the kind 
of hlaster and vehemence which is often characteristic of a 
brilliant and Tigoroos solo for a male voice, especially a bass. 
The tendency is all in the direction of the singer's opera — 
though Cesti still shows rather to advantage in the use of 
various forms of aria, similar to the forms used by Cavalli. 
Indeed, in the stmctural aspects of bis aoioa, Cesti presents 
a good deal of interesting varie^. The strophic forms, and the 
forms in which there are two contrasted portions, but without 
the 'da capo,' are here in plenty. There are also many 
interesting forms approximating to the aria form but without 
the bald ' da capo.' Thus a very fine song for Foco in Act iv. 
scene 9, which begins with the following animated phrase: — 
■z. 14Be. 

Hi, B» IH ■ n, ai, 

proceeds by a natural series of progressions to a central con- 
trasting portion and then, to complete the form, resumes the 

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phrase given above and repeats it agidn and again^ varying 
the pomtion in the scale and otherwise manipulating it so as 
to drive it home. The device suits the words admirably, and 
does the conqxMer great credit. It is also important, as an 
example of the last stage before the complete conventionaliza- 
tion of the aria. 

The general march and movement of things is displayed 
in equally notable ways in Lq^renzi's work. This interesting 
composer was only five years younger than Cesti, but his best 
work is of much higher and more masterly quality. He seems 
to have been a man of large and bold artistic calibre, and is one 
of the first composers of the century who shows a consistent 
instinct for instrumental style. Cesti often relapsed into 
a heavy mechanical method of writing the accompaniments and 
instrumental movements, laboriously supplying the harmony 
without any attempt at flgorative or artistic detail. L^renzi's 
treatment of such things, on the other hand, is at dmes 
quite remarkably vivacious. He seems to have had a special 
taste for instrumental music, and la credited with having 
reorganized the orchestra of St. Mark's on a very compre- 
hensive scale. In his opera of ToHUi, produced at the theatre 
San Giovanni e Paolo at Venice, in 1677, there is a spirited 
example of his powers in an aria founded on an ingenious 
ground bass ; the v<uce being accompanied all the way through 
by perristent reiteration of a characteristically instrumental 
passage of seven bars in length for the basses ; which is given 
twice in C, tmce in G, 



D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


J^ jn \ p 

• IB as' p«.U U pU' pH.f 

^J l ^j^ l - I -J'' 

twice in E minor, beginning as follows :• 

and then twice in ttie principal key C agiun. This completes 
the vocal portion, which is followed by a ritornello for all the 
atrings, in which the subject is taken up and worked through 
all the instruments in detail, and finally is giren in full to the 
basses agun with imitation in the other parts : — 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



The vivacity of this treatment certainly throws the average 
langoor of Ceeti^B melodies into the shade, and marks a mnch 
more energetic and efficient artist. L^;renzi was possibly not 
so ready a melodist, but his vocal writing has qualities of 
manliness and scope, and all the tokens of a thoroughly secular 
style, very similar to the manner of Alessandro Scarlatti and 
the masters of the early years of the next century. An 
example is found in another song from the same opera, which 
is interesting as affording an early example of the practice, 
BO constantly met with in Scarlatti's and even in BacVs 
arias, of repeating the first short phrase, as though with the 
object of establisliing the essential features of the subject 
at once in the mind of the bearer. It serves at the same 
time to illustrate effectively the vigour of L^ren^'s style 
and the vivadty of his accompanimeuta. 

The impulse to emphacdze tonic and dominant was evidently 
Strang in L^reim, and he lud out hia movements so as to 

K 2 

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make tonal form aa clear as poasible. In choral works he 
ia 'betrayed by this impulse into being too easily content with 
mere passages of chords, and shows even more than Caiiaumi, 
in the passage quoted above from the five-part mass (p. 164), 
the tendency to cheapen his vocal writing in a manner which 
was degrading the standard of Italian sacred choral moric, 
la his eight-part psalms, /n emtu Israel and J>e projvndia, 
he misses all the opportunitieB of rich effect attainable by 
a complicated network of many voices moving freely and 
melodiously, independent yet perfectly united, by adopting the 
futile device of constantly repeating the same chords ; seeming 
to shirk the concentration of faculty which is required if 
the higher fulistic effect of free voice-parts is to be obtained. 
His best faculties seem to have been called into activity in 
instromental music, and in writing for solo voices. But even 
the defects of bis choral music are noteworthy. For tbey 
illustrate the manner in which the instrumental branch of 
art} which had begun by imitating choral forms, reacted 
upon and induced a complete transformation of choral and 
yoctl muuc as soon as it became emancipated, and made 
universal in chureh music, aa well as in opera, the secular 
elements of rhythm and ornament. 

Among the works which illustrate L^rena's position in 
the development of art of his time are many examples of the 
'cantata a voce soU,' which form ha» been referred to in 
connexion with Rossi and Carissimi, and was, as the century 
pn^ressed, becoming more and more characteristic of the 
age. L^renzi pablisbed many such works (e.g. in a collec- 
tion of Cantate e canzonette a voce tola in 1676) in which 
the order of disposition of the component recitatives and 
arias is quite irregular — sometimes beginning with recitative, 
sometimes with mekidious passages, and sometimes with 
so-called arias. The muuc of each cantata runs through 
without a break, and is as irregular in ita ending as in its 
beginning — sometimes concluding with an aria and aome> 

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times with passages of declamation, in accordance with the 
apparent requirements of the poems. Moreover the arias 
themselves are very variable in construction. Some are of 
the strophic kind noticed before in connexion with Cavnlli*8 
operas (p. 137), some in the familiar A.B^. form of the 
conventional aria, some in a kind of rondo form, some in 
the form with repeated halves, rather like the early dance- 
tones and some folk-songs. They almost iovariably have 
clear tonal qualities, and are free in rhythm and wdl knit 
1^ the use of characteristic figures. There is none of the 
halting and hesitation about them that came from the uncer- 
tainty of turn in the early days of the new movement, but 
they move with ease and confidence, lightened by plentiful 
semiquavers and ornamental fiourishes, and with bold intervals 
and good declamatory accents. The type of phraseology which 
is so familiar in Handel's works is here clearly prefigured; 
and the impresnon is ffven that if Alessandro Scitrlatti did not 
actually take Legrenn for a model, his style and technique 
were the natural outcome of the standard of art which he at 
that time represented at its best 

The name of Alessandro Stradella is better known than 
that of most of the composers before the last quarter of 
the century, on account of his being t)ie subject of a very 
romantic story, which may or may not be true ; and through 
a composition of his having been freely laid imder con- 
tribution by Handel for his Israel in Egypt, He certainly 
was a man of ideas, as some of those which Handel 
borrowed make plain, and there is an individuality about his 
work which ^ves it some importance m the story of art's 
development. The little serenata to which Handel was indebted 
is in parts extremely crude. The germ of the 'hulstone 
chorus' appears as a sinfonia in the instrumental form then 
popular, for a concertino of three solo instruments combined 
with a concerto grosso in four parts ; and it must be con- 
fessed that in this form it is not a very effective spedmen of 





ingtrum^ital music. The instrumental work tbrougbout is 
rather cIimiBy and plain. The vocal mumc is noteworthy, 
and illuBtrates the progress oemposers were making in 
structural prindples. The aria 'To pur aegaiib,' with tlie 
charming refrain which Handel adopted for ^ He led them 
forth like sheep/ is in the shorter aria form, like that in 
Cesti's 'Pomo d'Oro,' which is described on p. 174, with 
merely the repetition of the first phrase at the end. But 
more conspicuous than this are two complete arias, of the 
type made too fanuliar by Scarlatti, Handel, and - Hasse, 
which are developed on a large scale with instrumental accom- 
paniments, strongly contrasted middle part, and a complete 
and undisguised 'da capo.' As this is rather rare in works 
written before Scariatti's appearance on the scene, the fact 
is decidedly noteworthy. The second of these two arias 
has also the device, so familiar a little later in history, of 
the reiteration of the first clause of the solo, as in the 
illustfation given from Legrenzi's ToHla, on p. 179. 

A work of Strsddla's which is more noteworthy on the 
grounds <^ its intrinsic qaalitiea, is the Oratorio S. Giovmmi 
BattUta. The genuine musicianship and breadth of treatment 
in this work are indeed remarkable for the time when it 
appeared, which is stated to have been in 1676. There are 
not only very vigorous and effective solos, devek>ped at con- 
siderable length, but at least one admirable chorus, 'Dove, 
dove, Battista, dove,' written in a vigorously free contrapuntal 
style, with masterly treatment of subjects, and with the 
general scheme admirably planned, so aa to lead up to a 
very effective Hi mine- A very interesting feature which links 
StradelU with Legrenzi is the frequent use of ground basse*. 
Stradella's methods are very similar to those in Legrenzi's 
Totila, described on p. 177. In one very long song for 
Herodias, 'Volin pure, tontano dal sen,' a very admirable 
procedure is adopted. It b^^a, as thoo^ intending to be 
a ground bass, with the EoUowing vigorous pass^ : — 

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but the movement is not carried oat with the strictness of 
a gTOimd bass, bat gains a rery h^py elasticity by intercalating 
short passages in the same style, which keep the motion 
continually going, and induce modulations and constant changes 
of the powtion of the bass ; so that the whole movement ia 
closely knit tt^^her by the Tigorous httle figure of the first 
two bars (which ia also the first phrase of the voice^part) without 
the stiffness of a true ground bass. The device is, however, 
evidentiy a derivative of the ground baas, and is, indeed, a 
very happy development, and, in this case, well carried out. 
The ingenuity with which the musical formula is slightly 
modified, to enable the voice-part; to enunciate the same figure, 
is worth noting, as it lUustratea in a small detail the quality 
of Stradella's dexterity. He was evidentiy gifted with facility 
as wdl as ideas, and his freedom and frankness of gait betoken 
a good grounding in technical work. This more particularly 
applies to the departments of art in which the transformed 
prindples of the old counterpoint are applicable, as in the 
choral movements and the solo movements with free accom- 
puiiment. In these departments he shows the tendency 
towards that excessive fainlity which characterized the style 
of the choral composers of the eighteenth century, but as 

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yet still nuuntaina some traces of indinduality. In the inatru- 
mental department be was not so sure of his ground; there 
are good animated passages in some of the accompaniments 
to boUm, such as the brilliant and extensively devdoped basa 
song, *Provt pur le mie vendette/ in Giovaani Battistai 
and vivacious figure of accompaniment, vhich show a true 
instinct (tor the moment) for instrumental style, such as the 
vivacious figure which persists almost throughout the whole 
of the brilliant little song ior Herod's daughteTj ' Su, su, su/ 
in the latter part of the same worii. 

m I w ff: I m I ^n , pTJ i jon \ 

But the general standard of his instrumental work is not 
of so high and mature an order as the choral woric and the 
treatment of solo movements. 

Rossi, Carisaimi, Cesti, Legrenzi and Stradella taken togetber, 
show clearly the artistic tendencies of their time in Italy in 
music connected with the voice, ArtJstic tendencies which 
ultimately gravitated into complacent conventionalism, batho^ 
platitude, and prosiness, and all such qualities as betoken 
music-makers as distinct from imaginative and sensitive 
composers of genius. Bat the branch of art which they 
furthered led, at its best, to Alessandro Scarlatti, Handel, 
and Mozart; and through Mozart, with the infusion of sundry 
infiuences from other sources, to Beethoven, The tendency is 
obviously towards music which appeals on its own account 
rather than on account of what it is associated with; and 
which is in that sense absolute. And it is, in this sense, the 
antithesis of tiie histrionic branch of art, which is interesting 
mainly because it expresses In detul some preconceived idea 

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external to rouBic. To go a step further, it may^ be said that 
such an attitude leada to the kind of music which rightly 
deals with human moods in wide, well-developed expanses, 
as distinguished from such as attempts to deal with 
petty details which are often insignificant, and, in the 
hectic conation of excitable temperaments, inconsequent and 

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Though the best aod moat fleriouB-minded composera in 
England continued to favour the old polyphonic choral methods 
tor fully a quarter of a century after the ' New Music ' had 
become a recognized reality in Italy, the premonitions of 
change towards the secular style were plentiful in this country 
almost as early as they were elsewhere. The tendency 
towards unsophisticated tunefulness, simplicity of harmoniza- 
tion, and definitoiess of rhythm, is apparent in much of the 
music produced in the last few years of the rixteenth century. 
Even the great representative Elizabethans dropped into a 
tnneful and rhythmical manner occasionally in such serious 
works at madrigals; and music for solo voices with umple 
accompaniment is to be met with under names usually 
associated frith elaborate compositions of the old order. 

Such symptoms seem most noticeable when they are met 
with in Church Music, {(»: in that branch of art the old 
methods seem most deeply rooted, and most appropriate. Yet 
even responuble masters of the strictest school were impelled 
by general tendencies to experiment and to expand the scheme 
of their art by innovations. 'Yerse' anthems are usually 
aSBodated with the days of the Restoration ; but in reality 
solo music, and even the use of the term 'Versus,' is found 
in sacred music of more than half a century eariier, as, for 
instance, in Easte's sets of Anthems of l6l0 and l6iS. There 
are anthems with solos in them by the great William Byrd, 
with alternations of solo passages and dnets with chorus. His 
anthem 'Hear my prayer,' in Barnard's Collection, has a 

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' vene ' For treble altemsting freely with chonu. ' Thou God 
tb&t guidest' hu solos for two trebles, the phrases of which 
are echoed by the chortts, A beautiful example from the 
anthem ' Christ rising,' for Easter Day, will serre to illustrate 
the style and form of procedure^. 

* rTikan from m KB. In tlta hand of &x Fndtriok Omdej, In whicli tlw organ 
put ii Mid to ba ginn fnm an oM organ book of Adrian Batten, coUatod with an 
ovgan part bf fiitbop pwa m wd at QlovoMter CWJMdial, miaad hjSUr^, Oaadef 

Digitized by Google 


P A ■> ''\^ -1 ■ 1 ■ . 1 .1 

■' ... ..» ^ 

ifl J 1 1 - 1 - III 

How dl-iUi 

fll " • '" 1 J ^1 -'1. 

.dinftomtl- d**! Nowdl-WliBot. 

-« 1 , , 1-rJ 1— ^ -^ 

1 1 J J. 

1^/ ji'ijii ''j^'Ki^'.' u 

J t 1 J 

^_^_^ ^ r'l 1 r r'"' 



J 1 


dl . . . atli 



J J j 

di ■ Mb 





■ y ■■=1= 


y.— :r *r^ ^ 





■1 »^ " 




' T' r 1 


Swh fnniLhaoeJortli, SwUi fmo htDHJorUi hkth 

V-U U J ^ ^ J U ^ 

Dijii,i.aL, Google 


pow«r ap - OB b 

Tot In tint ha dted 




if .>U.^M, ,. l .^ l^ i|l 

Besides these examples by Byrd, there are aotbems with sokM 
in them in Barnard's Collection bjr Muody, Thomas Moriey, 
Batten, John Bull, and John Ward. Some of these, such as 
Mundy's 'Ah, helpless wretch,' are in a umple hymn-like 
style. In some there are passages of a lively rhythmic 
character, in the case of a' duet (or two basses in John Ward's 
anthem 'Let God arise,' &tea prefiguring the lilt of the 
Restoration composers. By good fortune, a number of verse 
andienu by Orlando Gibbons belonging to this period are 
more available than many of those in Barnard's Collection, 
as they, tt^^ether with several full anthems, have been collected 
from various sources, and printed by Sir Frederick Gore 
Ousdey in recent times. These were all written before 1625, 
and of one very fine example, ' Behold, Thou hast made my 
days as it were a span long,' it is possible to fix the exact 
date; as a note on the original MS. intimates that it was 
made 'at the entreaty of Dr. Moxey, Dean of Windsor, the 
same day 8*ennight before his death,' which occurred on 
May 3, 1618. This and the other verse anthems in the 
collection illustrate as perfectly as possible the style and 
methods of treatment and form characteristic of the time, 

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The Teraes and chonueB alternate quite umply ttaroaghont ; 
and that formH the main element of variety. There is hudly 
uiy attempt at modulation, except between relative major and 
relatiTe minor, and other keys closely related; and the prin- 
cipal closes are generally in the same key throughout. The 
style of the accompaniments, with rare exceptions, is the same 
as the s^le of the choral writing, as may be observed in the 
passages quoted above from Byrd's anthem, * Christ rising*; 
and thu in despite of the fact that the accompaniments were 
often written for viols as well as organ. There is no use of 
figure, ornament, or arp^^o; even the passages given to the 
Bok> voice are hardly more definite in time, structure, or pro- 
greswon than the various portions of the polyphonic choral 
passages. Within restricted limits there is plenty of delicate 
and tender expression, but nothing which takes the music out 
of the catq^ry of subjective devotional music, by immediate 
striking dfects <A harmony, or by incinve intervals or rhythm. 
There can hardly be said to be any differentiation of style. 
So far, the essential is the mere acceptance of the prindple 
of using solos and instrumental passages, as well as choral 
passages, in church music. It was not till some years after 
the ideas of the 'New Muuc' had permeated England as 
well as the rest of Europe, that church music was affected to 
the extent of dropping contrapuntal texture in accompaniments, 
and treating solo music in a distinctive style. The final 
acceptance of these methods can hardly he sud to have been 
made till after the old habits had been rudely interrupted by 
the Puritan suppresnon. One of the effects of temporarily 
reducing composers of church music to silence was to en- 
courage the cultivation of the new ideas in secular branches 
of art; and in this direction great progress was made in a 
few yean. So, by the time church music could be resumed, 
the state of affairs was altogether changed: men were ac- 
customed to new resources, and the church style of the old 
order could no more be renewed than the madrigals. And 

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ads in bow it came about that the great style of the Eliza- 
bethans in these high quarters was neither maintained nor 
transformed by further erolution. It languished and ahnost 
died out in the reign of Charles I ; and in the idgn of 
Charles II it was replaced by a prodact which was to a great 
extent the outcome of the new secular spirit. 

But there were other forms of art which were in vogae 
before the end of the sixteenth century, which were either 
^■tinctively representatiTe of the new ideas, or else more 
capable of bdng transformed without fatal consequences, and 
some of these had the distinction of being favoured by the 
Elizabethans. Foremost in this noble group of composers In 
showing sympathy with the new developments was Thomas 
Motley, a man of multifarious gifts, among which the most 
fascinating to nu>dem lovers of art is his frank tunefulness. 
lliis quality he displayed without superfluous disguise in works 
which belong to the sixteenth century. His lively vocal 
ballets, which were published in 1597, are among the moat 
perfect things of their kind in existence, and as tuneful as 
they are dexterous in arttstic texture. The canzonets for 
two, three, and more voices hare more in common with the 
polyphonic style; but they too are genially tuneful, and 
often vivadously rhythmic in detail. Before the century had 
quite run its course he showed his sympathy with progresuve 
ideas in another direction by publishing, in tj99, his 'Booke 
of consort lessons for six instrunients to play together; viz. 
the treble lute, the pandora, the citteme, the boss violl, the 
6ute, and the treble violl.' They are not distinctively instru- 
mental in style, but they serve to tning Morley into the ranks 
of the earlier experimenters in this branch of art. In the 
very next year, that famous year 1600, when the new music 
made its public and much vaunted d^but by the appearance 
in Italy of Peri's opera Euridiee, and Cavolieri's oratorio 
Za rappraentaziotu di Amma e di Corpo, Morley published 
his Firat book qf airet or Uttle short nmgi to ting and play 

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to the lute with the base vto/. Thig ia doubly signiGcaut, 
as it brings one of the prominent representatives of the old 
style into positive activity in the new department of solo 
song; and brings also into prominence the employment of 
the lute as an instrument of accompaniment. It has been 
previously noted (p. 1 6} that the lute had an important share 
in bring^g tbe 'Nuove Musiche' into existence. The same 
instrument seems also to have taken a most effectual part in 
the mufflcal revolution in England. John Dowland necessarily 
striices the attention in this connexion at the outset. Though 
he belonged to the group of belated Elizabethans, the line of 
work he adopted in secular vocal composition was almost 
unique; for he used the contrapuntal devices and methods 
— which with them were of pre-eminent artistic importance — 
merely as subtle adornments and accessories to his melodies. 
With him the modem factor of distinct and definite tunefulness 
is the essential, the rest subordinate. Hie works therefore 
present the lineaments of modem partnnngs, with the quali- 
fication that the subordinate details have the ring of a golden 
9ge. John Dowland was a famous lutenist, and many of his 
compositions were meant to be accompanied by the lute ; and 
it is extremely probable that the individual characteristics of 
his compositions, even for voices in parts, are derived from 
his looking at music in general from the point of view of a 
lutenist. His famous Flnt Booke ^f Ayrea of fotare parti 
vfith Tablatvre for the Lute was published in i J97, the same 
year as Moriey^a ballets. He published a second book in 1600, 
and a third in 1603. He also wrote and published in 1605 
some instrumental music under the name of Lachrymae or 
Seven Teares, figured in seven pataionate Pavans, tet forth 
for the Lute, Vioh, or Violint, in five parti. His fame as a 
lutenist was very great, and he was successively in the 
■ervice of Christian IV of Denmark, Ix)rd Walden, and 
James I. Almost all his musical achievements seem to have 
been in some way associated mth the lute, though in 

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modem times his dainty 'Ayies' are always sang unaccom- 

Nothing is more Bignificant of the change coming over mnnc 
in this country at the beginning o{ the Beventeenth century 
than the number of coUectiona of 'Ayres' for solo Toicea, and 
for groups of voices accompanied by the lute, which made their 
appearance. These collectionB are also remarkable in many cases 
for the dainty and delicate poems they contain^ which in one 
instance at least were the productions of the composer himself. 
Among the first and foremost in this field was Robert Jones, 
who brought out in 1600 his ^»t Booke of Ayre* qf fata' 
parts with Tablature for the Lutt, In the next year Philip 
Rossiter, who is described on the title-page as a lutenist, 
brought out hia Book ^f Ayrea tet foorth to be tong to the 
Late, &c. Soon after this, Robert Jones published a second 
set, and a third in 1605, In 1606 John Coperario published 
a set of seven mourning songs under the title of Funeral 
tearea for the Earl ^f Devonshire. In itio; a collection was 
published under the title of Sundrie kinda of Aires for four 
voices to the Lute, by Thomas Ford, of which the well-beloved 
* Since first I saw your face * appears as No. 8, with lute ac- 
companiment in tablature. There is a second part of this 
cdlection cot^sting of pavans, galliards, almaines, 'toies,' 
jiggs, 'thnmpes,' and so on, for instrumeats. In 1609 a 
collection by Alfonso Ferrabosco came out, containing a large 
number of 'Ayres,* and a dialogue between a shepherd and 
a nymph. In 1610 the composer Thomas Campion, who 
was also a delightful poet, put forth his first 'Two Books 
of Ayres. The first containing Divine and Morall Songs, the 
second Light Conceits of Lovers. To be sung to the Lute and 
Viols in two, three, and four parts, or by one voice to an instru- 
ment.' This collection was followed by two more books in 
ifiia; and in the following year, 1613, was published 'The 
SoogB of Mouming, bewiuling the untimely death of Prince 
Henry. Words by Thomas Campion, as set forth to be sung 

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with one voice to the Late or Viol, by John Coperaiio.* 
The words are put into the mouths of Queen Anne, Prince 
Charles, Lady Elizabeth, Ferdinand Count Palatine, &c. These 
nameroua collections, some of them containing a very large 
number of compositions, represent contiderable actinty on the 
part of composers in the new direction. The style of many of 
the solo-songs is very much like that of the part-songs, as they 
consist of a very simple unaffected tune, supported by simple 
harmonies. In a tew cases a kind of melodious declamation 
is attempted, something after the manner of the eariy Italian 
settings of poems which have been described above (Chap. ii). 
Jtmes, Bossiter, Ford, and Campion all seem to prefer a lyrical 
and direct tone ; Ferrsbosco seems the most disposed to rather 
tortuous and indefinite dechtmatory passages. The following 
is one of the dunty ditties in Rossiter's collection of 1601 
with the lute tablature reduced to modem notation, without 
any modifications or filling in of the slender but not inartistic 
accompaniment : — 



r r r J 1 f r I -^ ■ ^ 1 -^ ■> ■''^'J 

Toka d* - tb - Ib( OtwM dm Inn With kind » • cinlt - 
M n».ktod.««. nj UiL im, iia i«tm d..Il|U - 

■ m 
1 --I 

-r r-H"' 1 1* r-^ 1 J 1 1 i r ?^ 

-1— g— ^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Hioi wlun hopa ti loat 

fr !.j j j j l i<li ^■'\<ii- i \ ',' p 


it'ij Bj dB.iliii^ Asd qvBnli tha Am ^i&l »t*«t jM Id taJo h*v« bnnk 

^.JJ^" j l J.',J j- I - J * jl^'.^ 

The kind of lute accompaniment provided for the part-songs 
may be estimated moat easily from the following, which is 
the traaslatioB of the accompaniment of 'Since first I saw 
your face' in Ford's set: — 

L'U^ if 'ji. 'Ui 


The methods of these branches of art admitted of trans- 
formation while still retuning copious traces of the old pc^- 
phonic style. They allowed of the continai^ which is so dear 
o 2 

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to the English mind ; and if art had been restricted to such 
branches in this country, English composers could scarcely 
have mored fast enough for the times. But there was a fonn 
of entertainment which jnst supplied the framework required 
to induce parallel experiments to those of the Italian promotos 
of the 'Nuove Mumche/ which at the aame time remained 
characteristically English. The popularity of masques at Court 
and among aristocratic classes, from the early days of Tudor 
rule even till the outbreak of the civil war, almost compelled 
composers who were called upon to supply music for them 
to consider their art from a difFerent point of view from that 
of the old church composers and composers of madrigals; and 
the opportunities they offered for introducing solo music and 
simple dance-tunes and incidental music, were among the 
most important inducements to experiments in the new style, 
and ultimately became potent influences in weaning the cautious 
and conservative musicians of England from th^ exclusive 
attachment to the noble hut limited forms of choral art. The 
great masters who followed the traditions of the Elizabethan 
time did not condescend to such work. It fell rather to the 
lot of cultivated amateurs — composers who lacked truning in 
the severer branches of art — and a few who were impelled by 
adventurous dispositions and vivid sympathy with literature 
and the stage. Their productions certainly compare very ud- 
fevourably with the compoutions of the principal representative 
masters of the time; but they are really of great historical 
interest, as representing the counterpart to the first experiments 
of the Italians in genuine stage music^ and the first definite 
&nd undisguised departure in the direction of secular music 
of any dlmendons in this country. 

The difference of attitude between the Italians and the 
English is very characteristic. The Italians began with the idea 
of merely declaiming the poetry, and pursuing that aim they 
amved at recitative, which at first was almost devoid of musical 
expresuon or definiteness of tune or rhythm. The first phase 

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th^ went through was that of attemptJng to intensify ex- 
pression in accordance with the dramatic or emotional purport 
of the words or the situations. Composers seemed at first to 
look down on tune, as if it lay out of the range of genuine 
art alb^ether; but as soon as MonteT«de*B line of intense 
dramatization proved unworicable as far as the Italian public 
was concerned, composers b^;an to find it easier to tickle the 
ears of their audiences with pretty little melodious fragments. 
Then, as they found the advantage of systematizing the distri- 
bution and recurrence of such melodious passages, formal 
tunefulness became die predominant factor io Italian mu»c. 
80, with them, the typical air was arrived at by a roundabout 
and tentative process; not by taking advantage of the existing 
models of tune in folk-mustc, but by allowing tuneful phrases 
to appear now and then, and by ultimately regulating their 
distribution on the umplest princifdes of orderliness. The 
English composer* of masque mu«c hod a somewhat diSer«it 
problem to solve. The masque was not a dramatic product 
at all, but an elegant and artificial entertainment comprising 
a good deal of fanciful poetic dialogue, with lyrical songs 
and groups of dances. The interest of the subject was not 
emotionally human at all, though there might be moments Of 
human interest. What interest there was for the higher 
faculties was rather intellectual than emotionaL The subtleties 
of art, the conceits of lively fancy were to be preferred to 
the Bonl-stirring story of passion or the deep interest of 
tragedy. So that the stage performance was altogether different 
from ihe subjects of the 'Dnunma per Musica.' It required 
leas' diah^e and recitative, and more of dainty and attractive 
separate movements. The English composers indeed seem to 
have been almost incapable of producing recitative of tiie 
Italian kind. Its lack of oiganization seems to have been 
uncongenial to their orderly temperaments, and even when 
they set out with a suggestively indefinite beginning tbey 
soon drifted into passages of definitely declamatory style, or 

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passages of formal and rhythmic tune. From the very first 
a declamatory style of treatment more aldn to the methods 
of Lull! and the French composers of later times seems to 
httre suited their predispositions and the character of the 
language better. Italian recitative consists of passages of the 
utmost possible indefinitenesSj punctuated to an excessive d^^ree 
by ostentatiously conventional closes. It can only by courtesy be 
called music at all, for it has neither comeliness nor organiza- 
tion ; and yet in relation to the Italian idea of the music of 
comedy it seems to justify itself. The conspicuous difference 
between it and the quasi-recitatire of other nations may possibly 
be explained by the greater musical facility of the Italian 
race. Muuc seems to come to them if possible even more 
easily than rhetoric to an Irishman, and they consequentiy 
take it less seriously than other races ; who, finding more effort 
in expressing themselves in musical terms> like to feel that 
there is some positive outcome when they make the effort. 
English composers hardly attempted genuine recitative in 
masques, but what they effected was much more like the 
settings of poems in Cacdni's 'Nuove Musiche' than the 
dialogue recitative of the Italian Operas. The first composer 
who is said to have attempted it was Laniere, who served 
Charles I in various capacities in connexion with Court fes- 
tivities, and even in the collecting of pictures. His title to this 
doubtful honour seems to be based on the report of the music 
be wrote for a masque of Ben Jonson's in 1617, which is 
described as being in recitative style. There are, however, 
plenty of vague passages in earlier English music which might 
without discourtesy be called recitative. The line of demarcatitm 
is extremely hard to find. The matter will be best understood 
from comparative excerpts. 

The following is from Ferrabosco'B Muuc to Ben Jonson's 
Vo^Kme of 1605, with the accompaniment translated from the 
Jute tablature given in the collection of Ayrea of 160^ : — 

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Com., my 0. . . . ItaTT; . . . Irt a* pnr* 

1^^ 1 1—- 1 1 1 


|wi II T if ■ 1 r 1! r > 1 r ■ 1 

hr-J- J — .iJ-...r -jf-rr-- ju ^ ^^^ 

WUkn uoy UK HMt* of lanL Jlm will iwt be 

iJi 'i Ji^^ 1* ■'^t^ 

' ,^ 

' ' ' ■" f T ' !■ ' - 1 ■ 

The following is from Mason and Eanden'a music to the 
masque given at Brougham Castle in honour of James I 
in 1617:— 

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The following is from Laniere^B music to the 'Luminalia, 
or the Festival of Light,' produced at Court with the asustance 
of the Queen and her ladies ia 1637 : — 

Tha l«g of (no* and binui - 

I - lln - dm^ BT* 

p T |, y ^ 1 ^ < - 

This type of recitative is historically interesting aa leading 
to the style mainly cultivated in the singular outburst of solo 
music in the middle of the century, and to the far more 
important declamatory soloa by Purcell at the end of the 
century. The features which mark most strongly the difference 
between the muuc of the English masques and the Italian 
' Dramma per Musica ' are the lyrical songs. These are indeed 
'complete but simple ditties, similar in atyle to many in the 
song books discussed above. Their character is obviously 
derived from folk-songs. The English composers in this 
respect went through no tortuous process to arrive at concrete 
organization, sach as is met vrith in the Italian aria. For 
the purposes of the masque the typical folk-song supplied 
oiganization enough ; and, as it proved, infinitely greater 
elasticity and richer possibilities of immediate expression than 
tiie formal Italian aria. Such artistic little folk-songs seemed 

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to have formed the moat definitdy attractive points in the mumc 
of the masquea. The same poet-composer Thomas Campion, 
who has before heen alluded to in connexioii with the early 
song books, Tras conspicuous for bis copious connexion vith 
masques, both as poet and composer; and one of his charming 
little songB from the masque which was performed in 1607 
before King James in Whitehall, in honour of the marriage 
of Lord Hayes, will serve excellently as a specimen of the 
masque songs. 

,n i J n. 

W cj ■ ' \ 

UoTv now vlUi iD«nd ■ovhI, Ton ohiim * ■! gmwu ot 
Tn» farUl tlw m - and {connd. That ilull jaai foim* bd. 

±. unim jo; mnn hhiuu)* piu* bstiiia. hbob tew for giad-nni 

Another composer, who was much in request for the 
composition of music for masques during the early period 
of the seventeenth century, waa Robert Johnson, df whom 
again it is worth specially noting that he is described as 
a luteoist. Among other masques and plays, he wrote music 
for Middleton'a play The Witch, for performance in i6io> 

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for BeftumoDt and Fletcher's ValaUimatt in 1617, and for 
Ben Jonson's masque, The Gipuea, in i6zi. His music 
does not suggest any notable points of development, but the 
frequency with which he was invited to exert his powers shows 
how much the secular line of music was in vc^ue. All Stuarts 
seem to have had a great affection for theatricals^ and in 
Charles Ps reign the pc^ularity of masques seems to have 
been at its highest. Haidly a year passed without a new 
masque, and even aS many as five are recorded to have been 
performed in a twelvemonth. As has been before mentioned, 
the Queen and the ladies of the Court assisted, and young 
Prince Charles, aft^warda ambignously famous as Charles II, 
probably began his public career by taking part in the masque 
called 'The Kbg and Queen's Entertainment' in 1636, at the 
age of six years. 

The first composers to come prominently before the public 
in this reign in connexion with masques were the brothers 
Lawes. William, the elder brother, received j£'joo from Lord 
Commissioner Whitelocke for supplying the muac for Shirley's 
Temple of Peace in conjunction with Simon Ives, in 1633. 
His more famous younger brother, Henry, had the good fortune 
to be called npon to supply the music for the most fomous 
of English masqnes, Milton's Comua, which was first per- 
formed at Lodlow Castle in 1634. Henry Ijawes impressed 
his cultivated contemporaries very favourably on account of his 
intelligent appreciation of the finer artistic qualities and factors 
of lyrical poetry, which he endeavoured to bring out when 
contriving bis music for poems. He reached the zenith of bis 
fame later In the century, and his style and methods will be 
conudered in connexion with the collections of songs which 
were brought out in the time of the Commonwealth. But 
examples from the music of Cornia will be of service, to 
show that he had already formulated to himself the methods 
of dealing vrith declamation and verbal accent which are so 
characteristic of him, and indeed to a great extent of all the most 

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promment composen of rocal aolo mnsic of the latter part 
of the century. I^ve BongB by lAwes out of the music to 
Comua atill aurrive. The most muucal is ' Sweet Echo, fairest 
nymph/ which is qnoted by Bumey and Hawkins. It is 
evidently an attempt to combine melodic phrases with decla- 
mation. A more direct and umple song is ^Back shepherd, 
back/ which is characteristically English. 

DkihBp2uid|back,»4uni^7aarpU7 TUt tha ri*Tt wiTi ■h^nt bo - ll-dAj. Hbts ba 



irithDiit(lnohwDod,Olharkrlpiiliiflito bt trod Of lifU^r toa u4 ■nh mmt (dIh Ai 

i-Tj lUdllnt da-TlurnitiianiliuliiBDrT-a-diiO'aT UiaUii7UUida'*rUK mi 

^ ' \- I 'IM I If , S 

The rest of the songs are in rambling melodious recitative, 
such as the following:— > 

Of the ioBtrumental music of the masques it is very difficult 
to authenticate examples : but the following by William Lawes 
appears to have been one of the tunes supplied for a masque 
at the Temple : — 

* A in ori^iMl MS. 

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•CVT-J i 

The masque, aa a form of art, laboured under certain dia- 
adrantagea. It was generally an entertainment prepared for 
a epecial occasion, and not intended to be frequently repeated ; 
80 it missed the opportunity of being subjected to the test 
of frequent criticism. Moreover, the separate items of which 
it was made up, such as the songs, ensembles, dances and 
incidental music, were all so definite and independent that 
there never was any objection to several different composers 
taking part in the proiluction of the same work. The ingredients 
were thus prematurely differentiated, and, as in the later Lullian 
opera, the form as a whole scarcely admitted of progressiTe 
development. The articulation became rigid too soon. What 
progress is to be looked for, therefore, is in the intrinsic quality 
and style of the separate numbers. As composers developed 
the technique of the various forms of the new secular music, 
the improvements naturally appeared in the separate movements 
introduced into the masques; but the form itself stood still, 
and if it were revived in modem times it would probably be 
carried out on the same lines and with the same distribution 
of ingredients as in the seventeenth century. The progress 
of masque music was, therefore, at this time a part of the 
general progress composers were making in dance music, 
abstract instrumental music, and vocal music. But though 
intrinsic development was hardly to be expected, the constant 
demand for secular stage music in Cliarles I's reign had 

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nodoabted influence in establiahing the aecukr style in this 

Apart from masques, the reign of Ch&rlea I was singularly 
nnproductiTe and uneventful aa f ar as music was concerned. 
It formed a kind of pause between two markedly diverse periods 
of art — an interim of comparative inaction which was almost 
inevitable with a deliberate people like the English, while their 
musicians and composers turned themsdves roand, and com- 
pletely changed the point of view from which they regarded 
their art. Up to the beginning of the reign, though, as above 
indicated, there had been many little flutterings in the direction 
of the new music, the infiuences of the old style were paramount. 
But just at the time that Charles came to the throne a number 
of the most distinguished representatives of the old order of 
art passed away — Byrd died in 1633, Orlando Gibbons in 
1625, Dowland in 1626, Bull in 1638, Deering in 1630. The 
appearance of works of the old style became rarer as the new 
influences became stronger. The last publication of a set of 
madrigals is said to have been that of Porter's second set 
in 1639. Barnard's important collection of church music came 
out in 1641; and the only other publications of any note 
during the reign were Hilton's 'Fa las' 1637, Pearson's Motets 
T650, Easte's Fancies for Viols 1658, Child's Choice Psalms 
1639, and another collection of Choice Psalms by William and 
Henry Lawes in 1648, just at the end of the civil war. 

Amongst these Child's Choice Psalms appear to be the most 
rignificant and suggestive, ae they present a kind of inter- 
mediate standard between the ' verses ' above mentioned in the 
rerse anthems by Byrd, Gibbons, Ward, and Morley and other 
Elizabethans, and Uie more familiar verse anthems of the 
Restoration. The full titie of the work is Choice Music to the 
Ptalmet ofDamdfor three voices, with a continuall Base either 
for Organ or Theorbo, which sufficientiy indicates its relation 
to the 'new music' The parts are evidently written for solo 
voices, and though the movements contun passages of imitation. 

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tbey are very conspicuously unlike the style of the great poly- 
phonists, or of any of the ancient sacred music. The following 
is the first part of Psalm x: — 


"■"■ 0»t.l. 


mr.Mj>dHrtth«» fu oo; o 


Wh7it«»a-^tliM» ttr off, O L«dt 

ir~' 1 J 1 1 1 

' 1.. 1 ' ' ■ ■ ■' 

|.'r J Jj| J J ju, j|J. J.I 1 j_^ 


■nd Ud-irtUi7 (M In U»iuid-Ail tiiiu of tmi . U.I 

' ' 

[ '' M • ■ • -l' •' »» 

In this the flavour of the so-called * RestoralioD churdi 
music' ia already apparent. Child gives even more marked 
proofs of the affinity of his musical ideas to the 'Restoration 
style* by some very quaint and childish crudities of realism. 
For instance, *0 Thou most high' is expressed in the foUowing 
manner : — 

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The bouI'b 'flying as a bird' is presented as EoUowb: — 

All the compoutions of the reign represent a transitional 
state of things, as if the composers were neither quite ofl with 
the old love nor on with the new. Some strong inflr^ce was 
needed to make the change of attitude complete, and it seems 
to Iiave been the attitude of the Puritans towards church muuc 
which completed the secularization of the art io England. 

The Puritan averaon to elaborate music in church had, long 
before the end, been growing more and more pronounced. As 
eariy as 1641 a committee was appointed by the House of Lords 
which reported adversely upon church music; and directly the 
war broke out the Puritan sol^ery all orer the country destroyed 
organs and collections of church music ; snd in due time chcurs 
were disbanded, and the occupation of composers of church 
muuc was gone. But, inasmuch as the taste and cultiTation 
of mnac did not cease through the land tiecause music was not 
heard in churches, the attention of lovers of music and the 
energies of composers were diverted into exclusirely secular 

It seoos somewhat of « paradox, but it is an incontromtible 

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fact, that the Puritan policy acted as the greatest incentiTe to the 
cumvation of familiar and domestic formB of art of a ^nuindy 
secular kind. To judge by the amount of music published during 
the Commonwealth the country would seem to have been bubbling 
with it. The activity of composers in the instrumental branches 
of art is described elsewhere in connexion with the general 
progress of music in Europe, because in that respect the line 
taken by English composers was less exclusively national. 
Though it had its idiosyncracies, it was clearly in conformity 
with what was going on elsewhere, and the forms cultivated 
were mainly those which were employed by composers of other 
nations. But the survey of the state of music generally at the 
time of the Commonwealth would not be complete without 
reference to the activity of English composers in the pro- 
ducUon of Suites for Strings, such as Locke's Little Contort, 
;vhich were well up to the level of works of the same kind 
by .composers of otJier countries, Sympson's Dwitiont for 
the S^l, and the publication of collections of dance-tunes, 
such as ^e Cotirt Ayrea of 1655, and The Daneitiff Matter 
of 1650 and 1657. But what is mainly of concern here is the 
music which was almost exclusively English, and had little 
connexion with what was going on elsewhere ; which drew its 
characteristics from natural truts, and, for all its excellencies, 
never penetrated into foreign countries. Of these kinds of art 
the solo-songs were most conspicuous. Amateurs evidendy 
took to them as the domestic alternative to the singing of 
madrigals in earlier times. It was the means by which 
domestic circles could keep in touch with the age, and find 
an outiet for their personal muucal energies at home. The 
demand for them must have been very great, or it could not 
have been worth while for a publisher to bring them out in 
such profusion. Bumey surmised that the popularity of the 
Inatrumental Fanciet (see Chap, viii] drove out the madrigals. 
It is much more likely that the taste for them died out as 
^e taste for secular munc of the new order pervaded muncal 

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circles, aod that the Bolo-songs came to sapply their place. 
The nature and style of these songs indicate that they were 
not meant, as Italian solo cantatas were, for highly-developed 
vocalists. The composers do not play into thrar hands at aU. 
For the most part the instinct for rocal effect seems almost 
deficient. ^ The songs appear to be written for amateurs who 
have a cultivated appredation of poetry, and no idea whatever 
of the beauty of well-produced vocal tone. The attributes 
of mere external beauty of melody and prc^ression seem to be 
regarded as of no account. The sole object of composers seems 
to have been to supply a kind of music which would enable 
people with no voices worth considering to rente poems in a 
melodious semi-recitative, spaced out into periods in conformity 
with the length of the lines or the literary phrases. As the 
accompaniment is reduced to the umpleat possible limits, 
merely consisting of the baas notes, from which the accom- 
panist has to supply chords in confonnity with very sparsdy 
and irregularly supplied figures, it is obvious that the artistic 
elements are as slender as possible. But nevertheless the 
songs have a certun innocent attractiveness, distinct character, 
and a sincerity of intention which gives some of them a 
higher justification than many more pretentious quasi-artistic 
productions of later times. They are also interesting as being 
the most elementary embodiment of the taste of the age, 
and the first definite presentation of artistic methods which 
served for some extraordinarily fine solo music in the latter 
part of the century. The composer who stood highest in the 
estimation of intelligent amateurs of the day was Hairy Lawes, 
who has been already mentioned in connexbn with Milton's 
Comtu and other publications of Charles I's time. He 
does not appear to have been very well versed in the time- 
honoured methods of counterpoint, though he did attempt to 
apply his ideas of musical expresuon to church music. He 
was almost entirely a child of the new muucal ideas, and 
illustrates the tendency towards secularization in every respect. 

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To the modem mind hie much prused songs do not preseat 
any marked superiority to the productions of other song 
composers of tb« time, such as his brother William (who 
noT and then achiered quite a neat and attractive lyric), 
and Dr. Coleman, and Wilson. They all had much the 
same aims, and deal with the poems in much the same way, 
of which die folloHing by Henry Lawes may serve as an 
example: — 

■k. IBT. 

« , J jTj .1. 1 . t'j, J>. .M.i E^ 

Fh* -wM . . liix Hist, 

• and wlad BmU 

rf? ? 1 F > T r 

r r r* f [>■ V r r "r 1 

-•■:.■■■ -, " i»~-- i^F 

lJut«lmudeui-t:>u thslMkjM 

'Lf — ' "^ J— -^ 

'T^r ' \' ^ r CXI 

Together with the Bongs, the monologues and dialogues 
deserve at least mention, as they represent the same intention 
as the more musical portions of the jlialogue of the earliest 
Italian Operas. The cardinal idea of the form is the semi- 
histrionic presentation of some imagined ntuation under 
domestic conditions, in which, without scenic accessories of 
'any kind, characters whose histories and circumstances are well 
known to the audience, or personified abstractions, carry on 
poetic discourse in musical terms. In Henry Lawes' collection 
of 1^53 there is a monologue which is sufficiently defined by 
the heading, 'Ariadne, sitting upon a rock in the island of 
Naxos, thus compluns'i — 

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Hm - MM O RitMIU, Imrk, but ftt In nin ; A - iM ! dr 

I I J IJ -J — I I , = 

In Playford's collectjou of 1 659 there are dialogues between 
Charon and Pliiloniet, and between Venus and Adonis, by 
WiUiam Lawea ; a dialogue between a nymph and a Bbepherd, 
by Nicholas Laniere ; and one between Sylvia and Thynis, by 
Dr. Coleman. William Z^awea' dialogue between Charon and 
Philomel may be taken aa an example. It ia very dender, 
but it has the merit of au^eating the pleading of Fhik>mel 
and the graSneBB of Charon rather happily, aa in the following 
paaaage: — 

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led 1117 lU* 

U. J 1 f 

1 Kd-low hoc In dHth. 


^ J ■' 

1 ' J 


J 1 . 


This form of art has its counterpart in the quasi-recitative 
and musical dialogue in the church music of the Restoration 
period, and in the sacred * Dialofp ' of contemporary German 
composers, such as Hammerschmidt and Ahle, irhich will be 
discussed later. Puree)] also produced some very fine music 
in this form both in plays and in isolated works, snch as 
'Bess of Bedlam,' and 'Saul and the Witch of Endor.' 

The methods of both vocal and instrumental secular munc 
are more copiously shown in music for the public stage. A 
certain section of the Puritans during the Commonwealth 
professed to regard stage plays with as much distrust as church 

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music, and a ban waa put upon them; with the paradoxical 
result that people tried to devise performances on the sta^ 
which technically toight not be called 'plays/ So, just as 
Puritan repression of church music drove composers to cultivate 
livelier forms of secular art, the repression of plays drove 
people to attempt operas and other theatrical forms of musical 
entertainment. The first attempt seems to have been a kind 
of test experiment, which was made in May, 1656, at Rutland 
House, and was called by the vague title of *the ilrst 
day's entertunment.' This was Followed six months later by 
Davenanf 8 ' Siege of Rhodes,' for which, if accounts may be 
trusted^ a very lai^ quantity of music was provided by five 
different composers: Henry Lawes, Cook, Lock, Coleman, 
and Hudson. Several more so-called operas followed, such as 
'The cruelty of the Spaniards m Peru,' and 'The history of 
Sir Francis Brake'; but the music of all of these seems to 
have disappeared, A very interesting example of a more 
characteristically English form of art bos, however, survived in 
Shirley's masque of 'Cupid and Death,' for which music was 
supplied by Matthew Lock and Christopher Gibbons, the son 
of the great Orlando. The dates given are confused. Shirley's 
poem seems to have come into existence some years before 
the muuc. Of the date of the latter there can be little doubt, 
as the MS., which is partly in Lock's own handwriting, has 
the following title on the flyleaf: — 'The instrumental and 
vocall music in the representation at the military ground in 
Leicester fields, 1659.' And at the end of the volume is written 
'finis, 1659.' It belongs, therefore, to the latest period of 
the Commonwealth, and represents its latest standard of s^le 
and art Moreover, it signalizes the end of what might be 
called the true masque period ; for after the Restoration this 
form of art was almost completely crowded out by the sudden 
outburst of eagerness for stage plays, in which a great deal of 
music was included, on lines analogous to those which bad 
been adopted in masques. Aa this is therefore the moat 

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iDgenuously characteriBtic masque which sumvefl, some descrip- 
tion of the muBical part of the work is desirable. The ' fint 
entry ' begins with three inBtrumental moVemeuts ; the first 
of which is in common time> befpnniog as followB: — 

fTLff Lf r-tf ^-^ 





= ^ — I 








1/ J ^ ^ ' -gr " 

The second is in ^ time, and the third in ^ time, with 
a sort of coda of four bars in § time. The last of these 
three has written over it * For the Cortayne, ure ' ; from which 
it may be presumed that the three movements formed a kind 
of overture; and that though the familiar structure of the 
artistic dance-tune is adopted, they were not intended as the 
accompaniment to dances. After the Curtayne tune 'enter 
Hoste and Chamberlayne,' after whose first discourse there are 
dances for Cupid, Folly, and Madness, in four divisions, each 
repeated. Then comes the direction : ' The dance being ended, 
this song immediately,' the song being ' Though little be the 
god of lore*; which has a chorus to it taking up the last 
sentence mth s%ht variation ; this in its turn is followed by 
a further solo and chorus, and so ends the ' first entry,' The 

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'second entry* ag^n begine with several instrumental movts 
ments which are evidently intended to serve as the accom- 
paniment to dances, and include a Saraband and a 'Death's 
Dance.* The dances ended, * enter Cbamberlayne and Despur,* 
after whose discourse and 'exits* {oUow sundry 'Ayres* for 
dances, and a song to the famous words 'Victorious men of 
earth*; — this group of mnuc being by Christopher Gibbons. 
The * third entry * b^ing with several dances by Lock, No. a 
of which is a galliard. Then the Cbamberlayne and Hoste 
discourse again, and after their 'exits* follows another song 
for treble, ' Stay Cupid, whither art thou flying ? * with chorus 

The fourth entry be^ns with more dance music. The 
directions given are : ' Enter a faune courting his mistress, 
who, having danced awhile, Nature enters and recites.* The 
recital is a semi-declamatory kind of recitative, in the course 
of which are entries of Cupid and Death, and two old men 
and women. The old men and women dance ; then there is 
another song with florid passages and chorus, and a group of 
dances called 'The Hector dance,' some of the movements 
being by Lock, and some by Gibbons; and this entry ends 
again vrith song and short chorus. 

The fifth entry, which puts the culmination on this curioos 
performance, begins as usual with some dance-tunes. Then 
enters the Cbamberlayne leading two apes, and calls *Oyez* 
three times. A Satyr enters and dances with the apes to 
the following music, wherein the pauses are highly suggestive 
of qufdnt posturing (Ex. 161 a, and 1 61 b) : — 

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lifi' ^^r^' I'lrr 

lJ I in [iij U.-UJ 

■ r' f 1 — 1 1 ■ t i ^:=^^ 

t"' J ' J1..I Ir- 



1 . . . ■ 


1,11, f r f f f 1 n J I 

_» — . . ^ . 

a^ V -' ir J 1^ j'ilJ t ! i \i J ' 

Then enters Mercury and gives vent to a long and elaborate 
solo, and holds discourse with other characters. The scene 
changes while the 'Slayne Loves' approach to soft music. 
Nature has a song followed by a trio. The ^Slayne I^oves* 
descend from their thrones and dance 'the Grand Dance'; 
Mercury has another elaborate solo, and the whole per^ 
fbrmance ends with a 'Grand Chorus' of eight bars, during 
which the 'Slayne Loves' reascend their thrones, and the 
curtain falls. 

Mereury's first solo in the fifth entry is an excellent illus- 
tration of the peculiar English form of quasi-recitative. It 
begins as foltows: — 

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The be^oing of Mercury's last solo will serre to illustrate 
Lock's idea of broad and flowing melody : — 

[-2^ — 

^1 " rrrfiv r^ 

/ 1 fr. . 1 


70U no-dBliw . . h<ut.l» - - 

. . HUM, *t 

^ -' 1.^ ^ 

while the end of the same solo is a highly characteristic 
example of the childish experiments in omamenta with a 
realistic intention which are so often met with in the 
English music of this time: — 

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At the time this work was produced, the distradiong of the 
State and the quarrels of iacompatible parties were leading 
to a change in the general affidrs of the nation which had 
considerable influence on the course of musical art — renewing 
church music, encouraging stage plays, and certainly affording 
copious encouragement to composers. But in this prolific and 
active period the influence of France became very conspicuous 
for a time, owing to the king's tastes; and therefore the 
extraordinary development of theatrical music which character- 
ized the reign of Louis XIV requires conuderation before 
proceeding further with the progreas of music in England. 

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Thb influence of Monteverde is generally held to have 
passed into French Opera through his pupil Csvalli, who 
vent to Paris in 1660 and 1662 in compliance with an 
invitation to produce operas to grace important Court functiouB. 
But French Opera was by no means the result of mere 
imitation of the Italian form. Its distinguishing truts were 
always very marked^ and highly characteristic of the nation; 
and the features and qualities which it presents when it first 
cornea decisively into view are the result of the funon of several 
forms of French art and traits of French taste with important 
qualities and methods developed by the first two generatdona 
of Italian dramatic composers. The spirit of the dramatic 
material was to a certain extent Italian, and the attitude 
towards the emotional parts was Monteverdlan ; but the 
spectacular element and the dances were essentially French, 
and so also were some characteristics of the vocal music. The 
preponderant characteristics iu the scheme of the typical French 
Court Opera were derived from the Mascaradea, the actual 
record of which goes back as far as 1393, when a ballet was 
given in the hotel of the Queen Blanche is honour of the 
marriage of a knight of the house of Vermandois with a gentle- 
woman of the Queen's household ; which ended grimly in the 
death by burning of several noble performers, as is related in 

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the ChronicleB of FroisBart. Towards the end of the sixteenth 
century the records of such entertainmente became nuiDerous, 
and of one of them samples of music have survived, some 
of which are ^ven in Bumey's history. This was 'Le Balet 
comique de la Royne/ ^ven by command of Henry III, to 
grace the napHals of the Due de Joyeux in 1582. The music 
comprises some short rhythmic choruses, passages for solo 
voice, and a very sprightly and melodious piece of instrumental 

^^r nr r f- 





^ I r f f^ I r f ^ f I ^ M-' 

As specimens of theatrical music antecedent to the experi- 
ments of the Italian monodists, these small relics are of great 
interest, and indicate a line of development of art independent 
of the Italian movement. At the end of the sixteenth and the 
beginning of the seventeenth centuries France was exhausted 
by civil wars of the most merciless and murderous description, 
and was not in a condition to give opportunities for the develop- 
ment of any latent talent in her composers. But when there 
came a lull in the warfare, Louis XIII showed the usual taste 
of French kings for Mascarades, Of one great performance of 

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the kind at Court, called * La D^vrance de Renault,* which 
took place in 1617, it is recorded that sixty-four nngen> 
twenty-four viol players, and fourteen lute playera were em- 
ployed; and among other performers of high birth the king 
himself took a part as ' D^mon du Feu.' The performances of 
the 'Ballet de Landy' in 1627, and the 'Ballet des Andouillet 
port^es en guise de Momona' in 1628, and 'La prosp^rit^ des 
annes de France* given at the Palms Cardinal in 1641, show 
that the form of art was in great favour. When Louis XIII 
died, and Louis XIV came to the throne, the taste for all sorts 
of theatrical entertainments manifestly increased. Mazarin, 
perceiving the liking of Anne of Austria for such things, 
encouraged and fostered them ; and it appears that it was 
owing to him that Italian performers were first brought to 
Paris in 1645, The work performed 00 this occasion was 
'La Festa teatrale della finta Pazza,* by Giulio Strozzi, given 
partly in declamation and partly sung, and presented with 
great magnificence of stage accessories. The Court people 
received the Italians with mixed feelings. Mme. de Motteville 
pves an account of her impressions at one of these perform- 
ances as follows : ' Le Mardi Gras la reine fit representer une 
de les combes en musique dans la petite salle du Palais Royal. 
Nous n'^ons que vingt ou trente personnes dans ce lieu, et 
nous pens&met y mourir de froid et d'ennui.' In another 
place she seems to voice the impression produced on the French 
of the time : 'Ceux qui s'y connaissent estimeat fort les Italiens; 
pom: mtu je trouve que la longueur du spectacle diminue fort 
le plaisir, et que les vers naivement r^p£t& repr^ntent plus 
us^ent la conversation et toucbent plus les esprits que le chant 
ne dSecte les oreilles.' The French were much impressed by 
the vocal ability of Margareta Bertalozzi, but were unfavourably 
impressed by the Italian recitative, and thought their own ways 
of dealing with dialogue and songs mnch preferable ; in which 
they foreshadowed the taste of more experienced audiences in 
later daysi for the treatment of the dialogue in the Lullian 

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form of opera, which vas the outcome of French taate, 
was geoerally much more definitdy muucal than the con- 
Tentional recitative of the Italians. Their preference Sot 
Mascarades to musical dramas, during the first half of the 
century, encouraged the poets who supplied the librettos to 
put much of the dialogue into neat little verses, which lent 
themselves readily to neat Uttle vocal tunes, somewhat similar 
in general to those which were introduced into the English 
masques. Th^ acute feeling for dance- rhythm probably 
had some influence on the characteristic forms of th^ 
rhythmic songs, both in respect of the words and the muuc. 
A spedal type of dunty dexterously organized song has been 
characteristic of the French in all times from which musical 
examples have been handed down. They seem to take delight 
in simple ditties, which have no great warmth or force of 
expression about them, but in which the phrases and figures 
are very neatly manipulated. For, though a violentiy excitable 
people, they have a singular love of cat^orizing and systema' 
tiung in every branch of mental eneigy — as if they clung 
to the idea that a well-constructed, o^anization would save 
them from the effects of uncontrollable savagery and violence. 
The Mascarades were obviously very favourable opportunitjes 
for such litde ditties ; and some dainty songs from such as were 
performed early in the seventeenth century have been preserved. 
One of the most successful a>mpo6ers of tins kind was Pierre 
Guedron, who was Master of the Music and Composer of the 
Chamber of Louis XIII. Another compose of the same 
order was Guedron's son-in-law, Bosset, who was Intendant 
to Louis XIII; and yet another was Gabriel Batulle, Lutenist 
to the Queen. Their vocal music stands in marked contrast to 
the histrionic music of thdr Italian contemporaries, being 
essenliaUy rhythmic and definite in form and melodic contour. 
The mere tunes of two of Guedron's songs from the ' Ballet de 
Madftme' (which was produced on the occasion of Louis XIIPs 
tnarriage with Anne of Austria) will be suffident to show the 

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diffetcQce betveen tia Ficncfa attitude tovards vocal muuc 
sod that of MoDtererde and Cavalli. 


Poor - qiwt u ilait • nl > 

Vni.uMDt (lit I 

m -mU: Ai - 

The intention is obviously more structural than declamutorj', 
and more intellectual than emotional. The French composersj 
if left to tbemaelveB, do not seem likely to have effected much 
in the direction of passionate expression. Their natural instinct^ 
like that of their public, seema in the direction of gaiety and 
lightheartedness ; impelling them to treat eren pathetic aituar- 
tJOBS with a sort of childish superficiality — as occasions for 
making something neat and pretty, rather than emotional or 
interesting. Their mumc seems to corroborate the inferences 
suggested by their history. The characteristic points of their 
early theatrical music are quite out jof the range fit the 
dramatic factors. The songs are dunty morsels in them- 
selves, sometimes expressing very delicately the sentiment of 

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undramatic wotds, but not in the hi^h- coloured, emotional 
manner wbich was attempted by Montererde and sometimes 
by his follower Cavalli. But, on the other hand, as the two 
schools progre&Bed, the immediate and intrinsic relation of 
the music to the meaning of the words was closer in the 
French; and the difference became more marked when 
the Italian school drifted off into the formality of their 
arias and the absolute musical inanity of their recitatiTes ; 
while the French school first found approximate expression 
of their ideals in the fine declamatory passages of Lulli ; 
and, refusing to be permanently dominated by conventional 
ideas, attained a further point of vantage in the works 
of Rameau, and a more complete satisfaction of the difficult 
problems of mumcal drama in the works of Gluck. Tbe 
process of the development of French stage muuc was there- 
fore altc^ther in strong contrast to the Italian. The latter 
had b^[un with vague recitative, with hardly any salient features 
of any sort ; and out of these somewhat chaotic conditions com- 
posers bad by degrees modelled sundry concrete forms, such as 
the instrumental ritonielli and arias. The French approached 
the muuc drama with two kinds of ingredients already well 
defined, in the ballet-tunes and the chansons; and tbey aimed 
at tbe definite presentment of their first form of opera by 
amalgamating these with the scheme which had been worked 
out by the Italians. 

The performances of Italian Opera in Paris, and the feeling 
of Parisians that the Italian methods in such music did not 
alt^^ther satisfy thdr particular tastes, very naturally impelled 
the French to try to achieve something of their own on lines 
which were more congenial; and these aspirations found 
expression in the combined efforts of the Abb£ Perrin as 
librettist and Cambert as composer about fourteen years after 
the first appearance of the Italian company. Perrin himself 
seems to have been the leading spirit, and, to judge by tiie 
letter which he wrote to the Cardinal de la Rovera soon 

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after their first experimeDt, he .had formed a clear idea of the 
pointa in which the Italian procedure could be improved upon 
from the standpoint of French taste. He shows that Italian 
composers had been content to set 'comedies' written to be 
recited and not to be sun^; and he describes their music 
somewhat strangely for an Abb^, as 'plains chants et dea 
airs de cloistre que nous appelons des chansons dea viellea ou 
da ricochet.' The outcome of his speculaliona was performed 
with immense ^clat at the house of M. de la Haye in the 
village of Issyin 1659. It is described in the collected works of 
Perrin as ' Premi^ com^die fran^aisc en musique repr&ent^ 
en France. Pastorale mise en musique par le Sieur Cambert.' 
It made such a favourable impreswon upon the courtly audience 
that it was repeated sereral times, and j^ven by special com- 
mand before 'their Majesties' at the chAteau of Vincennes. 
Unfortunately, though there are fairly detailed reports about 
the nature of the muwc, and the poem is printed, the actual 
music eeema lost beyond recovery. For works which throw 
any trustworthy light on Cambert's methods and abilities, we 
have to wiut till fully twelve yean later. Perrin was quite 
ready to follow up their success at once, and decided that 
the subject of the next opera should be * Ariane, ou le mariage 
de Bacchus'; and he even looked forward to following it up 
with a tragedy on the death of Adonis. But Ma immediate 
activity was put a stop to by the death of Qaston of Orleans 
in 1660, and of Mazarin in 1661. Perrin and Cambert had 
no opportunity for further collaboration for many years ; and 
Cambert's sole iqipearance in connexion with muric for the 
stage was with a burlesque Italian trio which be wrote to 
be inserted in the 'Jaloux invinble' of Br^conrt, in 1666. 
This burlesque is nncomprominng buffoonery, but it shows 
conuderable facility and technique on the part of the composer, 
and throws some reflected light upon the standard of the art 
which is burlesqued. 
In 1669 Perrin obtained letters patent from Loms XIV and 

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aathorization to eBtabllsh throughout the realm 'des Academies 
(I'Op^nt, ou repr^sentationB en muuque en langue fran9oiae, 
aur le pied de celles d'ltalie.' Perrin called in Cambert 
again, and the outcome of their united exertiona was the 
opera 'Pomone,' which was performed for the Snt time oo 
March 19, 1671, with great auccesB. In this case acme of the 
music has survived, and affords good scope to judge of Cambert*B 
abilities, and of the justice of the clums set up for him as 
being the true founder of French Opera. Unfortunatdy, by 
the year 1671 the situation had become considerably complicated. 
It is not as though Cambert took up the work interrupted 
in 1659 just where he left it. Lulli, it is true, had not yet 
b^nn bis extraordinary career as an opera composer, but he 
had been on the spot for a considerable time. His first notable 
success bad been in 1658 with the ballet * Alcidiane,* with 
words by Beoserade, and this and the favour of the king 
secured bis having the commission to amplify Cavalli's operas 
with ' divertissements dans^ ' with which tiie worthy Italian's 
worics were inadequately supplied to suit French taste. The 
ntoation is also obviously complicated by the fact that Cavalli's 
'Serse' and 'Ercole amante' had been performed in Paris 
in 1660 and 1662; and it is difficult to tell whether the 
characterisUcB in them which prefigure later developments 
of French Opera are the invention of Cavalli, or had been 
adopted by him to gratify French taste which he found in 
existence when he came to Paris. On the whole, such 
little matter as there is upon which to found inference is 
rather in fovour of Cavalli's having modified his scheme to 
suit already- formed local taste. 'Serse' was the first of 
the two works which he brought before a French audience; 
but this appears to have been written for Italy, and it did 
not meet with the success which the fame of Cavalli led 
people to anticipate ; in all probability because it was on tbe 
lines of Italian Opera, and made too few advances in the 
direction of French preconceptions. But the second opera. 

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'Ercole amante,' wbich made its appearance two yean later, 
aeema to present Caralli in a new ligbt, and it can hardly 
be doubted that thie ia owing to French influence. It ii 
even conceivable that Lulli himadf had something to do 
with it. The style seems more mature than that of the 
earlier work, and there are signs of uouBual care in the laying 
out of the scenes, and of more definite clearness in some 
of the formal movements. There are many features in it 
which became permanent in French Opera for the rest of 
the century. It seems from the outset to minister much 
more than eariier Italian works to scenic display. The 
prologue, which became such a conspicuous feature in the 
Lullian scheme, appears in full panoply — opening with solid 
chorus, which is followed by recitative, more in the Gallic 
than the Italian manner; these in tnim are followed by more 
choruses, sinfonia, further chorus and 'balletto,' with final 
chorus — all of which suggest effective grouping and shifting of 
characters on the stage. The drama proper is also planned so 
as to supply plentiful opportunities for stage effect. In the first 
act Juno and Hercules have an attendant chorus of graces ; in 
the second Pasitea is attended by a chorus of * aure e ruscelU,* 
when she sings the charming aria, a part of which has been 
^ven at page 141. To the aria answer the chonu of zephyrs, 
'Dormi, dormi,' all of which procedure su^ests elegant stage 
effects. In the third act a great number of characters take 
part, and it ends with a 'balletto.* The fourth act contains 
tlie 'Infemale* before alluded to (p, 147), and ends with a 
trio ; the fifth and last act has a quartet, a well developed solo 
lor Juno, and several choruses — one being for eight planets, 
divided into two groups of three and five ; everything pointing 
to gradual increase of imposing stage effect right up to the end. 
The general scheme of ' Ercole amante * therefore, presents 
almost the complete pattern for all the French Operas up to 
the end of the century, of which those of Lulli are the most 
successful examples. It seems probable that it was the product 

a 2 

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of FreDch influence working on the standard of Italian Oper& 
at the point to which Caralli lumself had brought it in his 
previous works. In view of the fact that the music of the 
'Pastorale* produced at Issy in 1659 haa disappeared, it is not 
possible to aay^ how much share Cambert had in laying out the 
ground plan ; but it is important to remember the significant 
aspect of ' Ercole amante,' and the difference of scheme which 
it presents from that of the earlier 'Serse,' and also from that 
of the only works of Cambert which have survived. 

As has been indicated before in dealing with the important 
parenthesis of Cavalli's appearance in PariEi, Perrin, when put 
. in charge of the national opera establishment, set to work with 
Cambert, and in 1671 they brought 'Pomone' before the 
public. This work b^pns with the typical French overture. 
I^rst the 'mouvement grave,' which is followed by the quick 
fugal movement. Cambert may not have felt himself strong 
enough to carry out his fugue, and in the latter part of the 
quick movement he drifta off into musical passages which have 
no connexion vrith the initial fugue subject : but be ends up 
in the massive style which is frequently found in the latter part 
of the Lullian overture, so that the whole familiar scheme is 
presented, though imperfectly carried out in detail. The over- 
ture is followed t^ the usual prologue, which in this case 
consists of fulsome laudations of Louis. The nymphs of the 
Seine sing ' Dans I'auguste Louis je trouve un nouveau Mars. 
Jamais un si grand homme ne f ut assis au trdne des C^sars,* &c. 

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The drama, such as it u, begins with snother smaller 0Tertiire> 
and a aceae for Jupiter and Pomona, and varioiu mythdogical 
personages. There are * troupes de jardiniera/ and 'troupes 
de bouvien/ nymphs and ' foUets,* and other company suitable 
for the purposes of stage effect. The dramatic element seems 
to be almost totally absent, but such dial(^e as there is is 
treated with good sense of the relation between declamation 
and music, and there are occasional passages of fairly attractire 
tune. The performance of the work was a great success, and 
there was good reason that Perrin and Cambert should continue 
to work together. But there was an unexpected shuffling of 
the cards, which has never been explained with any certunty. 
It is said that Perrin was in debt to the Marquis de Sourdeac, 
who had taken chaige of the stage effects and appliances in 
'Pomone/ and that he surrendered his priril^es to wipe out 
the debt. At any rate, it came about tliat the words of the 
next opera set by Cambert were not written by Perrin, but 
by Gilbert, The work was called 'lies Peines et lea Plaiurs 
d' Amour,* and it was performed by the Academic Royale de 
Musique in 1672. What remuns of the work approximates 
even more perfectly to the LuUian type, both in scheme and 
style, than 'Pomone.* The overture has a more massiTe 
opening movement and a more completely developed fugue, 
and the prologue a fair proportion of chorus. The first act 
introduces Apollo, Pan, and ' Bergers,* who supply singers for 
the chorus and dancers for the ballet. The libretto supplies 
an immensity of talk all about nothing, and little or no trace of 
dramatic intention, and in this respect emphasizes the ballet origin 
of the French Opera. As an example of Cambert's attempts 
at tunefulness, the following trio of ' Bergers ' will serve : — 

mm. in. 

- nil.l* AudoBx flhiata dii iliiux Print 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 





I r f 

It was left for Lull! to infuse the dramatic element and 
complete the scheme, and for this he very soon had oppor- 
tunity. The career of this remarkable man may be summarized 
in a few words. Bom near Florence in i6^^, he was brought 
to France by the Chevalier de Guise, who was attracted by 
his talent for playing the guitar. He got a footing at Court, 
and ingratiated himself with the King by his readiness in 
producing attractive songs and dance-tunes. The King made 
him director of the <Bande des petits violons' in 1652, when 
he was barely twenty. He organized ' divertissementa dans^a ' 
such as were dear to the King's heart, and found his first 
signal public opportunity in writing the music for ' Alcidiane,' 
to words by Benserade, which was performed with much success 
at St. Germtun in 1658, as has already been mentioned. In 
l6l!ii he received the brevet of 'Compositeur et Surintendant 
de la Mudque de la Chambre du Roi.' In July, 1662, he was 
made ' Mattre de la Musique de la Famille Royale,' and in the 
game year he married the daughter of Lambert, who was * Maltre 

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de Muuque de la Covir.' Between 1664 and i6ji was the time 
of ballet writing, when among other works he wrote the music 
to ' h& Frincesse d'Elide ' in 1664, to ' M. de Pourceaugnac ' in 
166^, to 'Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme' in 1670, and 'Psyche' 
in 1671. He had practically become the 'Intendant dea menus 
plaisirs de la Cour,' and quite indispensable to the King. And 
when the obscure differences between Perrin and his coadjutors 
brought their scheme of national opera into jeopardy, the 
King granted the exclusive pririlege of the 'Academic Royale 
de Musique* to him by letters patent in i6y2f and with him 
were joined Quinault for the poetry, and M, de St. Ouen for 
the 'machines.* The theatre in the Rue Vaugiraud was 
opened in 1673 with *Les F^tes de I'Amour et Bacchus,' and 
from that date till his death Lulli produced at least one 
opera every year. In 1681 he was naturalized and ennobled ; 
and in 1687 he died, about the age of fifty-four. He was 
one of the most remarkable examples of the successful 'entre- 
preneur' who ever lived; and as it has never been hiuted 
that he was anything but a Gentile, his career serrea as a 
striking exception to the theories generally held with regard 
to racial aptitudes for accumulating a fortune. He probably 
entered France without a louis d'or in his possession ; but 
when he died, sacks full of them, with ' doubloos d'Espagne,' 
were found in his house to the extent of 20,000 Uvres; and 
his whole fortune was esUniated at 800,000 Uvres, which he 
had accumulated mainly by shrewd investments in property 
in the growing fashionable quarters of Paris. For those who 
are in search of a strange psychological problem to unravel, 
LuUi seems ready to hand. The combination of composer 
and pelf-seeker is always repulsive, and die French of his 
time did not find it otherwise. But, notwithstanding the sordid, 
unscrupulous and worldly nature which his story suggests, 
it must be acknowledged that Lulli's work is characterized 
by a certun nobility, dignity, and breadth, and qdUities of 
expresmon which command respect. The comparative absence 

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of triviality and vulgarity may be discounted a little by the 
consideratioii that trivial and vulgar music is a matter of 
devdopment like anything else; and till several genen^aons 
ai low compoaera had studied the likings of the vulgarest 
and most ignoble sections of society with the view of writing 
down to their level, composers really did not know how to 
be effectively trivial and vulgar. Now-a-days, when the poison 
has got thoroughly into the system of all arts, it is difficult 
for the most high-minded artist to avoid an occasional phrase 
which puts him in unfavourable contrast with Lull!. ' Bat, 
to give the man his due, LuUi did as little as any one to 
vulgarize the phrasedogy of music. Some of the credit may 
be due to his courtly audience. He certunly studied their 
tastes with considerable subtlety; and it may well be that, 
though the King and the Court took part in ballets and 
theatrical representations, they did such things in a sedate 
and courtly manner, without romping and buffoonery; and 
the music, which is such a delicate mirror of attitude of 
mind, paced with corresponding statelinesa and show of 
courtly dignity. To modem audiences, accustomed to high 
colour, tinsel, and tricks of effect, the Lullian Opera would 
be quite unendurable, even supposing that it had not in- 
herent defects begot of artistic inexperience and immaturity 
of method. 

In one respect the Lullian Opera is mature, and that is in 
its purely theatrical features. It was an entertainment of 
an extremely artificial kind, developed on the bans of the 
time-honoured Mascaradea, and, as a Cormal product of pure 
theatrical art, remarkably complete. It was as much through 
this fact as through the pre-eminent traits of I^lli's character, 
tiiat French Opera came to a complete standstill for such 
a k>ng time after his death. The puzzle had been worked 
ou^ and all the pieces so accurately fitted that a complete 
change of attitude was necessary before anything new could 
be brought into the scheme. Lulli himself made hardly any 

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Attempt to nuy the general plan from the begmning to the 
end of his career. The typical French orertm^, the all^orical 
prologue with its alternate choruscB and ballets, the dialogues 
of the drama in semi-recitatiTes, the laying out of the acts 
with but slight variations in the order of the dirertiaBe- 
ments and choruses, are all just as complete and articulate 
in the 'Th^s^' of 1675 as in 'Armide' of 1685. As 
the type is so distinct, and as Lulli'a works represent the 
final stage in one of the most important epochs in French 
theatrical art, the outline of 'Roland/ which is one of 
the latest and best of the series, may with advantage be 

The overture is a dignified and masedve piece of work, on 
precisely the same lines as the overtures of 'Pomone' and 
'Les Plaisirs d'Amour/ bq;inning with the slow movement — 
the main object of which is sonority and fullness — proceeding 
with a fugal movement, and ending up with another sonorous 
passage. After the overture comes the usual prologue, of 
the usual mythological allegorical description, with masses of 
people on the stage singing and dancing, and short passages 
of definite tune interspersed with suitable recitative, culminating 
in chorus and dance. Afto the prolc^e the overtpre is 
repeated, and then the play be^s. Roland, the hero, is the 
impersonation of that abstraction so dear to the French mind, 
'la gloire.' He is the ideal hero of effective and brilliant 
combats, who is returning from some warlike expedition in 
which he has played the conqueror, to seek the lady with whom 
be was in love before he started. Unfortunately, the lady has 
meanwhile found some one else, of the name of Medor, to supply 
his place during Ms absence, and very naturally keeps out of the 
way. Roland seeks her in country places, which afford excelleDt 
opportunities for the pastoral scenes and dances for which 
the courtly minds of Parisians seem to have had such a fancy 
on the stage, A rustic wedding is introduced, and, of course, 
rostic chorus and rustic ballet; and Roland sings, while the 

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rustic music is ^in^ on, his amurance that he will find 
Ang^que somewhere among the meny-makera. But, unluckily^ 
the chorus begin to sing their blessings on the lores of Ang6- 
lique and Medor, and the secret is thereby betrayed, Roland 
forthwith goes out of his mind, and sings a vehement Bolo 
about being 'betrayed. Heavens! who could believe it? by 
the ungrateful beauty for the love of whom he had f(n«aken 
his duty to " la gloire " ' (see p. 242). Furiovis music is played 
while he tears up the trees and rocks and other practicable 
theatrical properties (p. 243) > Btu^ he concludes with a very 
fine piece of dedama^u, in which he expresses his having 
fnllen into the darkness of the tomb, and the state of des- 
peration induced by being crossed in love (pp. 243, 344). 
The act in this case enda with solo music, and it is the 
only act in ' RoUnd ' which concludes without mass of sound 
and crowded stage. The procedure shows LulU's instinct 
very happily, as it obviates the monotony of an abaohrte 
similarity of effect in each act, and throws the situation, 
which is obviously meant to be the strongest point in the 
drama, into strong relief, A very good point is also made 
by beginning the last act with soothing music, to which the 
kindly spirit Logiatille steps in to set matters right, exhorting 
Roland to give up his weakness, and resume the paths of 
glory, the music comprising one of the most famous tunes 
in the whole of LuUi's works. Roland, of course, feels the force 
of the appeal, and the chorus join in^ and the whole concludes 
with excellent stage effect and great nusa of sound. 

The highly artificial scheme of which this is an example is 
an attempt to unite the spectacular and the dramatic elements 
of theatrical effect; and it entails the employment of two 
almost distinct kinds of music. The overture, dances, and 
proline require music which speaks for Haelf, and the actual 
play, music which speaks for the enhancement of the dramatic 
dnnent. The former kind necessarily tends in the direction 
of formal music— that is, of music comprising definite phrases 

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of tune and definite passages modelled on clear structural 
principles, and distribution and repetitioD of such pas- 
sages in some orderly manner which gives the impression 
of oi^nization. The latter kind embraces all the devices of 
musical declamatioa and muucal oratory, and those features 
of art which deal with expression, with the su^estion 
of moods and emotions, and which make appeal to human 
senaibilities. Lutli's powers are shown by the fact that 
he was absolutely successful in both branches of the art. His 
overtures, for instance, were so thoroughly well adapted to 
the- position which they occupied, and their scheme and style 
approved itself so completely to men's minds, that they gained 
the distinction of establishing a special type, which has been 
commonly known as the Lullian overture, to distinguish it 
from the Italian overture, which was nuist frequently adopted 
by Italian opera composers till the time of Mozart, The 
form was obvmusly not Lulli's invention, hut his persistence 
and shrewdness in working it out established it firmly. The 
uniformity of his practice is remarkable. The first move- 
ment is invariably in a massive and dignified style, as 
full and flonoroufl as the instruments available can make it. 
The type is familiarly represented by the first portion of 
the overture to Haodd's Meitiah. The dotted notes, the 
progressions of massive harmonies marching in a proud 
Olympian manner through the powerful discords, are all 
precisely on the same lines as in Lulli's overtures. Indeed, 
in majestic manner LuUi often almost surpasses the great 
Saxon himself. Handel's progresuons are also much the 
same as LuUi's, even up to the half-close which precedes 
the fugal movement. As an example of the style, the 
opening bars of the overture to 'Th^s^' will serve very 

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'r'^Arh f . \ iji m 



■ J n 


' rr r'ti 

' i T-tf 

The fugal morement wu actually the deuendaiit of the 
canzona and the ancestor of- the fugues in Handel's overtures 
to hia operas and oratorios, and even of the fugal morementa 
which precede Mendelssohn's oratorios. But as far as real 
fugal work is concerned, it is somewhat of a sham. The 
movements are always initiated by a mere snap of a subject, 
which is often not systematically answered at all. There is 
no development based on the subject, nor any of the genuine 
features of the tme fugue } but merely the external traits, such 
as the different parts coming bustling in as if they were dis- 
cussing the subject, and a general sense of animation, which 
to the inattentive theatrical audience would have a sufficiently 
specious likeness to the real thing — just like any other theatrical 
property, which no one wants to examine too closely. It may 
frankly be said that in such a position an elaborate and well- 
worked fugue would be rather out of place. LuUi's instinct 
in such things was correct enough, and the actual texture of 
the movement is generally sufficiently good, ai instrumental 

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{lart-writing, to produce an artistic effect. The following a 
the commencement of the quasi-higiU movement in the over- 
ture to "rh6a6e,' which illustratea very clearly the points 
in which the thing ia not genainely fugal, and the manner 
in which it is ntade to look like it:— 

i. J 

gi'Ti ^,inr ^||,r^ J^r,^ m^M , 

^"^ 1 ' Vt^Vi' i iV " / f i i' 

■ tijtjfl l 

The ballet-tunee are also of considerabU importance in the 
scheme. There are an enormous number of them, and of 
every size ; from a few bars, to the extremely long and 
dahorate chaconnes which nearly always come close to the 
end of the operas. Considering that Lull! practically estab- 
lished his position originally as a writer of 'divertissements 
dans^,' these dance movements are rather disappointing. It 
would be absurd to expect the sprightlinesa, piquancy, and 
rivacious rhythmic variety of genuine modem French ballets, 
but even short of that they hardly come up to the elasticity 
and attractiveness of Rameau and Couperin. The habit of 
nearly always filling in all the parts begets heaviness and 
monotony. The effect of contrast between high and low 
passages ia hut rarely attempted; and the utmost varie^ of 
colour-contrast ronsists in having an occasional movement 
for hautboys, trumpets, or flutes and bass, alternating with 

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moTements for stiiDgs. On rery rare occasions the movementt 
are directed to be played with mutes^ for special characteristic 
effect in relation to special atage situatione, as, for instance, 
to coDrey the sense of the magic enchantments in 'Armide.' 
LuUi eridently found that his audience did not want more 
than he gave them, and maintained much the same treatment 
of his divertissements from his first opera till his last. The 
form of the tunes is compact and well proportioned, and there 
is a good deal of repetition of movements and phrases for 
purposes of design of the modern kind; and it may also be 
said in favour of the tunes that they have a weighty kind 
of vigovir, and an old-world flavour suggestive of periwigs 
and court dresses, which is sometimes quaintly attractive. 
As these dance-tunes are such an important feature of 
the works, some excerpts from different characteristic types 
are worthy of attention. 

GiGTi from ' HOLABB.' 

,j'J3.jj[ffj.;'J j.jj i , 


r <-vrr r, r, a^' '^ 

J, J J J =.= 


A J- 


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■k. 170. I^om Patirox. 


J | J rl J 




■I rp i J J 

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The finest qualities of the works are in the vocal solos, 
lliere are comparatively few vocal tunes indeed and not 
many tuneful passages; but the dialogue is treated in a 
kind of accompanied declamatory reritative which ia a dis- 
tinct variety from the Italian form, and derives its special 
character from intimate connexion with the French language. 
The degree of approach to definite music varies with the 
degree of importance of the dialogue Set. Mere narrative and 
subordinate everyday remarks differ chiefly from Italian reci- 
tative by the inflexions, and the happy comparative absence of 
the conventional closes which make the recitatives of Scarlatti 
and Handel, and others of the same school, almost intolerable. 
When the dialogue implies concentration of emotion or strong 
feding, the muuc rises to a remarkable height of dignified 
but free melodiousness, and is cast, now and then, in definite 
groups of bars. But on the other hand, LuUi is extremely 
fond of changes of time, such as ^m four to three, and 
vice versft} and in some cases this seems to be done with 

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the intention of ^cpreuing emotion. Examples will be lonsd 
further on in the quotatione from 'Roland'; and his pupil 
Colaue adopted the tame device, aa will be leen in the passage 
quoted later from his part ti 'Acfaille et PolixKne.' The 
regular form of the aria is comparatively rare, and Lulli seems 
to hare preferred more elastic forms which admitted of more 
e:q>reaston in debul ; such as the ground-bass which has been 
deactibed in connexion with Cavalli and Legrenzi, and was 
used mth so much effect by Stradella and Purcell. In the 
ground-basses he also used subtieties to avoid monotony and 
squareness. For instancy he is fond of making the ' ground ' 
of an irregular group of bars, such as five, and of varying 
the position in the scale in which it occur*; and he showa 
great dexterity in varying the expression of the passages. 
However obvious the formality of the general scheme of his 
operas, Lulli connstentiy avoided £ormality in the actual music 
of the dramatic parts of his works. He caught the intention 
of Cavalli in his solo music and improved upon his model, and 
the range of lus power of expressing phases of feeling is wide. 
Warlike ardour naturally occupies a prominoit place in works 
that were to be B3mipathetic to Frenchmen, and warUke ardour 
was naturally expressed in obvious and direct forms. The 
glorification of heroic valour is indeed rather too prevalent, 
but he deals equally with other moods. He obtained excellent 
results in the expression of pathos, wrath, despair, and even, 
as in 'Roland/ of a violent state approximating to madness. 
It must be remembered that Lulli had a very different class 
of singers to deal with from such as were available Cor Italian 
composers. In Italy the art of actual vocalization had^ even 
in Cavalli's time, arrived at a high pitch of development. 
The elaborate cadenzas and flourishes which have been des- 
cribed in connexion with Caiissimi, Rossi, and many other 
composers of that order, required a very high dq;ree of 
technique in the singer. Italians had ^ven their minds to 
such ornamental things from the beginning; and the style 

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of their melodious passages implies an admiration for good 
production and beauty of tone. The mere powos of the 
unintelligent Binging animal were more hi^y prized among 
them than among the French, and for such their melodious 
passages and tuneful arias were fit pabulum. The French 
bad their chatuotu, but the style and quality of their art 
imply less respect for mere singing gifts than for hmnan 
qualities of wit and bright intelligence. Lulli calls for 
intelligent declamation rather than for vocalization, and in 
that he shows more affinity to Monteverde than to the 
school of the later Italians who drifted off into aria-writing. 
As examples of his vocal declamation and bis bustling 
passages for strings, the main points in the scenes in ' Roland ' 
described on p. 234, in which the hero expresses his despair at 
the treason c^ Ang^qne, will serve most comprehenaively : — 



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whidi tlw but iwfei itop* 
the qnftTCr boUoil] 

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ImmatUTe as it is, the standard of technique is much 
more comprehensire than CavaUi's. The mudc moves with 
much more unifonn mastery, and deals with ereiything on 
lugcT and more spacious lines. The instrumental writing 
is fuller, and there is more of it ; and even the choruseB, which 
are extremely simple and homophonic, are on a grander scale, 
and attun their ends more completely. Lnlli abows that he 
knows what he wants to do where his earlier compatriot had 
been beating about the bush; and the effect is definitely 
theatrical instead of being sometimes dramatic and Bometimes 
quite indefinite. As ^ as his scheme goes he is a master, and 
writes with a strong grasp of wide and grandiose designs, and 
not like a man hampered by difficulties of detail. He also 
obtains consistency of style to a remarkable degree, and 
a sense of balance and proportion which conduces greatly to 
the effect of his works as wboleB. He was contented to employ 
the same scheme for all his works, but fortunately he had an 
advantage over tiie Italians of the same period, and «p to the 
end of the century, in having a scheme which comprised much 
more variety of detaiL The comparative absence of ballet music 
in Italian Opera was, in an immature sti^ of art, a great 
■drawback, because the dance movements in themselves admitted 
of such great variety of form and rhythm and style, and served 
as a means of contrast and variety witii the vocal portion of 
the works. The method of treating the declamation was also 
much more free than that employed in Italian recitative, and 
even the use of the chorus was much more elastic, and more 
widely spaced out. The most essential difference, however, lay in 
the much greater consideration given by LuUi and tiie French 
composer* generally to stage effect, where the Italians sought 
for beauty of melody only. Stage directions, and the idea (^ 
anything pleasing to the eye, seem almost superfluous in Italian 
Opera. It seems as if it would have been unnecessary to 
have any scenery or stage properties at all. The arias needed 
to be beautifully sung, and eveiything else was secondaiy. 

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But the French Opera embraced much greater rariety of 
■ourceB of entertaiDment and effect; and opportunitieB for mere 
vocalization were hy no means uodulj' prominent. In tact, 
the style of the solo music required oratorical ^fta in the 
performer rather than mere vocal gifts — the power to declaim 
and put dramatic meaning into the delivery rather than the 
hculty for mere aesthetic beauty. la both Italian and French 
Opera there were conspicuous drawbacks; but it was no 
drawback to French Opera that opportunities for mere vocaliza- 
tion were kept in their proper proportion. Indeed, it was just 
because the dramatic part df French Opera was not restricted 
by a conventional obligation to flatter the vanity of mere 
Btngers that it proved capable of expansion and development 
when the purely spectacular part of the performance was 
cleared out of the way. The mere singers' opera has proved 
utterly impossible. So tar from improving idter the days of 
Scarlatti and Handel, it became intrinsically worse and wone; 
and if the inferences are trustworthy, even the art of mere 
warbling has rather receded than advanced since those days. 
Italian Opera, as it had become stereotyped by the end of 
the seventeenth century, almost precluded the dramatic and 
human interest which is essential to things produced on the 
stage. Tlie French Opera ultimately expanded splendidly 
because room for human interest and dramatic expression was 
amply provided. But this ultimate development was not due 
for a bng wliile, and after Lulli'i death in 1687 progress was 
totally stopped by qualities of French taste which stood in the 
way of the dramatic effect. The blame of the complete stand- 
still which ensued is generally put upon him. French musicians 
were naturally extremely jealous of hia pre-eminence; and it 
has commonly been said that the conspicnous aatuteness with 
frtiich he kept the operatic field all to himself prevented any 
other composers from learning the special business of writing 
music fit tor the stage. But in this particular Lulli may be fairly 
exonerated. It was not the disposition of LuUi, but the circum- 

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scribed scbeme of the opera that vraa acc^>tsble at Couit, 
which precluded progress. Lolli indeed gave one French com- 
poser ample opportunitia to learn all about writing operatic 
mnaic. For there is no doobt that he shifted a great deal of 
the more tedious part of his work as a composer to his pupil 
Colasse, who is reported to hare carried out such details as 
the scoring of ballet-tunes and accompaniments of which Lulli 
only gave gmeral indications. Colasse indeed completed the 
opera 'Achille et Pdix^e/ of which Lulli had only finished 
the first act when he died ; and he completed it in a manmer 
which showed that be was an efficient mundan, and qnite 
ciquible of imitating LulU's style consistentiy. And Uie very 
point in which be seems promin^itly to depart from the 
stereotyped lines of the average Lutlian Opera is in the 
endeavour to produce his effect at the end of the work 
by genuinely human and dramatic means. Instead of de- 
pending as usual on the Uare of ballet, chorus, and general 
combination of stage appliances to make an imposing finish, 
he makes the whole interest depend on the pathetic death of 
Folix^e, with scarcely any accessory beyond sincere musical 
expression to enhance the effect. The passage is as follows : — 


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J i nlJ V 


I' * ^-J Jl 

n f^ n|, , . m.j. J J§ 


■^ ^ I' hi'' r i " ^^ 

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It ifl possible that the idea was borrowed from the fine 
conduskni of Armide, in which also the heroine is left aboe 
on the stage. At any rate, the passage shows genuine dramatic 
instinct. But Colasse, for all hia training and this proof of 
uncere intention, made no prominent mark upon the story 
of French Opera. 

There was, however, one composer of the time whose work 
demands some conuderation, as his tailwe to carry out good 
intentions is undoubtedly very ugnificant, and helps to the 
formation of a just estimate of the causes of French unpro- 
gresairenesB at this time. 

Charpentier's Midfe is said to have been the one conspicuous 
attempt dumg the last decade of the seventeenth century to 
break through the trammels of obstructive traditions and infuse 
some dramatic life into the French Opera of that time; and 
it is said to have been a failure mainly on account of its most 
estimable qualities. Charpentier vras evidentiy a composer of 
real alnlity: a more finished musician than Lulli, and ^fted 
with dramatic insight and enterprise; so it is worth while to 
consider his work in detuL 

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It b^iDS with the DBoal * Lulliim ' overture, compriBing the 
Duurire alow movement and the lively fugal movement, and 
a ghort aiaw passage at the end. Then follows the nnial 
prologue, with the typical 'troupes de peuple«, dea Bei^ers 
b^iquea,' &c And it becomea instantly apparent that aome 
of the most absurd traditJons, luch as made their appearance 
in Cambert's works, are as conspicuous as ever. The 'chef du 
peuple ' sings an address bq;i&ning — 

'Lonii eit triompliaiit, tont cMe & la pniwance,' 

and ending — 

' Bendons luj det honneun dignei de wi gi&ndt exploit*. 
Qui comacrent le nom dn plui ptuMant dei Boyt.' 

The chorus take up the exhilarating words in a style which 
the quotation of treble and basa parts will show to be exactly 
in Lulli's manner ; — 

H ,, 1^ I r . r J 1 1 p I f I r f I r 

This ia followed by an air invoking ' Victoire,' who arrives and 
■inga 'Depuis bngtemps la France est mon s^jour,' &c. La 
Gloire and Bellona join in, and then there is a short chorus. 
Then follow a loure and canaries, songs of 'bei^era' with 
hautboy accompaniment, a minuet en rondeau, passepied, and 
a big chorus, and the proline ends, as in Lnlli's opera, with 
a repetition of the overture. After all this absurdly irrelevant 
preHminary, in which everything is upon the usual lines, enters 
Medea, already in a violently bad humour ; and with this sudden 
tranntioo from fulsome adoration of Louis XIV and French 
telf-congratulations to the atmosphere of the most lurid of 
Greek tragedies, act i bc^na. 

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Medea addresses the usnal friend on the subject of her 
wrongs, implying that JasoD wants to get rid of her in favonr 
of Creusa. The music is on the whole of better quality than 
Lulli's, the declamatory passages being better modelled and 
more melodious without losing tbnr oratorical effect ; but the 
method and manner are much the same, as is also the style 
of the music expressing agitation, which is veiy much like 
the music expressing the fury of Roland in similar circum- 
stances when deserted by Ang^lique (see p. 242). The following 
passage is interesting both on this account, and because 
it shows an approximation to familiar modem methods 
in the treatment of the string accompaniment to the solo 
voice I — 

Cn . . . dn-rw 



:\jlj}} \ mm \ ih!iii }\ ^^ ^ 1 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


ifV .1 f ' i 

Oa the whole the scene presages well for Chaipentier's 
execatioD of his drnmatic purposes, and what foliows U also 
musicallf to the pmnt, consistiDg of airs in a pleasantly French 
style for Jason, with more carefully written accompaaiments 
than was usual with Lulli. But then the old conventions peep 
in. There ia a chorus of Corinthians, the artificial purpose 
of which is cleverly disguised by iia being sung 'derri^re le 
th^&tre.' And from that point the first act goes off practically 
into mere theatrical effect. There is a good deal of dialogue 
now and then, but the main features of the proceedings are 
a rery noisy and animated fanfare of trumpets and drums. 

noisy choruses of Argives and Corinthians, and finally a series 
of ballet dances for the same Argives and Corinthians, which 
are excellent in themselves and display some idea of variety of 
orchestration, but completely extinguish the dramatic interest 
of the act. 

The second act is dramatically more futile stilL It begins 
with dialf^ue between Medea and Creon, and a recitative by 
Medeti, which is interesting on account of its accompaniment 
of strings and * flfites allemandes ' used with distinct intention 

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to obtun vaiety of orchestral ccdour. After a little more 
explanatory diali^e begins an ebborste ballet. An Argive 
appears in the guise of the god of Love, with a chorus of 
Captives of lore of diverse nations, 'Use Italienne' sings 
a song about love, in Italian, and evidently in imitation of the 
Ittdian style, almost indeed an aria. And with similar absurd 
appendages to the drama of Medea, act u comes to an end. 

Act ill is much more consistent. There are interviews 
between Medea and Orontes, between Medea and Jason ; and 
then an incantation scene by Medea alone, in which she 
summons the 'noires fiUes du Styx, divinit^s terribles,* in 
well-conceived musical terms. But the opportunity must not 
l>e missed, and, by way of conclusion to the savage utterances 
of the demons of Vengeance and Jealousy, they dance a ballet 
to end the act. Act iv is on much the same lines, but keeps 
to the subject better. There is diah^pie for Medea and 
Orontes, and animated music of Combatants, and dances for 
'Fantdmes,' and tt ends with muuc which implies that some- 
thing serious and gruesome is going on. Act v keeps to the 
point best of alL Medea is successfully employing her powers 
of evil. She expresses her intention to destroy her own children 
because they are also Jason's. A chorus of Corinthians express 
their mournful feelings over the ruin she has brought on 
Corinth. Creusa is brou^t on in torments, and, addressing 
Jason in broken accents, dies. Jason left alone exdums, 
*£lle est morte, courons & la vengeance,' But his intentions 
are rendered futile by the appearance of Medea 'en I'air' 
mocking him ; and it is to be presumed that she disappeared 
in the theatrical heavens with the words, 'Fleure & jamais les 
maux que ta flamme a caus&,' The violins then rush about in 
much the same manner as on previous occasions, both in LuUi's 
work and the present, and the tragedy comes to an end ; Jason 
and the rest who are left on earth no doubt making a tableau. 

There are nndonbtedly a good many tilings which in detul 
show an advance upon LuUi's work. Charpentier was said 


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to be a great admirer of the Italian compoeov, espedall; of 
Carimmi, and thia posribly accounts for the absurdity of liia 
introducing, an Italian song in the swing of the development 
of a Greek tragedy; it also explains the good style and 
melodiousness of his vocal writing. la the treatment of the 
instmmeuta there is a great deal more careful woric, both in 
accompaniments and independent movements, than in Lulli's 
operas, and there is more genuine feeling for instrumental style 
and effect. The attempt to express the essentially dramatic 
momenta more vividly may possibly have been one of the 
causes of failure; for the importation of human feeling into the 
scheme in sincerer moments threw the preposterous artificiality 
(rf the ballet sceaes, with the captives of the god of ZjOvc and 
dancing demons of Vengeance and Jealousy, into the more 
grotesque relief, Smcere dramatic develt^mient could not exist 
with such adjuncts ; and through their inherent ant^oniam this 
form of art hung poised for a few swift-passing years, wliite 
it still seemed uncertain whetli^ the elementary principle of 
the Mascarades (from which this form of opera grew) was still 
to prevail, or whether the true genius of the drama was to bend 
the ornamental accessories to its will and put them in their 
proper subordination — using the ballet as part of, and reinforce- 
ment of, tlie characteristic phases of a drama, and abolisliing 
all those ornamental features which had nothing whatever to do 
with the story. But the atttunment of this ideal was not due 
for a long while. Charpentier's work is most instructive as 
representing tlie antagonism of the dramatic principle and the 
'Mascarade' principle more completely than any other work 
of the period; and the failure to remedy the existing state 
of ossification bong patent on the face of the work, notwith- 
standing many great meriti^ it seems perfectiy consistent that 
attempts to make further prepress should have been deferred, 
and that composers should have returned to the ruts, merely 
contenting themselves with improving the texture of thnr worit 
in detuL Three tjrpical works by three pf the most succeasfiU 

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compoBera of France made their appearance just at the end of 
the century. These are the ' Venus and Adonis ' of Desmarets 
(1663-1 741), which was brought out in 16971 the 'Aniadis de 
Gr£ce' by Des Touches, which came out in 1699; and the 
'HSnone' of Campra (1660-1744), which was produced in 1700. 
These composers were in the prime of their artistic vigour, good 
musicians, and not without invention; but the mark of tlie 
conventional fwm is so strong in them titat their works might 
almost be taken for variations on the scheme of Lulli. Tliere 
are the osual irrelevancies, the usual transparent artifices to 
get in the ' divertissements dans^,' the usual type of passages 
to express agitation, the usual predominance of stage effect 
over dramatic effect. Catnpra, it is true, proved more gifted in 
the direction of tunefulness than his fellows ; and this element, 
which, in its French elegance, was somewhat deficient in Lulli's 
work, was a department in which pn^ress in detail was di»- 
cemible. But most of this progress belongs to the eighteenth 
century. The seventeenth century had witnessed the trans- 
formation of the Mascarades by fusion with Italian elem^its of 
dramatic music, into the extremely artificial form of French 
Opera in vogue at the court of Louis XIV, The establishment 
of this form, in which the taste of the court was so carefully 
considered, was ultimately due to Lulli ; he set his impress upon 
it in detail as in general design — in style and artistic method 
as in structure. His successors improved upon his somewhat 
crude and uncouth manner in mere matter of polish and facility 
of style, but they did not succeed in expanding the scheme, or 
in presenting to the world anything which gave the assurance 
of an original personality. Lulli in this particular stands con- 
spicuous among the composers of the century ; and when the 
century ended it left the courtly audiences of Paris still staring 
at hie achievements, and composers in other countries as well 
as in France viunly endeavouring to imitate him, and &iling 
to build anything permanent upon the scheme and methods 
which his unvarying potistence liad exhausted. 

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Bt the end of the Commonwealth the secularization of 
mnncal art in England wag complete. Short as the time 
since the king's death had been, it was snffident to eatabliah 
the new style so completely that a retom to the old polyphonic 
methods, pure and simple, or to the style of the pure reflective 
church mufdc, was imposnble. Lyrical songs had taken the 
place of madrigals in the favour of domestic amateurs, dance- 
tunea and suites had taken the place of the imitations of choral 
forms of art for instruments, and church music of the old 
order had ceased. So when the obvious prematurity of Puritan 
expoiments in democratic government drove men to revive 
the monarchical tradition with whatever semblance of a king 
they c»uld get, the return of a Stuart and the widening of 
the sphere of possible musical activity merely expanded the 
field which was already being vigorously cultivated by the new 
order of secular composers. The very levity of the irresponsible 
monarch furthered the movement to which the Puritans had 
givea so paradoxical a push. The paradox was indeed main- 
tained and accentuated in the new order of things. For while 
tiie effect of excessive Puritanism had been to confirm the 
new style of secular music, Charles II's taste for things 
secular had most effect in the range of church music. The re- 
action in favour of the old scheme of English life and of things 

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which were characteristic of it, brought into great prominoice 
eapeciaUy those things which the Puritans had sappretned. 
In connexion with music the things which had suffered most 
were church munc and church establishments; so it naturally, 
followed that the reaction made church muaic the most promi- 
nent feature in the field of English art. But the king's tastes 
combined with the tendencies of the day to make it quite a 
different thing from what it had been before the reign of his 
&ther. Charles II did not care for devotional music. As 
one of the most conspicuoos prototypes of modem fashionable 
Bodety he insisted on being amused. There was no subjectivity 
about him, and even in the services of the church he wanted, 
not what expressed the inner fervour of the spirit, but some- 
thing with an easy rhythm, to which he could beat time with 
his hand ; die lively sound of fiddles, a pleasing solo, or the 
skill of an adroit ringer. This explains why his influence upon 
the course of church muric was so much greater than his 
personality seemed to warrant. His secular tastes chimed with 
the muucal movement of the country; and the effect was to 
transmute church muric into a new type altogeUi^ — by infusing 
it with the principles of the new* secular art — and to bring 
subjective religious muric almost entirely to an end in this 
country, where it once had thriven so copiouriy. But the 
actual share of the king in this change may be overestimated. 
If he had been a man of deeply devotional and earnest nature 
he might have retarded the change; as he was not^ his en- 
couragement of the new style merely facilitated what was 
inevitable^ and prevented conservative English composers from 
wasting time in trying to renew the glories of a language 
which for the time being had become unintelli^ble. 

But before proceeding to the critical examination of the 
muric of the period itself, it may be advantageous to glance 
through the main points of the chronology up to the end of 
the ceatmy. A good many of the foremost composers and 
muridans of Chatles I'b time survived till the return of hia 

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son is l660f and their Heirices wen called in at once to revive 
the music of the church. Cooke waa made master of the Chapel 
Royal boys. Henry Iawcs composed an anthem for the 
Coronation. Child was made composer to the king. Christopher 
Gibbons, son of the great Orlando, was made onanist of 
Westminster Abbey. Benjamin Rogers, who enjoyed an 
European reputation as a composer of instrumental music, 
was made m^aniat of Magdalen CoU^e, Oxford, And there 
were many other composers of mark, such as Matthew Lock, 
Dr. Colmaa, Simon Ives, and Wilson, who were ready to do 
service in renewing the glories of Enj^h ecclesiastical music 
A few of them had sufficient musicianship to hare attempted 
music in the grare old style, but no one reaUy wanted it. 
They all followed the teadendes of the day, and they had 
little occasion to do otherwise. If the new style of muuc 
was worth cultivating at all it seemed worth employmg in 
the services of the church. So the solo music and dialogues, 
and the inatrumental accompaniments, and the declamatory 
style, were introduced into anthems and * services,' carrying 
out more completely the mild suggestions of secularity which 
had appeared in such quarters even before the Civil War. But 
the old stagers could not go tax enough for Charles IPs taste. 
He wanted a more uncompromising transformation of church 
mnnc than they could supply, and as it appeared that some 
of the choir boys under Cooke had a pretty talent for composi- 
tion, the king sent Pelham Humfrey, who was the brightest 
of them, over to France to develop his powers. He appears 
to have been appointed to the Chapel Royal when the church 
establishments and choral services had been revived within 
a few weeks of the king's return in 1660. At that time he 
was thirteen years of age. The first mention of compositions 
by him ia in PepyB* Diary of November, 1663, and it was at 
that time that the king achieved the characteristic and subtle 
stroke of humour of sending him over to France to study the 
metiuids of the most celebrated composer of theatrical music 

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of the time in oider to leam how to compose English dinrch 
music. The hmnour was quite uniutentioQBl, but it gave avay 
the cose; for it afforded obvious proof of the fact already 
insisted oa, that the meaning of the musical rerolation of the 
serenteenth century was the aecularization of the art ; and tiiat 
even church music, in order to take new life, had to adopt 
methods which had been devised for purely secular purposes. 

Humfrey came back from France in i66g, thoroughly imbned 
with the declamatory methods of the Froich theatrical style, 
and in the few remaining years of his life, which only lasted to 
1674, laid the foundations of the new kind of EnglUh cfanrch 
music. There were two other choir boys of great ability of tlie 
same standing as Humfrey. The most conspicuous of them 
was John Blow, whose birth-year was 1648, After an excellent 
groonding as a Chapel Boyal boy, he was made organist of 
Westminster Abbey in 1669, and ' Master of the Children of the 
Chapel Royal' in 1674. Purcell was for a time his pupil, and ftv 
him Blow resigned his post as organist of Westminster in 1680, 
but was reappointed after his death. Micliael Wise, another 
Chapel Royal boy, was probably bom the same year as Blow. 
He was not so prommeat as his two contemporaries, though be 
occu^ed such honourable pocdtions as the oiganistahip c^ 
Salisbury Cathedral from 1668 till 1676, and of St Paul's 
Cathedral in 1687, in which year he was killed in some scufBe 
in tile streets of Salisbury. Henry Porcell belonged to the 
next generation of choir boys, and was fully ten years younger 
than those mentioned above. He is reported to have been 
successively pupil of Cooke, Humfrey, and Blow, He made 
essays in church music, like many another English composer, 
in early years; but the first period of his mature activity 
was mainly confined to theatrical music, in the shape of soaga 
and incidental music to i^ys. It was not till after his ap- 
pointment as onanist of Westminster Abbey that his extra- 
ordinary outpouring of music for services and ecclesiastical 
functions of all sorts In|;bu. His activity in thia line continued 

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tot nuay yean. But he reanmed hia connexion with the 
theatre sbont 1686, uid after that time produced many of his 
Qtogt atennve and important works. Hia principal inttm* 
mental comporitunu were produced at wide intervals. The 
first set of Sanataa of three parts was printed in 1685; 
early in what may' be called hia churdi mnnc period. The 
twelve lessons tor harpsichord in Mtuicl^i Hmdmmd ap- 
peared in 1689 ; the admiraUe inites for harpnchord or sinnet 
which appeared under the name of A choice eoUtetion iif 
Lentmt were published after the composer's deaths in 1696, 
as was also the important collection of sonataa for stringed 
instnunents, including the one that still dimly echoes in the 
ears of men as the *G(dden Sonata.' 

After Pnrcell's death in 1695 En^ish mnnc id its most 
characteristic forma, irfiether sacred or secular, progressed no 
further. John Blow surriTed hia great pupil till 1707, and 
added to his prerioua achievements such works as the setting 
of Drydrai's Ode on the deatii of Furcell, odes for New Year's 
days, and St, Cecilia's days, a collectitm of aongs called 
AmpMon Ang&etu (1700), and an interesting set of * Lessons 
for the Harpsichord' (1698}, which are full of good detail and 
artistic workmanship. Jeremiah Clark also came upon the 
scene, and had the honour to be the first composer who set 
Dryden's Aiextmder'i Fetut in 1697. But Purcell's genius had 
antiripated all that hit contemporaries woe capable of. Thm 
work after he had gone was but the afte^ow of an extza- 
ordinary outburst of musical energy in the coontry — and there 
was no time for a new generation to arise: for, had Purodl 
himself survived, he would have been but fifty-three when 
Handel inaugurated the new era of foreign domination with 

The chnrdi music of the Restoraticm is one of the most 

interesting and unfortunate phenomena in the whok rai^ 

tA modem music. Its growth was almost hectic in its n^iidi^, 

and infantile traits of immatnri^ dung to it from first to last 

I * 

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It was adngularly flctf-contained, having so close and complete 
relatioD to any other branch of art of the time and no parallds 
in other countries. It is full of enei^etic and indiridual artistic 
intention, of moments of surprising viridneu and intenu^, 
all carried out without stint of mental effort, and with a 
thorough devotion to such ideals as a man in the time of 
Charles II could attain to. Moreover, among the composers 
who contributed to it were men ot remarkable genius, and even 
the subordinate composers had moments when they were 
touched by tlie divine Sre. Yet the greater part of it is doomed 
to almost inevitable silence, and to be appreciated only by 
the few musically organized beings who not only read the 
music to themselves, but can read into the scantiness of the 
mere owtline the greatness of thought which is little more 
than suggested. It is difficult not to indulge in fruitless 
speculations as to what Purcdl and Humfrey and Blow might 
have done if they had lived in times when the resources of 
art were m<we developed. Some of their thoughts seem to 
cry out for tiie cobur of the modern orchestra, when the 
utmost they can avul themselves of amounts to two or three 
lay clerks and a simple chord or two on the diapasons. But 
at that time these slender resources of utterance seemed suf- 
ficient. It was by no means artistic reticmce which bound 
them. That was ao characteristic of the age. Rather would 
it be tail to say that the extraordinary character of the munc 
came from the fact that the composers had every encourage- 
ment to be venturesome. In that respect the influence of 
Charles and the Court told, and the absence ot the nsoal 
reserve of English composers produced a very mixed result. 
They had but few standards by which to judge their work ; and 
as it was by no means a reticent or self-respecting age, many 
otherwise admirable works were marred by faults of taste and 
judgement which to minds nurtured on the artistic products 
of later generations appear ahnost ludicrous. On the one 
band this ventuiesomeness was answerable for the truly splendid 

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prematiuity of some of Furcell'a strokes of genius, and some 
very notable moments in Humfrey's, BloVe^ and Lock's works ; 
but on the other it induces a sense of insecurity; because by 
the side of such moments there so otten ai:^>ear moments of 
bathos and childishness. 

The explanatbn of most of the peculiarities of the Restoralion 
church music Ues in the fact that it originated miunly in the 
idea of declaiming passages of scripture by solo voices in 
such a way as to drive home their meaning and make them 
impressive. In this the influence of the French theatrical 
school is apparent, and indeed this waa the only department 
of the church arts to which the teaching of LuQi could have 
been applicable. Choral music was only a secondary con- 
sideration at first, and came hack into the scheme by d^rees 
as composers grew to see the advantage of enlisting into it 
more features which afforded means of contrast and addi- 
tional sources of effect. The bold declamatory phrases in 
the earlier aotheme, especially Humfrey's, have the tokens 
of the French manner of dealing with the dialogue, which 
may well have come from Lolli's advice and example. It is 
true that the solo music of the English masques and soki 
songs and dialogues prefigures something <^ the style and 
methods of treating the wards adopted by Humfrey; but by 
the side of his energetic and deliberate phrases the earlier 
attempts seem very lame and feeble. An example which is 
very characteristic and sa^^estive of the composer's intentions 
is the passage 'Why art thou so full of heaviness, O my soul?* 
&om Humfrejr's ' Like as the Hart,* in which the rdteration 
' Why ? why ? ' is angularly well and justly conceived and 
effectively treated. 

fl'^' ^ 1 rtiTi u " l Uu I 

Vhr aiitboaao faU tt ho-Tl-DMi . . mrKnl, O . . nrMaJt 

I^l^l I l|' I'll 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


c • 9 rrr c i; ; 

Vbj, Whj art Uus ao fill of h« - t1 - tuM . . O Bif ■nit 

and agun — 

e r -c r 

A peculiarity of the &igli»h ra» antbema was the frequcDcy 
with which several solo roicea were combiDed in dedamattwy 
paaaages. A very curious instance is the folknrii^; passage 
tnm Humfrejr's 'Hear, O heavens': — 

• Zf T 

1^ J J J 

Wuli n IUk> Ton Oma, 

r tba ■ - tU ot ] 


.j^.'ar I 'r.eff ^ 

r J J •' •' J j 

f — r- 



[i g •p' = 

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This nngular fonn waa very popular throughout the iriiole 
period of the ' Restoratioii ' chprch muaicj and a great deal 
of ingenuity was expended upon giving the respective voices 
independencej and contriving suitable and truthfully declama- 
tory panoges without often resorting to mere imitations of 
passages or figures one from another, or to the stiU weaker 
leaource of umply hamio&izing the phraaes of the upper voice. 
The type; ia apparently very congenial to th? English tempera- 
m«i^ for the glees of later times have just the same foundation 
in elaborate independ^ice of the voke-parts^ though the style 
is so much more light and lively. The procesa of develop- 
ment from unsystematized declamatory solo music waa 
umilar to that of the *Nuove Mufdche,' as manifested in 
musical drama in Italy. The scheme was rather vague in 
general deaigQ at finit; but instinct, which accords with 
the oniversal law of evolution in working towards definite- 
ness and differentiation, led composers to introduce clear 

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melodic phrasea, and to seek sach dispodtion of the 
iugredientB of their works as conveyed more and more the 
effect of systematic and orderiy Btructore. And in ap- 
proaching this side of the question it is weU to coouder 
why Btmctural elements or organic symmetry ahould be an 
inevitable outcome of the new secular departure in art. The 
subjective quality of the old devotional muac implied a state 
of trance in the worshipper, who allowed all his intellectual 
faculties to remain in abeyance, and in his most completely 
devotional moments was absorbed in an ecstasy of religions 
sentiment. To such a state formal piindples were superfluous. 
They might be said to be even obnoxious and obstructive. 
All that was required of the ideal worshipper was to dream, 
and to submit himself to the influences of vague mysterious 
instincts — not to think or analyse or become conscious of the 
reality of the everyday world. But as the exercise of the 
critical faculty and the invasion by intellect of the domain 
claimed by the ancient religion became inevitable, the ecstatic 
condition of ideal devotion became more and more geuuindy 
impoBuble; the ecstatic and indefinitely mysterious music of 
the old order became equally impossible; and the composer, 
Hke the thinker, had to attend to the structural oi^;anization 
of his work, and to justify it from the intellectual as wdl 
as from the purely emotional side. 

The formal or constructive elements in musical art therefore 
represent its practical and intellectual ude; and it will be 
observed that they began to be noticeable in muuc with the 
first steps into the r^on of the non-ecclesiastical, and that 
they grew more important and more perfect the further music 
moved away from the old traditions of the choral art of dte 
church. The formal elements seem in this sense to represent 
the gradual emancipation of the intelligence, and the assertion 
of its importance in the scheme of the inner man. Composers 
showed the completeness of their severance from the old attitude 
of religions music, and their instinctive leaning towards his- 

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trionic methods, Ijy adoptiog principles of dengn of the faarmonic 
kind in preference to those of a fugal kind. The harmonic typea 
of desi^ manifested themselves even in Hnmfrey's work, and 
continued to be more and more deliberately adopted and care- 
fully manipulated as the century proceeded. The manner in 
wtuch systematically constructed solo muuc of a mdodious 
Itind gradually came into use serves as a atriking illustration. 
The earlier composers were evideotiy doubtful of the expediency 
of introducing definite melodious passages. They took the 
nocerer position lA dealing directly with the words, and allowing 
themselves to be guided by them. Consequently at first they 
produced tbdr finest effects in the declamatory s^le. Tbey 
probably thought, as inexperienced composers generally do, 
that their audience would enter into the subject in the same 
spirit as they did and see things in the same light. But they 
soon found out that it was easy to overestimate the sincerity 
and the powers of attention even of woTshippen in church; 
and the effect was to make the Restoration composerBj who were 
dependent for their success on the £iog and the Court, move 
steadily in the direction of tunefulness and cleamess and sim- 
plid^ of construction, which made the music easier to listen 
to and more readily intelli^ble to the merely practical mind. 
A passage which mariu the bc^ning of this tendency is the 
tenor solo 'Against thee only* in Humfrey^s anthem 'Have 
mercy upon me,' which is modelled upon the simplest principles 
of form by the grouping of bars and cadences. The tendency 
is also illustrated by the increanug frequency of the repetition 
of passages, and the reiteration of phrases for the purpose 
of conveying the effect of design. A f^milinr example of this 
kind of orderliness is the rdteration of a short passage of 
chorus, alternating with passages of declamation for solo voices, 
as in Hunifrey's 'Rejoice in the Lord.' Another structural 
device is that of rounding off and enforcing the end of a solo 
by repeating the last few bars. Yet another excellent device 
is the repetition by chorus of a complete passage given out first 

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by a wdoiBt or aa easemlde of wdo Toices; which U not only 
HtructuntUy satisfyiDg, bnt serves hf^qnly to auggest the sym- 
pathetic echo and response awakened by an uttered thought. 

As composers came to see their coune more clearly they 
adopted principles of structural de«gn with more deciskm and 
confidence; and thor new attitude entailed a. change in the 
texture of the music itself. To make the reiteration of ptuitMa 
effectire as a point of 'fcnrm' the phrases must of tbemselrea 
be definite and distinctive. It is of little use to repeat passsgea 
c^ mere vague polypbcMiic meaadering, which auditws cannot 
recognize and recalL So the admissioD of the prindide of' 
concrete repetition of paasagea to produce the effect of deugn 
brings in its wake tix ineritable search after mote and man 
definite musical sentences. Definition in detail is the necessary 
complement of definition in general. Both Purcell and Blow 
were well fitted to modify their art in the direction of the 
oincrete by the use of salient ideas and incisive pbrasec4c^. 
Indeed the composers of the Restoration time rather ovenhot 
the mark, for in the endeavour to make thdr periods as clear 
as possible they broke up thdr work into phrases which are too 
short, and succeed one another too rapidly and too frequently, 
and give the texture of the whole a patchy and disconnected 
effect. And this effect is rendered all' the more unsatidactory 
by the manner in which, through inexperience, they made many 
Utile sections close in the same key, thereby adding mimotony 
to patcluness, Michael Wise's 'Awake up, my glory' and 
'Blessed is he,' Blow's ' O ung unto God ' and 'O Lord, Ihare 
sinned' and 'I beheld and lo,' and Purcell's 'BeboU I bring 
you good tidings,' are unfortunate examples of anthems ««- 
tuning fine moments which are seriously marred by such 
fragmentariness. The contrast they present to the long 
unbroken sweep of the movements in the old choral vrorks 
is very striking, and it obviously marks the secular nature of 
the methods employed. Moreover, together with the definite- 
nesB of sentences and phrases there comes the definitenesa 

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of expreanon io detail, which is attuned by strongly marked 
and striking forms ol mek>dy and rhythm, and peculiar chorda 
and progressions. 

Purcell's comprehenuve genius seized upon aU the points 
of vantage available in secular methods. He used eccentric 
and astonishing chords, unexpected progressions, and lively 
figures of melody, which are all characteristic of secular art. 
One of his pitfalls was an orer-'fondness for a lilting rhythm 
of longs and shorts, usually expressed by a dotted note suc- 
ceeded by the short note which is its natural complcmoit in 
completing a beat. 

^■7 i ^./^iJi^xji..j i jj J , ^ i i jj 

(Had ti^ti^ ^, pl^ 


This rhythm is not only obviously secular, but is found 
precisely in the form which Purcell uses in an early English 
popular song. For instance, as an expression of joyousneis 
in the phrase 'In God's word will I rejoice' Purcell has the 
following passage : — 

In Ood*! mcd wUl In- JotM ~ 


>ni I Mu ■ 

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vhich has its exact counterpart in the early song i 
Deuteromelia of 1 609, ' We be three poor mariners ' : — 

ItMLUdtlMrCHUldjULd •h*ll w« god 

An instance in which be comlnnes this Festive rhythm vith 
the curious declamatory ejaculaUon of the word ' O ' illustrstes 
again his histrionic leanings: — 

' ^"^'^■iyfJ^ ' iW^^ii -- i ^ 

It is concdrable that he got his cue hyr this ejacnlatory 
device from the Italian compoeas of whom he was so careful 
a student ; for a curiouB parallel is found in Carisumi's motet, 
'Sicut Stella':— 

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Hia fondness for it has become hmiliar from the stogular 
and well-known example ' Qoicken me, O quicken me,' But 
this device waa by no means confined to Purcell, as the {(^lowing 
excerpt from Blow's * My God, my God ' will show : — 

. Alls,T*Mr,i>dBi 

Another feature for which the Italian models were answerable 
is the extraordinary floridnesB ol some of the Restoration solo 
music. But there is a difference between Purcell's and Blow's 
florid ornamental passages and those of the Italians. The 
Italian examples of the period are nearly always mere orna- 
mental passages, forming a smooth flow of rapid notes which 
are eSectire for the Tocaliat. Biit their English counterparts 
are generally cast in some form which gives special character to 
the passage and is relevant to the mood or thought expressed 
by the words. As an example of the peculiar manipulation 
of florid passages so as to give them definite character, the 
fallowing from Purcell's ' O gire thanks ' may be taken : — 

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i.jJ i J.JJ i J.J ^1^1 N| 

The expreasire iotentionB of the composers occauonally bear 
fniit in a very fine florid passage in solos, but in the choral 
portions the roulades sometimes betray their emptiness rather 
conspicuously, and indicate an obvious concession to the taste 
of seculaiwninded auditors who took pleasure in mere brilliancy. 
The best excuse for such features in choruses is when they 
serve a histrionic purpose; as to represent the exuberance 
of joy, the pursuit of an «iemy, or the noi&e of a storm. 
Id munc which is nmply devotional ornamental passages 
are of doubtful expediency; and tbdr appearance in church 
, muuc is one of the conipicuous marks of its having become 

It would be natural to expect that in the choral department 
of chitrch muNC the great qualities of the earlier period of 
art would be still nuuntained, especially when the sentiment 
attaching to the English branch of the Reformed Church 
is considered. And it is true that the most ^fted of the 
young composers of the Restoration period produced a few 
works to be sung by lai^ choirs in dionu which are endenUy 
intended to represent the same kind of art as the great ch<»al 
works of the Elizabethan age. Composers had not ddiberatdy 
and of set purpose abandoned altogether the forms which were 
suited to performance by full choir. Whatever the Court 
taste and the general trend of art, there were some men of 
influence wbo nuuntained their admirati<m for the old style. 

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a? I 

and it ia deu that Purcell and Blow and Rogers and a tew 
otiter conspicuous representatiTes of the new movement were 
quite capable of emulating the dignity and grandeur of the 
eariier composers of pure choral music, and were sufEcient 
masters of the style to write superb passages, admirably 
schemed, in six and e^ht vocal parts. But eren when working 
oo such lines, seemingly inspired by the spirit of the great 
E^lkabethans, tiie spirit of the age constantly betrays itself. 
Thus in Blow's ' Save me, O Ood ' the declamatory and directly 
ezpreasire intentions are betrayed in the following ; — 

Similar and even more remarkable is the passage ' Turn ua, 
O God' from Purcell's 'Lord God of Hosts,' which ia as 
ronote in feeling from the ancient style as anything by a 
Slavonic genios of the latter part of the nineteoith oentory ; — 




? ■ r i f ' 
.1 , J ,1 I 



Lii ' fj ■ I J I j =il= 


, J. J 

If the attitude of composers is shown even in such 
reserved and dignified passages, it is naturally much more 

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obvious in works which are of tlie undisguised histrionic 
quality. It is most obviously betrayed by tbe frequency with 
which a word or aUumon tempts tbe composer to break out 
into superficially realistic passages. The most obvious ex- 
amples in the choruses are the gabbling * h^lelujafas ' v^iich 
are of such frequent and diatresMng occurrence at the end 
of the Restoration anthems. The intention is apparently to 
suggest the eager and joyful acclamation of the 'blessed,* 
but the result is nearly always trivial. The two fdlowing 
fragments from Hogat^ 'Bebcdd now' and Purcell's 'Thy 
way, O God' are typical: — 

I J J .1 .1 1 J J . 

Eba-b ■ Iii->li, Hkl.l* - Ia.}>li,H*l-l* . la-Jab, Hil-U ■ Im.Jak, » 


; J- J J 




J J. 

'- ■-'- Bd - 1* - hi . >h, Hal . ■- 

i r ' ' r r \ i'- i r. r . C C -i— r- 




J Jiij jj- j. i ,j j | J J j> j- =p=g^ 
1= c c c c fzV c i I e ^ 

, Hal.b . hi. 

, la-)ili,H>]ih, Ao. 

iiii.^r^l \ ::n ^ 

A fine exception is the * Hallelujah ' at the end of PurcelPa 
*Thy word is a lantern/ where for the moment he was 
inspired by a higher conception— less obviously histrionic, and 

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more geonmely human — and employs exprestdon rather than 
realistic suggestion. Another happy exception in which real- 
istic suggestion is tempered by nncerity is Bbw's well-known 
' X was in the spirit ' ; in which with the slenderest means the 
composer eridently attempts to su^;e8t the vision of heaven 
with the choirs of angels answering one another. An example 
similar in prindple to Carissimi's realistic methods is the fol- 
lowing treatment of the ejaculation 'There!' from Humfrey's 
•Haste thee, O God':— 

4 fm 4 

~ ■ arr ar.a m», Tbtnt Tbml 


>T-a D^ tbMaqr oT-wm^TbM*! Uwil T1ib*I TbH*l 

A noble example of a different kind of realism (endorsed in 
later days by J. S. Bach's use of the same device) is the close of 
thefirtt BoIoinPurcdl's'They thatgo down to the sea': — 

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The ReatxKtttion composers are afflicted by conspicuous 
mannerisms, and the nature of these mann^isms strongly 
suggests that they were moved to find devices which would 
arrest the attention of their hearers. This is most noticeable in 
their church music because the attitude is in such conspicuous 
contrast to that of the eariier church composers, who wanted 
to put the worshippers into the trance-like sleep of devotional 
ecstasy. The fact that thmr efforts resulted in nunnerisms 
was owing to the Bcantiness of technical development A con- 
spicuous instance is the frequent use of consecutive sevenths, 
as in Furcell's ' Remember not. Lord' : — 


j" J Hsj, A 'j 

4— gH 

a r 1^ ,/■' i" \^-4 

This peculiar progression was probably bcwrowed trom the 
ItaUans, wba had a great love tor it. It is difficult to avoid 
the feeling that there was some positive perversity in the 
affection for it. The great church masters had not allowed 
a discord to be used at all without preparation, but in this 
case not only is a harsh discord unprepared, but it is preceded 
by ahnost the most unsuitable chord in the whole system; 
suggestive not only, of violation of ancient custom, but of 
defiance. A quite peculiariy ugly example ia the following 
firoQi Rogers's ' Behold, I bring you glad tidings * : — 

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Another affertation which wag peculiar to English compoBers 
was the frequent use of abnormaDy abfltruae appoggiaturaa. 
They may be defined as ornamental notes which are extraneous 
to the harmony, but lie next to implied essential notes, and 
are quitted by a leap. 

An extreme instance occurs in Pelham Hum&ey's 'like as 
the hart': — 

In Michael Wise's anthem, 'The ways of Zion,' there is 
a group of these appoggiaturas in a foumpart choral passage 
to the words * See, O Lord, and conmder ' :— 


r f^ T 

■1 J 

This kind of appogg^tura is capable of very pathetic effect, 
as in the following passage from Blow's 'O Lord, I have 
sinned,' to the words * Mine age is departed ' : — 



d* - pon.*d, 

This device pervades all the Restoration mu«c whether 

ecclesiastical, theatrical, instrumental, lyrical, or chtHSl, and 

is hardly found in any other artistic period to the same 

extent; though an analogous mannerism is found in an early 

T 2 

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stage of the 'Nuore Musiche' in Italy, as described on 
p. 4a. 

Another practice of which the RestoralioD cotnposen were 
almost too fond was the chao^ng of a major third into a minor 
at will. Slight as the point ia, it becomes interesting on account 
of the predilection of Frescobaldi and Froberger for the same 
pnictice, as has already been described (pp. 78, loi). The 
device generally produces the effect of artificiality, but it is 
used with excellent effect at the beginning of Michael Wise's 
'The ways of Zion,' A curious example which betrays its 
inherent artificialit)r is in a fugue for the oigan by Matthew 
Lock published in the 'Melotheaia' of 1679. 

The spirit of the Restoration composers is typified by a weU- 
known group of pages in Bumey's Hiatort/, headed ' Dr. Blow's 
Crudities.' The particular crudities catalc^iied by Dr. Bumey 
do Dr. Blow for the most part great credit, for they show 
that he adventured beyond the range of the mere conventional, 
and often with the success which betokens genuine musical 
insight. But they are significant signs of the attitude of 
even the most serious-minded composers. It is clear that 
they were encouraged both by the spirit of the age and by 
the King to try experiments of all kinds; in church music 
as well as outside. The attitude was doubtless productive of 
great good, for without it the country would not have seen 
the phenomenal rapidity of musical expandon which finds 
its most familiar expression in Purcell's works. But it also is 
answerable for the actual and undisguised 'crudities' which 
are everywhere met with. Purcell himself supplies numerous 
examples which are quite as curious as Blow's; but in both 
cases it is easy to see that the crudities are the result of an 
intention to express somewhat pointedly the meaning of the 
words by a strildng or unusual progression or chord, which 
arrests the attention. The following example from Blow is 
as ingenious as if it was by Oriando Lasao :— 

_y Google 


mr. IM. 





, Uh in>lanUM»4(. 

Purcell in such cases illujBtratea very forcibly the chaDge of 
attitude in relation to choral muaic, for he often writes passages 
which are not only violently at variance with the old traditions^ 
but even with the true nature of choral music of any time; 
and are hardly to be interpreted at all, except by most dexterous 
management. The following passage will serve to show how 
sure Purcell requires his singers to be of their actual notes^ 
and bow deaf to the doings of thdr neighbours :— 








1 . 




IrJ ■ 



From these conraderalions it becomes obvious that the 
'Restoration* composers allowed themselves absolute latitude 

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in respect of harmony and pTOgression ; and that the old rules 
of the contrapuntal style ceased for a time to have any real 
inSuence in practical mueic. The excesses committed may 
hare had some little influence in the reaction which followed 
in the next century, when the trend of average music was bU 
towards colourless respectability. The extravagances of the 
Restoration composers are indeed much more interesting; 
and; though lack of experience' so often makes the experi- 
ments sound hollow, it was not because the chords or 
pn^ressioiiB are always essentially objectionably but because 
they are out of gear with the average "standard of that stage 
of art. 

The mannerisms and artificialities, however, are unhappy 
hindrances to the church music of this period bung frankly 
and always welcome. Works of art which contain features 
which jar upon sensitive natures require supremely great 
moments or qualities of profound impressiveness to make Uiem 
endurable. But as these ' Restoration * works are in great part 
stated in the slenderest terms and lack all sensuoos qualities 
of colour and warmth, the great and interesting moments with 
which they abound are tragically futile; as they serve only 
to preserve a very limited modicum out of a great mass of 
artistic works from being altt^ether unknown to any but the 
most cosmopolitan specialists. 

These finer quahties are naturally most numerous in Purcell's 
works. He not only had the advantage of greater genius, but 
of the many antecedent years of the speculative activity oi 
his seniors, Felham Humfrey, Wise, and Blow. He moreover 
enjoyed the finest opportimiUes ever allotted to a church 
composer. In 1674 violins were introduced through the favour 
of Charles II into the machinery of church music; and by 
the time Furcell bc^n his connexion with it composers bad 
the advantage of writing services and anthems on an expanded 
scale, with all the advantages of variety and effect wluch the 
combination of a choir and soloists with an orchestra affords. 

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Furcdl's anthems, written under such favourable and e ffec t ive 
couditiona, may be baAj regarded mi the highest representatives 
o( the Restoration church mauc and the cotnpletegt and tooet 
comprehenaiTe examples of the methods and characteristica 
o( the school. The taste of the age is obviouslf predmninant, 
tempered at times by flashes of sincere genius. The most 
unirersal fact which strikes any one who thinks about it is 
the exh^vagant extent to which Purcell's work of this kind 
differed from the old devotional church music. That had 
been eMentially clwral, representing the direct expre8n<m c^ 
devotional feeling by human beings. The mature anthems 
of Purcell, Ob the other htind^ contwn a lai^per amount of purely 
instmmental music tlwn is to be found in almost any period 
of English church mu«c. The amount indeed is altogether 
disproportionate to the purpose and meaning of such church 
music, and could only have come Into use thit)ugh concessioa 
to predominaling taste, which was led to a great extent 
by the King himself. Many anthems are preceded by sym- 
phonies in two movements at least, which are equivalent to 
overturn. These &«quently begin vith a massive sonorous 
movement in common time, like the first movement of the 
French overtures ; but unlike them they do not proceed with 
a fugal movement, but with a pleasantly fluent movement 
rather like a minuet, with a natural swing about it, in which 
a dance measure is barely disguised, and no devotional or 
ecclesiastical meaning can be discerned. In fact this move- 
ment is even less suited to the church surroundings for which 
it was intended than an opera overture of that time would have 
been ; for at least the second movement of the French overture 
was cast in the severer form of a fugue; while the second 
movement of the anthem overture was in the simple and 
familiar form of the dance in two equal halves, each of which 
is repeated. A good lively example is the second movement 
of the symphony to Furcell's ' Behold now praise the Lord.' 

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m- J^'^tJ Lj 

Aguo, the old church music had been almost devtnd of masic 
for Bolo singerB. Its veiy methods and style all depended on 
a very subtle derelopment of part-wiitiag for many voices. The 
mature form of Bestoratioii anthems, as presented in its most 
complete proportions by Purcell* coneists almost entirely of solo 
and ensemble muuc. It looks as though the choral portions 
of anthems had fallen so completely into disfavour with the 
church public that they bad shrirelled up into the meanest and 
most iasignificant proportions, and were pushed into a comer 
at the end of the anthem to accompany the shuffling of the feet 
while people were preparing to kneel down agun after their 
musical entertainment. The majority kA these anthems con- 
sist of a monotonous succession of trios, solos, duets, and 
quartets, sometimes as many as five or six in a row, with 
a few bars of chorus, in a very perfunctory style, to end 
with. The point which makes for sincerity is that the vAa 

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music haa no pretensionB whatever to tunefulness. One would 
almost think composers made up their minds that whatever 
concessions they had to make to popular taste there was a point 
b^w which they would not demean themselves. And it cannot 
be denied that in view of the great facility of Purcell and some 
of his contemporaries in composing tuneful ditties it is very 
surprising and noteworthy that they never bring their abilities 
in that direction to bear in church muuc. Such reticence 
implies a strength of conviction in the Restoration composers 
which is very much to their credit. All the copious mass of 
solo music technically called ' verses ' is a voy high develop- 
ment of the methods of declsmatory sob mnnc displayed in 
the early oratorios and operas of Peri and Cavalieri and 
Monteverde ; the more definite characteristics bong prefigured 
in the dialogues and even the * ayres ' of the middle period of the 
c^itury, such as those of the brothers Lawes, Lock, and Colman, 
and the writers of declamatory music for the masques; to 
which must be added a certain amount of influence htuling 
from the best masters of Italy, such, especially, as Carisumi 
and Rosu. The influence of the Italians is shown in details, 
such as the frequent florid passages, and certain melodic fonnulas, 
but the whole flavour is characteristically English, and far 
more intellectual and dehberate than spontaneous. The minda 
of the EngUsh composers were concentrated upon the words ; 
but it is noticeable that they tumed at impressing their audience 
with forms of declamation which were rather oratorical than 
mu^cal. Occasionally they hit upon a direct and beautiful 
moment of genuine musical expression, but these genuine 
musical moments are rarer than the occasions when they resort 
to obvious tricks of realism (which have been already com- 
mented upon), and the striking and indeed noble experiments 
in musical oratory. It emphasizes, from an additional point of 
view, the fact that the attitude of the composers was not 
devotional, and that they did not include beauty or any appeal 
to the softer sentiments as things worth trying for, and that 

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the m^ difference between the new sacred and secular marac 
was DO more than in degrees of seriousnesa. 

In close connexion with the solo mueic in the aQtbems, and 
making a sort of link between them and the fine secular eohm 
in the miuic of rariouB plays, are a number of works for scJo 
voices, set to sacred words or dealing with striking situationfl 
recorded in the Bible, but not intended to be performed in 
church. An eminently characteristic example of this class, 
which stands as it were midway between the church worics 
and the works which were written to decisively secular words, 
is PurceU's scene for three voices called * Saul and the Witch 
of Endor.' This work is representative of the same branch 
of art as the dialogues^ which have been described in connexion 
with the English composers of the middle of the century. 
The increase of scope and resource upon those crude and 
infantile works ^rea very emphatic proof of the speed with 
which music had gone forward, and also of the genius of 
Porcell. The work begins with a trio 'In guilty night,* 
which is remarkably rich in expressive qualities, and very 
free in the treatment of the respective voices. The dialogue 
between Saul, the Witch and Samuel is very long, full of 
strokes of declamatory and oratorical effect, and with an 
accompaniment which is rich in original progresaionB. Mere 
tunefulness is never affected. It is mainly a sincere attempt 
to put the scene into true musical terms. The excesrive 
floridoess which has been referred to in Church Music is 
again conspicuous. Even Samuel in warning Saul of his 
imminent death cannot refrain from a long flourish. It 
really seems as if compoeen of the time felt elaborate 
flourishes to be important resources of expresuon ! A trait 
which is an interesting survival from the dialogues of the 
middle period of this century (p. 3io), is the combination 
of the three soloists in a trio at the end. This trio covers 
so much ground as illustrating Purcell's characteristics that 
it is worth inserting here : — 

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In the some category with this interesting work are the 1mm 
Bolos 'Job's Cune' and 'The Resurrection,' and the work 
for treble solo called 'The Blessed Virgin's Expostulation.' 

As has already been pointed out, choral munc is most 
scantily and disappointingly represented in most of Porcell's 
laigest anthems. But this can hardly have been on account 
of inadequacy of the available force of singers, for every now 
and then passages make their appearance which require a full 
and weU-trained choir to do them justice. The anthem 'My 
heart is inditing,' wluch is written with string accompaniment, 
contains weU-developed eight-part choruses on a grand scale. 
But this was probably the result of the anthem b^g intended 
for the coronation of James II. The neglect of such seasonable 
opportunities of impressive effect seems most likely to have 
been owing to the taste of the age, which r^arded elaborate 

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choral music as old-fashioned and tedious. It certunly was 
not owing to any lack of appreciation or power on Purcell's 
part, for when opportunity offered he wrote with tnore variety 
of resource and effect than any other composer of the century. 
These varied powers are however more often displayed in non- 
ecclesiastical forms of art. This is even noticeable in his music 
for plays and operas, which is as conspicuously full of choruses 
as his church music is devoid of them. But the department in 
which he showed his great powers and resourcefulness in dealing 
with chorus is in his secular and semi-sacred odes. The com- 
posers of the latter part of the seventeenth century bad to 
exerdse their talents very liberally in this direction. Indeed, 
if the frequency of performances of musical rejoicing were 
any genuine criterion, the later Stuarts might be interred to be 
among the best-loved monarchg who ever tenanted a throne. 
Purcell himself had to produce odea in honour of the King's 
return from Newmarket, in honour of his return from Windsor, 
in honour of bis reappearance at Whitehall after a summer 
outing. He had to write a umilar work for the coronation 
of James II ; also, by command, a thanksgiving anthem for 
an event concerning the Queen, which many people thought 
never happened. Beudes these, he had to write odes for 
Queens' and other royal people's birthdays, odes styled vaguely 
' for the King ' i. propos of nothing particular, and a funeral 
anthem for the death of Queen Mary. With thrae may be 
classed more decisively secular odes; such as the Torkahire 
Feast Song of 1689; the Commemoration Ode for Trinity 
College, Dublin j uid a great many odes for different yearly 
celebrations of St. Cecilia's Day. The taste for this kind 
of performance was evidentiy taking a strong bold, and in 
them we may see the forerunners of the Handel cantatas 
and oratorios of half a century later, and the profuse culture 
of artistic works for soli, chorus and orchestra, both sacred 
and secular, in the nineteenth century. Purcell's hanrfling 
of a large form of art of this kind is as characteristic in 

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diction aad detail as it is maaterful in the managemeiit of 
the larger features of the design. Though for obvious reasons 
he escaped the temptation to adopt methods belonging to 
the sonata type in such works, in other respects his scheme 
is almost as complete as HandePs, and that of many a genuine 
modem romanticist. He employs a wonderful variety of means 
of contrast and relief, First^ in the broadest sense, the variety 
of instrumental music, choral music, and solos. In the different 
species, again, he has subspecies. In the instrumental music 
he has the massive preliminary movements at the beginning of 
bis * symphonies,* the dance movements, the movements which 
have a technical basis (such as the fugal canzonas), the descrip- 
tive and su^estive movements. Then in the choral department 
there are like varieties of type — the contrapuntal choruses, the 
homophonic choruses, the expressive choruses, and the dramatic 
and histrionic choruses. In the solo department there are the 
simple tuneful ditties, the recitatives of an English kind, the 
dramatic, e^qncssive or oratorical passages, and the ornamental 
solos. Then, again, Purcell anticipates to a considerable degree 
the methods of varying the instrumental colour which form the 
basis of modem orchestral art. The amount of possible variety 
is not of course very great in his works, bdng confined to 
strings, tmmpets and drums, hautboys, flutes and bassoons. 
But be employs them not merely as means to make a mass 
of sound, but as a means of clear and deliberate contrasts 
of tone. The trumpets are frequentiy used in the manner 
characteristic of the time for florid passages as well as for 
fanbres. The hautboys have long passages to themselves in 
answer to long passages for strings, and flates are treated 
in the same manner; indeed, in the St, Cecilia's Day Ode 
of 1593 he antidpated Wagner's theory of having groups of 
three to complete the tone colour of different types of wind 
instruments; as in a solo number of the work two treble 
flutes and a bass flute are employed for uniform effect of tone. 
In other respects his methods of using special instruments 

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rather lesemUe J. S. Bach's, in giving long obbligato accom- 
paniments to hautboys or other solo instruments in bi^ 
movements. The following characteristic illustration from 
the bass solo 'Wondrous Machine' from the Cecilia's Ode 
of 1692 very fordbly recalls Bach's methods, in the perfect 
independ^ice and equality of the voice and accompanying 
instruments: — 

HoTvever, the style of passages written for the various 
instruments cannot be said as yet to be invariably distinctive ; 
the same passages are written for wind instruments and 
strings. Even in the case of the trumpets the strings are 
sometimes directed to repeat or double, and the basses occa- 
nonally play drum parts. Moreover, Purcell, like most of 
the composers of the next century, uses his wind instruments 
very capriciously, leaving available resources and colours either 
totally silent in many whole movements, of only indicating 
doubling with strings. In his treatment of the chorus there 

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are many features which are highly characteristic and dis- 
tinctive. Apart from mere individuality and frequent wilful 
banhneaa in detail, the intention ig conapicuous to make the 
music as apt as posmble to the spirit of the words in a 
style which is fit for human bdnga to utter. Thus there is 
something over and above pure technical or abstractly musical 
treatment. Harmonization, melody, rhythm, polyphony, all 
minister in one way at another to the expression. Sometimes, 
as in the choruses Id the operas, the singers utter the feelings 
of the bemgs they represent; sometimes they combine to give 
a histrionic impression, and sometimes they declaim the words, 
in masses of harmony. Fugal and purely contrapuntal treat- 
ment is by no means so preponderant as might be expected. 
In general, the methods very clearly and very strongly prefigure 
those of Handel, and are but very little behind Handri's work 
in mastery of technique. The solo portions are on the 
same lines as the solos in the c^ieras and music for stage 
jdays, and do not demand special considerations in connexion 
with the odes. But taking the form of art as a whole, the 
stride which is |»esented in scope and variety of resource, 
when compared with the standards of even a quarter of 
a century earlier, is immense. There are kindred qualities 
of enterprise and wilfulness in Furcell and Monteverde; but 
a comparison of those greater odes, which combine without 
atint all the known resources of musical art, with the adven- 
turous efforts of Monteverde, gives a great impression of the 
inventive energy of composers in the interim, and especially 
of the pre-eminent genius of Furcell. Other composers tried 
their hands in the same line, but even John Blow with all 
bis ardour and devotion altogether failed to keep pace with 
his former pupil ; and, except in so far as they corroborate 
existing taste tor the particular class of music, the detailed 
consideration of lus odes is supo^uous. 

The province in which Piucell showed his highest and most 
varied powers was in music for the theatre, and music wedded 

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to secular poems emboclying dramatic ideas. In this province 
he had the advantage of copioua antecedent vork both in this 
country and in others. By far the greater part of the energy 
of composers in Italy and France had been exerted in this line 
during the whole time since the beginning of the century ; and 
the vork that had heesa done in thia countty waa by no means 
to be despised. For the new order of secular composera bad 
done a good deal to establish an individual national stylej and 
even to show in what way music might be employed in theatrical 
performances in a manner conformable to the taste of the people. 
The manner in which instrumental interludes and dances and 
Bonga and passages of recitative were introduced into masques 
suggested the methods upon which composera might attempt 
incidental music to plays and operas. The aversion of a certain 
section of the Puritans to stage plays had caused the theatres 
to be closed to everything but a few experimental operas and 
a masque during the Commonwealth; but when the order of 
things changed, and the histrionic tastes of Charles II caused 
the theatres to be exceptionally favoured, ordinary stage plays 
again came out in profusion. The keenness of the' public as 
well as of the King for theatrical muuc was probably answerable 
for the amount of music which was introduced into these plays. 
Matthew Lock, whose gifts lay most strongly in this direction, 
produced some interesting music for a performance of the 'Tem- 
pest' in 1670; among which is an extraordinuy and unique 
instrumental movement which attempts, without conventional 
forms or imitations or any of the ^miliar technical devices of 
the art, to express and illusteate a dramatic idea. It is the 
more remarkable because, unlike most premature experiments 
of the kind, it is very near b^ng successfuL It is called 
a * curtain tune,' which amounts to the same as an ' entr'acte ' 
in modem muac, and is evidentiy intended to have a close 
relation to the act which is to follow. It begins slowly and 
softly, creeping about mysteriously with some very adventurous 
and curious progressions : — 

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j-j ,j^r~-ii J 




ecJ'f^''^ I 'tlfU-^r 




After a while it gets louder and more animated, and arrives 
by dqp«e8 at a respectably Tehement climax^ to part of which 
the nntiBual musical direction ' violent ' ia given : — 

Then the nwigic geU ' loft and slow by dejfrees,' dying away 
into a peaceful and expresaire cadence: — 

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S^ «■( lint t| rfvran 

H^ ' 'u ii '^n" - | i ^^1 

. - J"^ :m7T ; rrp f. j j- i 

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Thifl bdng one of the first attempts at informal dramatic 
instrumental mnuc emphasizes the composer'B oiiginalitjr; 
for though it contains passages similar in character to some 
that are met with in Lulli's operas, it must be remembered that 
the remarkable series of LuUian operas had not even b^un at 
the time it was written; and most of the instrumental mumc 
of that time was written in dance forma, or fugal form, or in 
the shape of massive passages aiming merely at sonority, like 
the slow movements at the beginning of Lulli'a overtures. 
Another work of Lock's, which has considerable historical 
interest, is the work which was published with the mutdc 
to the 'Tempest* in 1675, with the title, "The English Opera, 
or the vocal mouc to Psyche, with the instrumental music 
therein intermixed.' The kinship of the work with the masque 
is obvious. Tlie subject of the loves of Cupid and Psyche is 
very artifidally treated, with the view of, presenting a number 
of stage pictures witiiout much personal action or personal 
interest, using the declamatory solo passages as means of making 
the story intelligible, and resting the muucal attractions on 
characteristically English ditties, a very laige proportionate 
number of short choruses, and a few instrumental movements. 
As this music of Lock's is somewluit inaccessible, some 

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characteristic examples vill help to the (mderstanding of the 
poutton he occupies in relation to Purcell and the theatrical, 
and even ecclesiastical, music of the last quarter of the 
century. A typically simple English air is the song of Vulcan 
in Act iii, friiich is given as follows : — 













a mart not 1» 


•*f irtH 


It has two verses and a ritomello of four bars, and is 
followed by a sort of dialogue in fragments of song between 
the Cyclops and chorus, which looks almost as if the device 
huled tiom the tap-room. The airs are for the most part 
very sjurited. The following commencement of one of them 
is curious, on account of its obviously anticipating a t 
tune of H&ndel: — 



D,„ii.ab, Google 


Tbe quAsi-recitative agun illuatnitca the indinstion o( 

Eoglisli composerg to adopt definite and tuneful forms lather 
than the undiBguiaed incoherencf of the Italian form. Even 
when the intention is evident to acbiere expressive declama- 
tioQ the bass and tbe cadences are so grouped as to give the 
impression of orderly oi^^anization. This may be observed in 
the following apostrophe, which hegms a curious scene between 
'Two despairing men, and Two despuring women/ who dis- 
cuss the sufferings caused by love ' in a Rocky Desart full of 
dreadful Caves and Cliffs* : — 

The connexion of this kind of art with the disk^ues 
of the middle period of the century is obvious. (See p. 210.) 
The choruses are direct, simple, and Thythmic,'and in a laige 
number of cases serve as alternate verses with a sok) song, 
after the time-honoured manner of English convivial music. 
The usual practice is for the principal characters in the 
scene to make some remarks, either in a tune-form or quasi- 
recitative, and for the chorus to complete the scheme by 

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endorang or amplifying thdr observ&doDB. Thus personified 
Envy remarks of Psyche, 'Her to the greatest misery I'll 
bring, and e*re I've done I'll send her down to Hell.' To 
which the chorus answer, addressing Psyche, 'There you shall 
always wish to die, and yet in spight of you shall always live.' 
At the end of the work, where Envy seems to have achieved 
the intention above expressed, Proserpine and Pluto sing a 
kind of recitative duet to the words 'Begone fur Psyche 
from this place^ for Psyche must the god of love embrace,' 
and the accommodating chorus endorses it by repeating the 
sentence exactly. As an example of the s^le of the choruses 
the latt^ part of the hymn to Apollo id the second act will 
serve, especially as it offers a curious parallel with an unfor- 
tunate feature in the 'Restoration' anthems; for the mere 
substitution of ' Hallelujah ' for ' lo Piean ' in the last four 
bars would make obvious the identic of the histrionic attitude 
in both cases: — 

The instrumental music of the work is incomplete, as Lock 
only published his own share of the composition, and he 
announces that the instrumental miisic before and between 
the acts, and the 'Entr^' in the acts, were by Giovanni 
Baptista Draghi, who consented to their being omitted. 
Lock's share in the instrumeatal music connsts of short 
ritomdloB to songs, and music to accompany certain stage 
displays. There is a ' Symphony at the Descending of Venus 
in her Chariot drawn by Doves'; another ' Symphony at the 
Descending of Apollo and the Gods.' Another symphony 
when Mars and Venus are meeting in the air, and yet another 

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*at the descending of Jupiter, Capid and Psyche,' near the 
end. The instruments are also directed to double the voice- 
parts in most of the cbonues. The symphonies are none 
of them long, at most thirty bars; and they are all in the 
same sort of massive style aa the opening movements of 
contemporary suites, such as Lock's own Pavans in the ' Little 
Concert,' or Lulli's opening movements to overturea. The 
iuitruments (probably strings) play almost throughout all 
blether, and thoe is little attempt at imitation or the super- 
fluities of learning. Sometimei, but not often, there is an 
attempt at tunefulness. In one case the instruments take 
up the tune which resembles ' See the conquering hero,' before 
alluded to ; and tunefulness is perceptible also in the following, 
which is to be 'plaid' while Mars and Venus meet, and is 
one of Uie liveliest (A these pieces of incidental music : — 







J ^ 
















1 ■' 1 Pl ill .nI ,j r 1 


ts-f — 1 !■' wi eoffl ■ 1 r r t ' r 


' u'f ' '[ '' 4 — 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


The whole work shows a true inatiiict tor stage miuic as 
far as it goes ; and the temptation to indulge in contrapuntal 
derices or iirelerant artistic technicalitiea o{ a style unsuited 
to the theatre is commendably lesisted. Lock evidently 
endeavoured to keep the stage situations Bteadily in mind, 
and to illuBtoate them by the most appn^riate music of which 
his powers and the limited development of technique at that 
time admitted. It moat be remembered that, when Lock 
jffoduced the opera of * Psyche,' Lulli was only just beginning 
his opera career; and only 'Cadmus and Hermione,' 'Alceste,' 
and * ThiaSe' had been written ; the latter indeed only app«ued 
the same year as 'Psyche*; so it was almost impossible for 
Lock to have taken his scheme or style from Lulli; and 
indeed the plan of the little work is rather strikingly divergent 
bom the Lullian type in some respects; though it naturally 
resembled the French form of opera rather than the Italian, 
as the taste of the King and Court had ao far been very 
strongly in favour of the French style. Moreover it was 
probably between the time of the production of the ' Tempest * 
(j6^o) and 'Psyche' that the unfortunate French composer 
Cambert took refuge in London ; as it is recorded by fVench 
authorities, who are possibly cfsrect, that be was appointed 
'Surintendaot' of the mmdc of the Court of Charles II, and 
that his operas, ' Pomone ' and ' Les peines et plaisira d' Amour,' 
were performed. As he was driven out of France through 
LuUi's macbioations in i6yt the inference seems likely that 
these performances took place about this time ; but by a 
ungnlar &tality all traces of records of such performances 
and of everything in the shape tA copies of the works have 
entirely disappeared on this side of the Channel, French 
influences were also represented in Court circles by the com- 
pose Grabn, of whom Pepys records Pelham Humfr^s 
contemptuous opinion in J.66y, calling him with characteristic 
irreaponubility 'Mons*. Grebus.' It is clear that this com- 
poser's position was a prominent one, as he had been called 

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upon to supply munc to an English 'Song upon Peace' for 
a Court function in 1667^ and in 16^4 an opera of hia called 
'The Marriage of Bacchus* is stud to have been performed 
at Drury IJane. He waa also the author of the opera * Albion 
and Albanius,* which was performed at Dorset Gardens in 
1685, but by that time a greater genius had taken posBescdoa 
of the field; and it cannot be regarded as having had any 
influence on the progress of operatic art in the latter part 
of the century, espedally as it is a vapid and colourless 

Lock himself only survived the publication of 'Psyche' 
two years, dying in J6yj ; and one of the first public com- 
poutiooa of Henry Purcell waa the el^y he wrote on the 
death of the veteran who, up to that time, had been the fore- 
most representative of theatrical music in this country. PnrcdU 
had indeed begun to write incidental music for pUjrs in l6y6, 
bong then raghteen years old. He produced in that year the 
music for 'Epsom Wells,' 'Aorengzebe* and 'The Libertine'; 
and in the munc for the last of these occurs one of the most 
permanently popular of his songs, 'Nymphs and Shepfaerds/ 
and the chorus 'In these delightful pleasant groves,' besides 
some effective dance-tunes. Being started in this direction he 
wrote in the following four years the music for 'Abdelazor,' 
'Timon of Athens,' 'The Virtuous Wife,' and 'Theodosius,' 
and also in 1680 his first opera, ' Dido and Mne&B.' Well 
authenticated evidence seems to corroborate the tradition 
that the latter work was written for Mr. Josias Priest's 
Boarding School at Chertsey, and there performed by young 
gentlewomen. The conditions under which it was presented 
fortunately did not influence the composer at all, as the 
choruses are written for a full and efficient choir, and the 
solos for singers of well-developed gifts. The general aspect 
of this remarkable work shows bow independent Purcdl'a 
attitude was, for it is neither on the lines of the French 
Opera, nor has it the artificial qualities of a masque. No 

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doubt he leftmt something from the French School and from 
its imitators, as well as from his old friend Lock, and even 
from his master John Blow, whose elaborate masque of * Venus 
and Adonis* (produced between 1680 and iSHy) has many 
striking traits of a type frequently met with in hia pupil's 
work ; but Purcell's B^le and treatment are thoroughly inde- 
pendent, and much more mature and free from helplessness 
than any previous English works. The point that is most 
cons^ncuous in ' Dido and ^neas ' is its umple sincerity. The 
composer, forsaking the artificialities which had latterly poa* 
•eased the stage when music was empbyed, endeavours to treat 
his characters as human beings, and to make them express 
genuine feeling in their solos. Even in Dido's first song 
with gromid-basB accompaniment, the endeavour to characterize 
the poignancy of her feelings is clearly apparent. The same 
spirit animates the aokts throughout and is true to the meaning 
of the words and the situations. The same intention is evid^it 
in Uie numerous choruaes, in which the composer endeavours to 
find such characteristic utterances as would be natural in the 
characters composing the chorus in the respective situations; 
just as Carissimi bad done in his little oratorios and Bach did 
later in his ' Passions,' and Handel in many of hia oratorios. 
Purcell shows himself a true scion of the northern races in 
employing rich variety of harmony as a means of expression. 
Indeed his scope in this respect is already wider than that 
of any other composer up to the date of its production. The 
interest of Italians in harmony diminished as their love of 
formal melody grew stronger. Great as was their fadllty in 
flowing counterpoint and in the disposition of the essential 
harmonic factors which served to give the sense of form clearly 
and comfortaUy, they cared little for the intense vividness 
which expressive harmonies can convey to a passage, from 
moment to moment. Purcell was, even at this eariy age 
and with little antecedent experiment in this direction, on the 
path leading to a higher standard of art than the Italians 

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ever attuned. The Eollotring passage, from the latto* part of 
a ground-bass song at the end of the work, is the most 
remarkable example of poignant hannonization, mth the 
definite purpose of intenaifying the exiwesnon of the words, 
which had as yet appeared in the wortd: — 

ri*-* 1 j'Tj — 1 1"^ r 1 -j'l 

DUO. - 

■^j J J 






• - r 


Abl Cor • 


a, fit.. 



1 rr r 





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Purcell here shows himself also a consummate master of 
expressiTe recitative, such as Carissimi had occasionally- 
achieved, and such as was,,, later, one of the most touching 
qualities of the great (German composers of the following 
century. He adventures boldly- into redtativea fully ac- 

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companied by his string band throughout, as in the recitative 
of the Sorcereas, 'Weird Sisters, ye that fright the lonely 
traveller.' His employment of instrumental forces is re- 
markably free and masterly. His little overture, which is 
on the French lines with sbw introduction and fugal move- 
ment, ia more consistently and genuinely carried out than 
the large majority of Lulu's own productions ; and the accom- 
paniments to songs, and incidental passages in choruses, 
and the one little dance-tune, show a considerable sense of 
instrumental style; while in tunefulness, sometimes with a 
slight flavour of Lock and other preceding English com- 
posers, he is never at a loss for a moment. When it ia 
rememboed that Alessandro Scariatti had not begun his 
career, and that the scheme of the artifidal mythological 
Froich Opera has little to do with his treatment, the work 
as a whole shows a confidence, readiness and variety of 
resoorce such as are only to be found with geoius of the 
highest order. No doubt the resources are slender when 
compared with those of the great German composers of the 
first half of the dghteenth century, and there is an inevitable 
archaic flavour about much of the mxaic ; but it is singulariy 
tree from formality and convention, and is more rich in 
harmony and variety of organization than anything which had 
appeared up to that time. 

After the production of ' Dido and ^Eneas ' Purcell forsook 
the stage for some time. His appointment as Onanist of 
Westminster Abbey in the same year, and of the Chapel 
Royal in 1682, caused him to be fully occupied for many 
yeaiB in writing Church music and odes for Court occasions. 
But he came back to the composition of music for stage plays 
and operas with enhanced and widened povrers, after about 
ten years* abstinence. In 1690 be wrote the music tor 
ShadweU's revised versirti'of Shakespeare's 'Tempest,' 'The 
Massacre of Faris^* Dryden's 'Amphitryon,' and an adapta- 
tion by Betterton, the actor, . of Beaumont and Fletcher's 

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' Dioclesian.* The music of this last U on so ext^isiye a scale 
that it amounts to an opera< It containa a very lai^ aDHnint 
of inBtnimental music, an extenBive orerture in several iiiot&> 
ments, dance-tunes of remarkable variety, and interludes ; 
vhile it brings into exercise flutes, hautboys, tenor hautboy, 
and trumpets, as wdl as strings. The choruses are very 
daborat^ and ^e songs vivacious and free. The following 
commencement of a song with trumpet obbligato vill show 
the boldness of his b-eatment, and the daims he made upon 
the efficiency of his p^ormers : — 

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f ^fm'bjifi' 

Ij l^'J I lljl 'J 

The Bt]rle of the whole gires an impression of greater 
arUsUc scope and fadlity than *Dido and ^neas/ though 
there U nothing which exceeds the poetic eentiment of the solo 
music oi the lorelom queen. The next year, 1691, after the 
productioa of ' Dioclesian/ saw that of * King Arthur/ which 
was the meet important work produced by Purcell for the 
stage. Unfortunately no complete copy has survived, and a 
few movements appear to be misnng ; but what remains makes 
a work of considerable proportions. Purcell in this case had 
the advantage of the diction and style of Dryden ; and, as he 
was always inclined to follow the words which he set very 
dosely, the conditions were &vourabte to his showing himself 
at hia best In reality, though always spoken of as an opera, 
it is rather a play copiously supplied with incidental music. 
The dialogue is not set, and the essential parts of the action 
would not be materially affected if all the musical portions 
were missed out. Indeed the music is not so essential as 
it is in * Dido and Maeaa/ or even in ' Diocleaian.' But the 

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quality 18 exceUent and foil of life. It has much the same 
features as the ew-lier works. The promineiice and style of 
treatment of the chorus is notahle. He lequires so much 
more from Uiem than foreign composers dared to do ; tor he 
expects his singers to. sing muric as elaborate as they would 
have to do in a concert room with books in thdr hands. But 
this greatly enhances the interest d the work, and ^vea it 
something of a national flavour. Amongst curious illustrations 
of the realistic bias of the compoBer the most conspicuoiis is 
the shivering solo, ' What power art thou ? * and the shivmng 
chorus, ' See we assemble.' No doubt the experiment is rather 
absurd, but it was not without precedents. Lulli had tried 
the same device in 'Isis,' which was one of the richest of 
his operas, and Cesti had a shuddering chorus in 'Pomo 
d'Oro.' Such a realistic element is very characteristic of the 
time, and, though almost out of the range of genuine art, 
might pass muster without obtrusively betraying the fact if 
the work was produced on the stage as intended. The work 
contains some of Purcell's most picturesque and fanciful 
achievements, and among his most famous tunes are the 
martial song ' Come if you dare ! ' and the charming ' Fairest' 

After the composition of the music for 'King Arthur,' in 
the few remaining years of his life Purcell poured out music 
for stage plays in profusion. In 169a he wrote music for 
no less than seven plays, in 1693 ^^' Io\a, in 1694 for five, 
and in the last year, 1695, for seven. Amosg these are 
characteristic numbers which are among his most brilliant 
achievements, generally in the form of long and elaborate 
scenes for solo voices. Their pre.eminent virtue is again the 
outcome of his instinctive ardour to give the most intense 
expression to the words, in this matter differing most stron^y 
from the attitude adopted by Italian opera composeiv. 
Pnrcell for the most part had little inclination for such a 
type of form as the aria with its dramatically sensdeas 'da 

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capo,' but he broke up hii Bcenea into passages of definite 
tunefulneM wbich have the ring of on appropriate folkHBong, 
and passages of highly descriptive and characteristic declama- 
tion in which the use of brilliant passages vas r^ulated by 
the sense of suitableness to the expression required ; while the 
quasi-recitative and the arioso are accompanied by hannonies 
and pn^ressionB which enforce the meaning to the utmost — 
thereby constaDtiy illustrating the relationship (A the genuine 
English composer to Uie great Teutons, in the recognition of 
the power of harmony to give direct and immediate signi" 
ficance to melody. 

The siurey of Purcdl's music for the theatre would not be 
complete without reference to his instrumental music written 
for plays. The traditions o£ the masque, and possibly the 
influence of the French Opera of the time, are shown in 
the conspicuous amount of dance-tunes which were introduced 
into works written for the stage at this period. Furcell 
wrote an immense quantity of such music. In the part 
books containing a 'Collection of Ayres composed for the 
theatre,' which were published in 1697 by his widow, there 
is dance music for more than a dozen different plays. 
What strikes the attention at first is that they are of snch 
thoroughly good artistic quality, which presupposes efficient 
and intelligent performers, and a standard of taste in the 
audiences which compares very favourably with that of later 
days. For, without overestimating the advantages people 
enjoyed in not having beard a < comet-a-piston ' or an ophi- 
deide, the intrinsic quality of the movements and the style 
of workmanship show that audiences appreciated artistic 
work. Purcell's standard scarcely varied at all throt^bout 
his career, and good work is found in his later works as often 
as in bis earliest. 

The music of these dance-tunes is very original, often 
national in flavour, and remarkably full of vigour and vitality. 
They are extraordinarily various in style and inventioo, and 

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often ingenious without a trace of pedantry or learned affec- 
tation. The foUowiog excerpts will serve to illustrate some 
of their qualities. Of the quiet, flowing^, melodious type, the 
following fiiBt baJf of a hornpipe from the 'Indian Queen' 
may be taken, in which the natural independent flow of the 
inner parts is a sign of Purcell's artistic purpose. It is also 
a happy examjde of the admirable manner in which he knit 
bis work into consistent unity; as it will be seen that he 
takes his cue for bars 4, j, and 6 from the characteristic 
formula of bar n — and thereby welds a considenble space into 
perfect consistency of style and mood ; — 

The following passages from a dance-tune in ' Diocleuan ' 
are even more obviously illustratire of this concentration upon 
a given idea, for a great part of the tune is a canon between 
treble and bass. But the progressions are so free and the 
style ao expressive that no suspicion of pedantry could be 
entertained. The illustration serves, moreover, as a happy 
example of the treatment in which the texture is lightened 
and the ear relieved by frequent breaks in the sounding 
of the various instromenta: — 

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XL aiSB, 


r"j ** I 




WfS- tl — w- 

I.T . > 

■ t 1 






hV 1 

■* f r r 1 
r r r f 1 



i-^ J 



r ''*' 

The followiog portioiu of a dance from 'Abddazor' (one 
of Purcell't eaiiiest productiona) will serve to abow bim in a 
dashing and briUtaQt mood. The danoe ia exceptionally long, 
but so far from weakening at any point, tbe central portioa 
ef the second half (which is bo often the weak spot) is tbe 
most bracing and Tivacioiu passage in the whole — the instru'- 
ments seeming positively to slash at one another in their 
exuberant banter! — 

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f';t:\ ■'m ''i'i -'f^ih iU\ 
'' -" V^ ^^- V^ ^^- ^1 

, j j j ^ . jmnr] , -^ f^J. 

r ^ ^ ' r r i" f ' r L" r r ' ^ 

The style of treatment of theatre music ao admirably illuB- 
trated in these works seems to hare been r^;arded with favour 
for some time. For though there was no one who could 
muntain such a standard of character and idea^ the tradition 
was maintuned for some time in the eighteenth century; and 
numbers of plays were provided with dance-tunes of artistic 
quality, and overtures on the French lines, by various com- 
posers who at all events did their best to nuuntain & self- 
respecting artistic standard. 

Purcell's work covers more ground than that of any other 
composer of the century. He attempted every branch of art 
then known, and even developed some which can hardly be 
said to have been known till he mastered them ; and there 
was Qo department in which he did not excel. He easily 
learned the secrets of the composen who preceded him, and 
swept the methods of all different branches into his net. 
Though in some respects he seems to have more natural kin- 
ship with Monteverde than with any other composer, he was 
equally master of the instrumental style of the French Opera, 
the style of the Italian sonata-writers, and the methods of 
dealing with a chorus which had been Carissimi's peculiar 
glory. Probably no composer except Schubert has ever bad 
a readier fund of melody; and it always rings true and 

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characteristic of the country to which he helosged. And 
inasmuch as he possesBed also a great power of expressioD of 
a serious and dramatic order — as illastrated for instance in 
the scene of the Witch of Endor^ and in Bess of Bedlam — it 
may be confesBed ttiat his outfit was among the most comjve- 
heuBire ever possessed by a composer. But the tragic fact 
cannot be ignored, that the essentially English attitude towards 
art which Purcell represented in his highest achierements for 
church} concert room, or theatre, led to no ulterior development. 
Handel possibly profited hy the example of his admirable 
and TigorooB treatment of histruHiic choros-writing ; but no 
one followed up the possibilities <^ his superb conception of 
scenes for solo voices. The most brilliant moment in ibe 
history of seventeenth-century music thus remained outside 
the general evolution of European art. The style was too 
individual and too uncompromising to appeal to foreigners, 
and the advance which, mainly owing to Furcell's geniuB, had 
seemed phenomenal, came to a sudden standstill at his death. 
At onoe virile and intense, marked by not a feyr points of 
doubtful taste, the English music of the last quarter of the 
seventeenth century remains a supremely interesting but 
isolated monum^t of unfulfilled promise. 

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One of the most important achierements o£ the compoaoa of 
the BCTenteenth centuiy wu the eBtabliehment of the ground- 
work of modem inBtrumeDtal music, and the discoTeiy of the 
prindplea of style and fonn which were essential to iL At the 
l>^;inQing of the centuiy, composers who wrote for combinatioiu 
of instruments thought that the simple principles of cbonl 
innsic were sufficient for instruoiental purposes. They sou^^t 
to achieve certain technical subtlettes and ingenuities, and to 
write good 'voice-parts,' munly in conjunct motion, such as 
would be suited to voices ; to make a nice flow of sound, aod to 
observe the rules which were established for the furtherance of 
orthodox and artistic style. They failed to observe, at first, that 
instrumenta could perform paasageB which were unsuited to 
voices ; that it was easy, for instance, to repeat a note with 
extreme rapidity on stringed inBtruments, but very difficult for 
voices ; that instruments could leap from one end of the scale 
to the other with ease, while for voices to attempt it was to 
risk absurdity; that certain forms of figure, such as rapid 
arp^^^, broken octaves, and chromatic scales, were all suited 
to instruments, but ill-«uited to voices, and that instruments 
could take mechanically any combinations of sounds set down 
for them, while voices had to feel their way from chord to 
chord } and finally, most important of all, that the pre-eminent 
characteristic of instrumental music was rhythm, whereas the 
pre-enunent characteristic of vocal music was melody. The 

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Modern instrumental music 309 

fact that they moved very slowly in perceiving and apjdying' 
these obrious truths was partly owing to hahit and tradition^ 
and partly to the difficulty of finding out how to contrive fomuT 
of art in which the new requirements of detul in instrumental 
music could be met. Serious composers looked askance at 
dance-tunes, and regarded them as outside the province of true 
UrtistA. It was only by d^reea, aa with an aristocratic society 
learning to admit some sense in common folk unblessed with 
pedigree, that the rejuvenating power of the familiar dance 
muMc was allowed to permeate the re^ons of serious art I» 
truth, some problems of instrumental muuc had already beta 
partly solved in the dance-tunes even before the seventeenth 
century began, but little artistic subtlety had been expended 
npon them ; and in the early years of that century so little was 
understood of the technical capabilities of most instruments, 
that when composers had condescended to deal with dance^ 
tunes, their only means of making them artistically interesting 
was to elaborate and sophisticate them out of all recognition by 
the introduction of technicalities which properly bdonged to 
the sphere of choral art, and destroyed the essential rhythmic 
effect alb^ether. 

Thus it was that at first the transition from choral to 
instrumental style was carried on along the lines of the 
old choral music, in movements imitated from madrigali; 
and elementary eqieriments in structure or form were made 
in the same contrapuntal terms as would have been used 
in the muuc of the Church. It is easy to see that com- 
posers were so absorbed in the contrapuntal technique that 
they failed to realize the need for oiganization and definite- 
ness of architectural form in instrumental music. When 
writing for several instruments in combination, the similarity 
to a combination of voice-parts prevented their seeing 
the need for form or oiganization of any kind. Mere in- 
genuities of detul and mechanical 'imitations' seemed to be 
suffident to interest the musical auditor. It was oniy in tare 

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moments of pretem&tnrsl loddity that even the most enter^ 
pruing compoaerB felt that it was worth while to arrange definite 
blocke of music in an orderijr and intelligible manner; by 
making definite and distinct contrasts of well balanced periods, 
and by making cBsential parts of the structure correspond in 
some way by the forms of melody, the style of treatment, or 
the arrangement of passages representing different keys. Tbe 
greater part of the fandes or fantasias of the early part of tbe 
century were quite incoherent in a structural sense; they 
ipraiiied along, with imitations coming in anywhere that 
was convenient, with little definiteness of idea, and no use 
of tonality as a means of unity or balance except sut^ as 
was begotten of the habit of writing a whole piece of music 
in some one mode or other, wliich would probably cause it 
to end on the same chord with which it began. The oiganist- 
composers seem to have arrived at some sense of proportion 
and contrast through thai frequent opportunities of performing 
before la^e audiences, which quickened their sense of effect in 
every particular, and led to the extraordinary development of 
their branch of art which has already been described. But 
organ music stood apart from the other branches of art, and 
influenced them but little, partiy because the organ possessed such 
distinctive qualities, and partly through tbe sacred associations 
of the churches, in which the inatrumeats always remained. 
Music for the harpsichord and spinet also made some progress, 
as has been shown elsewhere, but the attention of composers 
was quite drawn away from tliese branches <tf art soon after 
the b^inning of tbe century; and, inasmuch as the greater part 
of such music as had been produced for keyed instruments was 
more nearly allied to the earlier choral mnsic In method and 
form than anticipatory of modem kinds of art, the tendeocws 
which preceded and led to the development of tbe forms and 
style of essentially instromentat music have to be sought for in 
music written for combinations of stringed and wind instruments, 
such as vbls, violins, cometti, trumpets, and trombones. 

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Italy was Daturally in the Corrfront in sndi matten, for there 
the spirit of the new enterprise in art was moat active; and 
there the tendencies in the direction of modem tonal invtni- 
mental art soon made their appearance. As has before been 
pointed out, things began to more in the modem direction 
in lute music a good way back in the lixteentfa century. In 
serious music for instruments in parts, progress was leas 
dednre. The enterprising and energetic genius of Oiovanni 
Gabrieli, working in the congenial sunoondings of Venice, 
tried some remarkable experiments in instrumental music even 
before the sixteenth century had ron its course, and in the 
early decades of the serenteenth century. Some of these were 
purely continuous and vague in design; but there are also 
examples in which he hits upon tnie principles of modem 
instrumental form. For instance, in a Canzona for two 
violins, (Xtmetti, tenor, and two trombones, he groups definite 
' sections, of different character and material, into something 
like the architectural symmetry of the modem scheme of 
symphonies or sonatas. The work begins with a distinct 
subject treated in an imitative style (A), which is followed 
by a passage of simple massive harmonies (B). 

Trri'tT i r 




Then follows a reruon of A, then B agun, then more in 
the style of A elaborated, then B simply, then A again, 
differently elaborated, and then B twice over; and the whole 
ends with a sort of coda, including some references to the 

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figures of A, in fairly 6orid style. This was probably written 
about 1615. Gabrieli's speculatioiiB even led blm to anticipate 
in works for stringed instruments the geDeral scheme of violin 
sonatas of a century later, in three contrasted divisions. But 
his distribution of these components is so variable that he 
cannot be regarded as having established the type, any more 
than Monteverde established the type of the aria by his 
'Lasctatemi niorire* (p. 48}, 

An interesting example, with slightly different, but kindred, 
characteristics, is a * Fantasia in " Echo " ' in four parts by 
Banchieri, published as early as 1603. It b^na with a 
passage of seventeen bars in fugal style; — 


which is followed by a long passage, strongly contrasted, in 
harmonic style ; in which occur the ' Echoa,' being r^terationa 
of short passages alteniately ' forte ' and ' piano/ 

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The fint part is then resomed, and the vhole ends with a 
massive coda of ax bars. 

In both these works, and in the fantasias, canzone, sonatas, 
&C. by the same composers, the st^le is not diatinctirely 
iDstrumentaL The component contrapuntal passages are for 
the most part little more than voice-parts without words, 
and the harmonic passages are like the simpler forma of the 
late madrigals. There are but tew florid passages, and they 
do not show any great instinct for the special aptitudes of 
the instniments, hut are more like the Sorid passages written 
lor the oi^an or 'Viifpnals' or 'cembalo/ Progress in the 
right direction is shown in such examples as the following 
from Biagio Marini's ' Balletto e Corente a 3 ' of 1622, 
which are additionally interesting on account of the second 
dance bang a variation of the first — a feature occasionally met 
with in later suites. 

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i — 1,1"^ ^,^ J -i, 1 H 

i'"" fi" 


. ^rf 1 'r . M-l^ 

' " 1 ■' J J l[^ r 1" 1 — N 

/ J. ' -'=',-''' -'ill 1 ■, J 


[1 1' r rirl 1 j|,J ,1 .|| l' J ,||J ^ 

J -JL If 

When once compaseni' attention wu set in this directioa, 
tbey soon found passages wbich were effectire from the 
inatrtimental point of view and euentially adiq>ted to tlie 
idiosyncianea of the inatruments for wbich they were intended. 
Thus in a canzona for three fltringa and oi^an by Tarquinio 
Merula, of 1639J the following pasaage makes ita appearance, 
the aptness of which for stringed instruments is as obvious as 
its inaptoess to be sung. 

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The appesntnce in bo abort a space of time of a style 
•0 unlike that o£ madrigals and church muaic is indeed 
specially noteworthy; for it must be remembered that in 
1639 Monteverde had not finished his career, Cavalli had 
but just b^un hia, and Ceati was not yet in the field. The 
inference ia that inatramental music was branching off into 
independence rery decinvely, and that composers with special 
aptitades for it were concentratiiig their attentbn upon it, 
and making progress towards goiuine instrumental style and 
genuine instrumental forma. The growth of the subtle instinct 
for the essentially appropriate is very interesting to watch at 
this time. And it is not unprofitable to reflect upon the 
retrograde effect produced by the influence of the viilgar 
portion of the public upon the general aspect of art in recent 
times ; which has induced the culture of such debased fonns 
as arrangements of had opera airs for the pianoforte by the 
hundred thousand, excerpts from muuc dramas in concert rooms, 
and the tranq>lantation of every kind and form of art bom 
the place for which the composer intended it to a place for 
which it ia not, in the most artistic sense, at all suited. But 
when composers were evolving new forms and sincerely writing 
according to the best of their U^^, the feeling for perfect 
appropriateness influenced the direction of development very 
materially. The composer naturally thought of the various 
conditions under which the work he wished to produce would 
be performed, and he endeavoured to adjust every detail so that 
it should justify itself by its aptness. The effect of this 
attitude of the composers of instrumental music ia especially 
noteworthy, about the middle of the seventeenth century, in 
the average tendency of instrumental compositiona towards 
what are sometimes called the ' cyclic forms * of tbe suite, the 
•onata, and the symphony ; that is, into groups of movements 
of diverse character and time, which under the guise of variety 
are yet knit t(^;ether by the bonds of tonality or style. The 
principle bad been illustrated long before in the familiar 

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conjunction of tbe galliard and pavan, to vhich was some- 
timea added a prelude and, occasionally, other movementsj 
But the great bulk of instrumental music, till towards the 
middle of the century, was in long single movements such 
as fantasias, canzone, toccatas, ricercari, and so forth, most 
of which claimed some subtle truts of kinship with the andent 
choral music. But about the middle of the century music foi* 
stringed instruments began to show its true lineaments more 
consistently, in compositiona which were broken up into several 
movements ot divisions, often comparatively short, the stmo 
tural character of which is fairly well defined and the style 
generally rhythmic. The tyjie is prefigured in some sonataa 
for two violins and bats by Q. Battista Fontana of about 1630, 
in the canzonas of Tarquinio Merula of 1639 — from which an 
excerpt has been ^ven above to illustrate the progress of Style — > 
and in a canzona by Massimiliano Neri of about J 644. These 
works are generally continuous, that is, they are not written 
with definite conclusions to separate movements and recom- 
mencements; but tbey are broken up by niunerous double 
bars and changes of character, speed, and time. The canzona 
referred to above, by Merula, is an excellent example. It 
b^ns with a livdy portion of forty-dght bars, in the style 
of the illustration on p. 314. This comes to an end with 
a full close in C major. Then follow twenty bars in solemn, 
slow style, miunly in minims and long notes, marked 'tremolo* 
(see p, 57), and a lively end is made with a 'presto.' This 
obviously presents the germ of the sonata cycle of movements, 
though the sections are not separated, but appear more like the 
changes made in the course of movements by Frescobaldi or 
Froberger; and it must be observed that the independence of 
the sections is hindered by the fact that the slow portions 
and the '.presto' are directed to be repeated in conjunction 
before the final group of three bars which makes the coda* 
A sonata by Massimiliano Neri, dated 1651, for two violins, 
viola, and bass, has numy traits of the CorelUan type of violiq 

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sonata. It begins with a sectioQ in fugal style, wluch is 
really a canzona, in which the composer ihowa onuBual 
conaiatency in the use of his subject and the development of 
its constituent figures. The commencement is as follows : — 

1' i t ixjj I f f r [ CV tTTLkJ^ f > I 

In the latter part of the movement the figure of the third 
bar is used in the following manner: — 

This movement is followed by an adagio in | timei very 
much like the familiar suave sbw movements in the sonatas 
of CorellL 
ax. It*. 


D,„m.ab, Google 


The b^inaing of this sonata aaggeOjB cleariy the pUn of 
a 'Sonata da Chiesa,' But the last part of the work is 
made up of aereral short divisions with changes of time and 
figure, comprising several alternations of allegro and adagio, 
of various dimensions from six bars to thirty-two, and 
ending with fourteen bars 'presto/ A sioular distribu- 
tion of movements is found ia sonatas by Biagio Marini, 
of 1655. 

A composer of instrumental muuc, whose works spread over 
a considerable space of time> and illustrate pointedly the 
tendencies of art in the middle of the century, was Mauritio 
Cazzati, In a collection of works for instruments, puhliabed 
in Venice in 1648, are a namber of 'Canzone' so-called,' 
each of which has a title such as ' a Bemarda,' ' a Gale&zza,' 
'a Pepola,' possibly implying dedication to friends. These 
works are not unlike the early canzonas, but have many 
cliangeB of time in them, therein tending in the direction of 
the later sonatas. There are also 'ainfonie* and a 'sonata* 
for three violinS) viola, trombone, and violone. The same 
composer published a number of 'Canzone' at Bologna in - 
1663, which again have distinguishing titles. A point of 
special interest about them is that though the titie at the 
head of the collection is 'Canzone da sonare a tri,' at the 
bottom of the individual pages is printed ' Sonate a 3 * — ^whicb 
su^ests that at that particular moment, though the old was 
giving place to the new, the distinguishing traits had not 
become decisive enoi^h even for experts to be sure that the 
forms were distinct. They are indeed happy examples of 
transitional forms; for, though according in some ways with 
the accepted idea of canzonas, they have unmistakable truts 
of the sonata type. For instancy Canzona V consists of 
(i) short slow passage, (3} allegro, (3) vivace, (4) grave, 
(5) presto. The passages run into one another, but the 
absence of complete definition . is characteristic of inter- 
mediate stages in all forms of evolatien^ aad the tendency 

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towania the familiar group of separate movemenU is clearly 

Yet another coUedion of Cazzati's compositioiiH, of slightly 
later date, is worthy of coDsideraUon. This is the Correnti e 
Balletti a cingue alia Franceae et aW Italiana, con alcuae 
Senate a 5, 6, 7, 8 — Bologna, 1667. The work ia interesdng 
not only on account of ita implying a recognition of dance 
forms as worthy of the attention of Berious muucians, but 
as an early example of the recognition of two distinct forms 
of the Corrente. That in -^ time proved particularly attractive 
to composers, on account of the opportunitiea it offered for 
ingenious subtleties of rhythm; as the facility with which it 
could pass from 3 to ^ time invited them to show thdr skill 
in cross accents and complications, such as are found alike 
in examples by Bngllsh composers of the latter part of the 
century, such as Zjock and Purcell, and later in the ordres 
of Couperin and the suites of J. 8. Bach and others. The 
result in general seems rather laboured and artificial, and 
even in Bach's suites the Courantes of this kind are generally 
the driest and least spontaneous of the group. The Corrente 
in I or I time was of quite a different nature, being direct, 
umple, and vivadous; but it proved to be less attractive to 
composers, as it was too rapid for much sophistication. There 
are twenty^four Correntea altogether is Cazzati's collection, 
which are systematically alternated ; and these are followed 
by twelve * balletti ' and some sonatas. The style seems on 
the whole more elastic than in hia earlier works, as though 
his hand had gained in cunning as he went on. As hla 
works are now hardly known, and probably do not exist in 
score, the opening bars of two of the 'Correnti' are here 
given. The following ia from the 'Corrente dedma terza, 
alia Francese': — 

Digitized by Google 






JJ./3,J- , 

r r'ifl r ' 1 

tl O [J 1 


^■^-'' 1 

1 f f f ' 

' r ' ■ J 

The followiog is from the * Correote decima quarts, all* 
Italiana': — 

r' ^ "I' 


r ' r ' 

r to 

Cazzati'i works were well known in England, where by 
bis time secnlar music, and espedally instrumental music, 
was bdng cultivated with much ardour, and where he was 
regarded as one of the foremost represeDtatives of that branch 

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of ait. And before proceeding further with the consideratioil 
of Italian developments, it is necesaaiy to consider the nature of 
the progress and the gravitation of taste in the northern country. 
In the latter part of the Elizabethan time, and in the early years 
of the Jacobean period, England had been quite among the 
foremost countries in the cultivation of ioBtnimental music. 
But when the extraordinary outpouring of music for Vir^nals 
came to an end her preeminence soon languished. This was 
not entirely owing to inaptitude for stringed instruments, but 
rather to her composers wakening to the possibilities of the 
new kinds of art later than those of Italy. The wave of 
musical power and enei^, which had gathered force till weU 
on into the seventeenth century, was succeeded by a tempo- 
rary pause of slackness. Composers did not give themselves 
unreservedly to the cultivation of the new style of seculaf 
music until a curious concatenation of external circumstances^ 
described in the previous chapter, drove them to it. Meanwhile, 
as a sort of compromise, those English composers who tnmed 
their attention to music for instruments cultivated with great 
assiduity the form of art called the * Fancy/ which front 
accidental causes rather than perversity prepense had come^ 
at the time of its maturity, to be one of the most unfanciful 
artistic products ever devised by man. Fancies were written 
for groups of instruments of various kinds, and were in a 
sense the precursors of modem chamber music, though not 
its ancestors. Fancies were much too respectable and com-> 
placent to admit of development for any useful or ornamental 
purpose. The whole branch of art might almost be spared 
conuderation, but for its being such an extensive futility. 
The utmost that it did for the progress of instrumental music 
was to teach composers how to write more free, lively^ and 
characteristic passages for their several instruments, and to 
discover tiiat counterpoint, even of an instrumental kind, wa» 
not an all-sufficient reason of existence for music without words. 
It seems as though composers recognized the obligations of 

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the country aa a representative source of serious instrument^ 
music ; even before Cbariea I*b nign began composers were 
busy with the compositioD of Fancies for strings, and it so 
happened that the group of euch works which deserves the 
most respectful conuderaUon on intrinsic grounds was among 
the earliest that appeared. This was UH^e the accident that 
they were the product of a man of such rare and peculiar 
genius as Orlando Gibbons, than that they anticipated in any 
marked d^ree the tendencies towards modem insbmmental 
art. He was essentially an adherent of the old order of art, 
and his * Fantasies' for 'riols and contlnuo' are on much 
the same lines as his Fancies and Fantasias in the various 
Vii|;inal books. All but two of the whole set of nine are 
fugal in manner, ^th single-part subjects. The manner 
is unfortunately deceptive, as the matter is in reality quite 
incohoent. The subjects are answered in a fugal fashion, 
just to make a good start, and they hardly ever appear aguu. 
There is no |»etence of u^g a definite musical figure as a 
text to discourse upon, for new formulas succeed one anotiier 
almoEt at haphazard. In these respecta these Fantasies com- 
pare unfavourably with such examples as the Ricercar by 
Andrea Gabrieli, described on p. 66. But nevertheless then 
is a grit about the works, and an energy and force such as 
give them a value quite irrespective of technicalities. There 
is not very much that is charactetisticalJy instrumental in a 
modem sense, such as Suggestions or indications of delicacies 
of bowing or phrasing ; but the parts are strikingly inde- 
pendent, the accents and rhythmic variety are much stronger 
tluui would be possible with voices, and the progressions are 
free and masculine. In the two 'Fantasia' which are not 
ostensibly fugal at the outset there are features of genuine 
instrumental form. One in D minor (done) has the imitationB 
BO disposed as to have the appearance of a harmonic subject 
eight bars in length, with a close in D minor. 

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I f' fr^' l l'' 

j| j.j-JTTI | 

fcj i U'i'^n^ 



Lfir'tf u ^ 

TtuB is followed by a long central episode, very tree and 
varied in texture, which is succeeded by a repetition <d 
the first eight bars — making a complete scheme in the 
simplest form. The only other Fantasy which is not osten- 
sibly fugal in its inception (No. 7} begins in ^ timsj and 
has a central episode in f time, which is simply rhythmic 
in character, and it ends with a fresh passage in ^ time. 
The opening of this Fantasy, which is a good iUustratiixi of 
the ingenuities of imitation aimed at in these austere bnns 
of art, is as follows : — 

J . iirj t J 


" i t:';'-. 

Digitized Qy Google 


The dance-like episode, which fonna the centi&l contrast, 
begin! as follows: — 



i j J J. I .J 


The composer who seems to have been most famotu for his 
Fanciet, in the days when that form of art was most io f aronr, 
was John Jenkins, who was bom in 1598 and lived thiou^ 
many reigns, and throtigh all the troublous times of the Civil 
War till 1678. He poured out floods of such compositions — 
some of them of portentous length — ^fuU of crafty imitations 
which have no particular method in their occurrence, but come 
in wherever convenient. There is a good deal of Vivaaty 
in the instrumental parts, and bustle and accent, but the sum 
total of musical effect is infinitesimal. The following fragments 
from a MS. in the British Museum are sufficiently characteristic 
to give an idea of the style : — 



D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


' r^f 'ij u 

|t UT 


In justice to Jenkins, it is only fur to b&j that be was 
a very aUe composer, and, while concentrating most of his 
attention on instmmEntal mumc, prodoced also some quite 
amiable and metodions vocal solo mumc. 

A manuscript collection of long and elaborate Fancies, written 
for various comtnnatbns of instruments by William Lawes, 
exists in the Bodleian library at Oxford. His reputation 

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might well pre rise to a hope that tbef would be mtereiting. 
Bat they are indeed dry and mechanical to qtdte an extra- 
ordinary degree, and do more credit to the composer'a patient 
ingenuity than to his common sense. The form was, in fact, 
a drouthy aberratioa rather characteristic of English composers, 
and has no exact cowiterpart in foreign countries. It was 
happily superseded, as soon as composers were driren to give 
thar minds more unreserredly to instrumental music, by groups 
of dance-tunes and more genuinely direct and concluaire forms 
of instrumental art ; which were cultivated in the end even by the 
Fancy-writers themselves, such as Jenkins and William Lawes. 
The displacement of Fancies by more enjoyable muuc is some- 
times attributed to the lack of serious taste in Charles II. 
But for once in a way he may fairly be exonerated. It 
certunly was no proof of lack of taste not to appreciate 
Fancies; and if the boredran of the King helped to direct 
composers into more profitable expenditure of thdr energies, 
the world has reason to be grateful. 

When the difficulties of inter-communication are con- 
sidered, it is flurprinng to see the uniformity of prepress 
which was made in diff««nt coimtries in the third quarter 
of the century. It was probably owing to the &ct Uiat 
the pre-eminence of the Italians was uniTersaUy recognized. 
They showed their greater natural aptitude by the rajttdity 
with which they developed tiie actual texture of insfru- 
mental music, and they were much more quick than com- 
posers of other nations in finding passages of the kind which 
were sperially suited to instruments, aiid in the develop- 
ment of the new style. They were also in the forefront of 
progress in adopting princi{des of systematic form, and in 
recognizing the essential cogency of rhythm. So the composers 
of other countries looked upon tbem as leaders, and eagoly 
watched their achierementa ; and the result was to make the 
general trend of change appear almost umultaneous, even 
in distant parts of Europe. Ev^t in England, which was 

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then the most remote bom Italy, mid the least ready to - 
abandon methods of tried efficacy, compoaere began to fall 
into line, and dance^tunes and suites can be seen to be guning 
ground, and displacing the Fancies in the favour of the mnaical 
public by about the middle of the century. Even in Charles I'b 
mgn composers must eridently have begun to tun thdr 
attention to artistic dance-tunes, because there is a large 
number of suites and isolated dance-tunes by William Lawea, 
both in MS. and in the Collectitm of Courtly Maaqoing Airs, 
puUished in 1663 ; and these must have been written before 
1645, because William Lawes was killed at the si^e of Cheater 
in that year. The texture of these tunes is generally rather 
blunt and uncouth, but they have character, and sometimes 
a good deal of animation. 

From inherent traits of treatment and style it would be 
almost aafe to infer that a great many pieces by Colman, 
who was chamber musician to Charles I, and by Jenkins 
and others, are of the same time; but in any case there is 
a great quantity of such music, by various composers, which 
must have been written before 1675 — and there are many 
points in it which are very su^estive and interesting when 
considered in relation to parallel features in the music of other 
countries of the same period. Hey Uluatrate, in a manner 
which is almost humorovs^ su^estive, the cautious conser- 
vatiam of the English, which always endeavours in times of 
change to maintain some of the old familiar landmarks. One 
of the most interesting points to trace, about this time, is the 
transition from the dancea of the Tudor days to the group 
which became so familiar in the suites of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. In the Elizabethan time the most conspicuous dances 
were the Favan and the Oalliard, which were recx^nized 
familiarly as belonging to one another. 'Almanes* and 
'Corants' also appeared occasionally in Elizabethan muaic, and 
they, of course, formed an essential portion of the ultimate 
scheme of movements adopted in the palmy days of suite- 

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writing, when the accepted nucleuB conaisted of (i) AUemaodej 
(a) CourantCj (3) Sarab&nde, and (4) G'lgae — to which a prelude 
wu frequently added at the b^inning, and light and livdy 
dances (called in Germany ' Galanterien ') were added between 
the Sarabande and the Gigue. The English composers appear 
to have illustrated the manner of the transitJoa much more 
clearly than those of other countries. The Galliard soon became 
rare, and only appears occasionally in the extended series of 
movements as a kind of experiment, as in a set by Colman 
and another by Sympson ; but the Pavan appears so frequently 
at the beginning of the series that it is scarcely to be doubted 
that composers actually r^arded it for a time as the most 
eligible preliminary movement. It was generally written in 
a very solid and dignified style, and with such contrapnntal 
derices as completely obscured its dance origin. It thus 
became a masuve prelude, not unlike the slow opening move- 
ment of LuIIi'a overtures in intention. One of the most 
prominent and enterprising of the secular composers of the 
time was Mattbew Lock, who published in 1656 (in the latter 
part of Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate) a collection of suites 
for strings called * The IJttle Consort of three parts.' Each 
set consists of the same group ot pieces, (i) Pavan, (2) Ayre, 
(3) Corant, (4) Sarabande. This is a very exceptional specimen 
ot regularity. As a rule, compoBers of those days were 
particulariy fond of varying the order and nature of the 
ingredients. It was only by decrees that things settled down 
into the accepted and rarely varied group; bnt the feature 
which the largest proportion have in common is the use of 
a Pavan as a prelude. There are several sets of pieces by 
Jenkins which bepn with Pavans ; several by Ccdman, 
Carwarden, Sympson, and Brewer, which do the same ; and 
out of a set of six by Benjamin Bogers four b^;in in the 
same manner. Apart from the initiatory Pavan, the variety 
in ^e general order of ingredients is considerable. Composers 
seem to have rushed from one extreme to the other, and, from 

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having been content with ParaoB and GalliardB at the be^nning 
of ^e century, by the third quarter of it they sometimes 
grouped as many as twelve or thirteen moTemeots together. 
Benjamin Rogers was one of the most admired composers 
of instnimental music both in this country and abroad, and 
a fev samples of his choice of order will be worth considering. 
In a set called * The Nine Muses ' the succesaion is (i) Prelude, 
(3) Air, (3) Air, (4) Corant, (5) Sarabande, (6) Jiggue, (7) Corant, 
(8) Air, (9) Jigg. Another set in four parts (MS. Bodleian) 
consists of (i) Pavan, (a) Air, (3) Air, (4) Air, (5) Corant, (6) 
Corant, (7) Air, (8) Air, (9) Corant, (10) Saraband, 'Air' was 
a very vague term, and merely meant 'dance-tune,' as in French 
^verlietementt. So it is not to be supposed that when a 
successioa of 'airs' JfoUow one another they are all in the same 
rhythm or style. It was, in fact, a name which covered a 
multitude of possibilitieB for the composer, and illustrates the 
elasticity of the scheme of such 'cyclic* forms in those days. 

As Rogers's instrumental compositionB are rather inaccessible 
in modem times, his fame in his own time seems to call for 
illustrations of his work. The following is the commencement 
of one of the Parans which serve as the introductory movements 
to his suites, which will be seen to bave passed out of the 
category of unsophisticated dance-tunes, and to be very serious 


iV4- ■'■'1 

"Iff ■ 

_ J- 

rr' -' 







-f — 1- 





D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



The following is the *Jigg' which constitutea the last 
moTement of the set called 'The Nine Muaes^' from the MS. 
part-bookfl in the Bodleian library. 



i^.^.JjJJ , . i- , i ^ 



I' i' ' ^^1 

J .J.J4 J 


r r r 

cJTJ^J^i:Vr^ i 'J i rj:c.r^rJ',J^ I 

jr-jj J 

J' J JJ-:^^^J 

i/:j.jjj j 

T'cr f'cr ' 

f 1 ■ -1 ■ .^ rJ r'j ^ T'" e-nT:'!." . ;• rj' "[li~T ;tT~| 

J J i-^J J 

^^.^ ^i-'^^' ■ 

' -'i-f r ''" • 

— c — i[-^r ' ^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


As hu been remarked elsewhere, the faoatility of Puritans 
to church music and stage plays impelled composerti decisively 
in the direction of domestic music of all kinds, and especially 
in the direction of instrumental music. A great deal of the 
music above referred to was produced during the time of 
the Commonwealth, and during that time frequent meetings 
are recorded to have taken place for the practice of instrumental 
mudc. Tbeae meetings were probably the immediate fore- 
runners of modem chamber concerts ; as, the taste for chamber 
music having once b^un, it muntaiped its hold in one form 
or another thenceforward. The first man to establiah public 
concerts of the kind in London is sud to have been John 
Banister, an English violinist of considerable repute, who for 
a time was leader of Charles II's band. His venture began 
in a large room in Wbitefriars in 1673. Another ventore of 
the kind was called ' The Musik Meeting,' which began in 
rooms fitted up for concerts in VillieTS Street in i58o. And 
it was probably not long after that Thomas Britton, the 'small 
coal* man, began his famous weekly concerts over his shop 
in Clerkenwell. 

In tiie time of the CcHnmonwealth Oxford was especially 
eager for good music; and it seems to have been at Oxford 
that ctmnoisaeurB were first awakened to the strides which 
were being made in foreign countries in Instrumental virtuosity, 
by the perfonnances of the noUnist Baltazar of Liibeck in 
1658. From the accounts given by various writen he seems 
to have revealed to them possibilities in violin-playing hitherto 
undreamed of in thia country. Antony Wood gives an ecstatic 
account of the manner in wtdch his left hand glided from one 
end of the strings to the other, and executed feats whidi 
appeared to the hearers almost miraculous. 

From such of Baltazar's compositions as are to be found not 
much idea of his executive powers can be gathered. But they 
show that he had instinct for instrumental styles and attempted 
passages which were more light and vivacious in detail than 

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bad hitherto been frequently met with in English compoutioDS. 
The following are the commenceinent and the last part of an 
* Echo Aire * from a smte by him, produced at the beginning 
of 1659:— 




jTflJ n \ 


I pMU' .jtfN 



His style no doubt impelled the English compoaen to 
endeavour to achieve a lighter and more rapid manner in detail, 
and the e£Eect ia seen in the instrumental music produced 

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after the Reitoration, both in pure chamber musie and in 
muuc for maiqaefl and plays. Meanwhile one branch of 
art vhich became popular at this time was the solo music 
for the bass nol. The most conspicuous representatiTe of this 
kind of art was Christoplier Sympson. His most important 
work was the Diviaion Violut, or An Inirodvciion to the 
Playmff igmn a Grotmd, which came out in i6$g, the year 
after Cromwell died, but before the return of Charles 11. 
'PUying dlyiwona upon a ground* seems to have been the 
chief resource of soloists on the viol, and consisted of playing 
Tariationa upon a short phrase repeated over and over again 
in the basa. Sympson gives several compositions at the end 
of his treatise, both preludes and diviaioni, from which it 
is evident that violists had developed very considerable 
dexterity, as they contain not only rapid passages, but elaborate 
double stopping. As specimens of instrumental style, indeed, 
they are rather in advance of the munc written at that time 
for groups of strings; and seem to occupy much the same 
relation to it that the lute pieces of Galilei and Terzi did 
to the crude instrumental music of earlier times. The 
following is a specimen of bis double stopping, from a 
prelude : — 

u .rrTf|f^f,^if^^,iiffffVfT'f^ii 

and the following are lamplefl of the figures used in the 
divisions : — ■ 

Digitized by Google 


Iq Germany composeia do not aeem to hare cultivated munc 
for atringed isatnimeiita in combination with quite bo mnch 
izeal aa in England. But from specimena taken a few years 
apart the same general tendencies are obaerTable aa elsewhere. 
The peraiatence of tradition is illustrated in the collection 
of thirty Pavans and Galliards for strings by Johann Ghro 
<^ Dresden, published in 1612, which are phun and heavy 
in style. Hammerschmidt agwn> in his Instnimoital Music 
of i(S39j has examples of the same dances together with Cou- 
rantes and Sarabandea, and the style ia already lighter and 
more vivacious. A collection of ' Sinfoaien ' by Johann Jacob 
LSwen, published in Bremen in 1558, presents much the 
same standard of pluoness in detail as the works of Lock, 
Rogers, and Jenkins. They appear to be on the whole less 
direct and lively; but they are noteworthy as containing 
several ' Gagliardaa.' One Sinfonia, indeed, is very curious 
when put by the tdde of the English soites; for while they 
frequently had the Favan in combination with members of the 
eighteenth-century group, as in Lock's littie Consort (p. 338), 
in the third sinfonia of this collection the group consista 
of (i) Allmand, (3) Qalliard, (3) Corant, and (4) Saraband. 
80 between the two countries examples are found of both 
the typical old Elizabethan dances in combination with & 
typical group of the eighteenth-century suite. The Allemande 
seems to have been more favoured by Uie Germans of this 
time tiian by the En^i^ ; the prepondennce of fitvonr with 
the latter was bestowed upon 'Coranta,' Sarabands and Jigs; 
but with the Germans the Allemande seems to be falling into 

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the poution BO familwr in the later euitea. Diedrich Becker^ 
Rathfl-Violiat at Hamburg, published MurilcaUiche F^rU/Uingt- 
F^Hchte in three, four^ and five parts in J 658. These contain 
groups of movements both of the 'Sonata da Chiesa' order 
and of the Suite type. Among the latter vre come acrosB 
the exact eigbteenth-centuiy nncleos complete ; Allemande, 
Couraote, Sarabande and Gigue. But the composer by no 
means confines his attention to snch movements. The whole 
ctdlection is indeed very sn£$;estive, as it contains so many 
characteristic truts of both the earlier and later periods. 
Among the sonatas are movements called by the name of 
'canzon/ so characteristic of the earlier days^ while among 
the dance movements are not only pavans and galliatds, 
but also urs, ballets, branles, and gavottes. The style is plain 
and simple without much figuration; and the motion of the 
parts mainly conjunct, showing the persistent influence c^ 
choral traditions in counterpoint. The same characteristics 
are notaUe in G. F. Kri^^s Ui Swmaie, a due Vtolini, 
which were published at Nurembe^ in 1688. They serve 
munly to illustrate the tendency towards miiformity in 
the sequence of the movements in sonatas. No. 10 for 
instance consists of (i) Allegro, (a) Largo, and (3) Presto ; 
and in the last of these there is a certain amount of definite 
rhythmic reiteration. On the whole the Gferman worics for 
groups of stringed instruments at this time are considerably 
behind the English. They suggest no higher d^ree of instinct 
(or instrumental style, and are less distinctive in character 
and force. The spirit seems mainly tentative and dependent, 
savouring more of precedent than of initiative. This situation, 
however, was merely temporary, and before tiie end of the 
century the German composers were showing themselves in 
domestic music for strings, as in other departments, in thdr 
true colours. For the present they mainly illustrate the 
uniformity of the general progress in all countries. 

It may be gathered from the style of the instrumental com- 

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poBitions Boon after the middle of the seventeenth century that 
the clumsf viols were being superaeded hy instraments of the 
violin type ; and it therefore seems advisable to consider the 
chronology of violin-making in relation to the progress of 
instrmnental muuc at this time. At the be^nning of the 
century hut few of the great violin-makers had appeared upon 
the scene. Gasparo da Salo, who has the reputation of being 
the first of great violin-makers, was bom a little before the 
middle of the mxteenth century, and the period of his activity is 
^ven as from about 1560 to l6og, He is reckoned among the 
Brescian group, to which also belonged Paolo Maggini, who 
was living from about 1580 to 1633. The Cremonese, who 
are reputed to have learnt their art from the Bresciaus, 
began with the Amati family, the first of note among 
whom was Andreas, who, Uke Gasparo da Salo, worked in 
the uxteenth century. Indeed, a violin ticket of his is said 
to be in enstence dated 1546, which, if genuine, would make 
him senior even to Gasparo da Salo. His sons Antonio 
and Hieronymus carried on their skilful work till about 1638. 
Nicolo, son of Hieronymus, was bom just at the end of the 
Uxteenth century and lived till 1684, and was the greatest of 
the family. Another distinguished member of the Cremonese 
school was Ruggieri, who lived till the end of the seventeenth 
century. After the Amatis came the family of the Guameri^ 
the first of whom was Andreas (circa 1635 to 1698), who was 
a pupil of Nicolo Amati, The greatest of this family was 
Joseph, who is commonly known as 'Joseph del Gesii' 
because he adomed his tickets with the sign of the cross 
and an I H S. He was the grandson of Andreas and lived 
far into the eighteenth century, even till after Alessandro 
Scarlatti, Corelli, Biber, and Vivaldi, had finished their work. 
The last and greatest and most prolific of the great violin-' 
makers was Antonio Stradivari, who was a pupil of NicoI» 
Amati, and is said to have been bom in 1644, and lived 
till 1737. Thus the great period of violin -mfiking nearly 

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coincides with the eariy period of muuc for Btringed iDstra- 
mentB, and its culmination with the period when that kind of 
music emei^d from its chryBalis stage, and took definite and 
permanent shape in the works of the great school of Italian 
Tioliniats and composeTS, and their few contemporaries in other 
coantriea. The instrument had heea in use from quite the 
banning of the centuiy, and probably served at first merely as 
the treble to a group of viols. Bat when composer-performers 
discovered its supreme merits as a solo instrument it absorbed 
more and more of th^ attention ; they developed the style 
and technique which displayed its subtle capacities by slow 
degrees, and bef(H« the end of the century bad proved it to be 
the most perfect instrument for solo purposes that had ever 
been contrived, though even then its possibilities were by no 
means even approximately exhausted. 

One of the foremost and most brilliant pioneers in the 
development of the violin style was Tommaso Vitally about 
whom nothing appears to be known except that certun works 
by him appeared at certiun dates. These certainly are much 
more valuable than most biographical facts, and mu-k him 
as the man whose instinct for bis instrument was more 
highly oi^anized than any composer's b^ore Corelli's time; 
indeed, as far as virtuosity was concerned^ he was apparently 
quite Corelli's equal. Among his works are clearly distinct 
examples of both dance suites and sonatas, such as, in Corellian 
times> were distinguished as Sonate da Camera and Sonate 
da Cbiesa. His Opus i was published in 1666, and contained 
a Balletto for two violins and basso conrinuo, comprising an 
opening allegro, a short link passage of ' grave,' and a Corrente, 
The first movement is of very vigorous and lively character^ 
with dance-like rhythm, and no pretence of contrapuntal 
subtlety, or unseasonable imitations. It is indeed genuine 
instrumental music, though the reiteration of chords of C at 
every double bar shows an undeveloped sense of the value of 
variety in artistic organization. Much more remarkable are 

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some sonatas which he published later. Opus X in 1667, 
and Opus 5 in 1669. In these we come across the complete 
scheme of the typical Italian violin sonata, in short more- 
menta it is true, but in style and distribution of movements 
quite anmistakable. A sonata in E minor of .1667 for 
two violins and basso continuo b^ns with rather a stolid 
movement, * grave.' 

This is followed by the typical lively movement in a fugal 
style, exactly as in the sonatas of Corelli, Tartini, Geminiani, 
Locatelli, Handel, Bach, and many more. The close kin- 
ship will be easily seen from the following few bars of the 
commencement z-~ 

This quick movement is followed by a slow movement in 
J time, evidently aiming at expression — 

j J j , .j 

' ' ' I I -rS 

and the last movement is in a lively gigue style, b^;iiming aa 
follows: — 

Digitized t, Google 



■ - l|jr|^l Ni- 



A sonata in A minor of 1669 is rather more irregular, 
bqpnniog with the fugue, and having a short paren- 
thetical movement after it, and then the typical alow 
movement in | time, and ending with a vivace in ^ time. 
There is also a very interesting capricdo of 1669 for a r^ular 
quartet of strings, which is broken up into many diviaiona 
of gravcj laigo, vivace, presto. It ia genuinely instrumental 
in intention ; fully scored throughout, and with very few 
singte-part imitationa and auch an<^nt survivals from the 
choral ages. The opening bars of the first 'grave' show 
such a conspicuous appreciation of the expressive powers 
of the violin that they deserve quotation-^ 

w-rii \ -iii \ -ir!\ i ^iv'T:r^ l 


r: ill} a^ ^ 

When the style of these works is compared with that of 
the string muuc before 1650, the growing iense of maturity 
and focili^ of handling is very striking. The style is so 
admirably consistent and so well balanced that it ia difficult 
not to suspect that Vitali had models in the works of com- 
* % 

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posers whose namea and works ha?e disappeared. Posaiblj' 
in days of unremittiiig research his forerunners and examples 
may be uneartbed. At present the difference between the 
standard of Vitali'a work and that of the work of ten years 
earlier is almost startling. No doubt Vitali unproved very 
much upon bis own eariy efEorts, but there is a sense of 
decision and assurance about his works which marks the 
point of actual artistic attainment as contrasted with the 
tentative experiments of bis predecessora. These works also 
clearly illustrate the general gravitation of instrumental 
muuc in the direction uf cyclic forms — that u, of com- 
positions made up of several movements, the order of which 
was already beginning to get stereotyped in two directions — 
which ultimately found their goal in the Suites of dance- 
tunes on one side and the Sonatas on the other. 

Vitali shows his keen instinct for actual instrumental 
effect more conspicuously in his Chaconne in G minor. In 
this he shows a perception of the genius of the Instaiunent 
and of the possihilities of figure and ornament, and a scope 
of invention which is far beyond anything remaining by 
composers before his time. A short passage from one of 
the variations will ahow the liberal view he took of the 
possibilities of true instrumental style : — 

ri , tar r r r m ^ fe 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Almost contempofaneouB with Vitali, but cultivating insti'u- 
mental music in a slightly different manner^ vas Legrenzi. 
This interesting composer has already been referred to in 
connexion with opera and cantata. His character was 
therefore more of the general musidan, while Vitali was 
distinctiy a specialiat. But L^renzi was strongly attracted in 
the direction of instrumental music, and exerted himself 
in more ways than one for its advancement. He wrote a 
good many Sonatas for strings and continuo, which made 
their appearance between 1653 and 1677, Some of them 
are rather contrapuntal in style, but others agdin notably 
illustrate the establishment of the 'cyclic* scheme, like those 
of Vitali. In a Sonata published in 1677 he b^os with 
an all^ro in the usual fugal style, which is followed by an 
alternating succession of slow and quick movements, ending 
with a 'presto/ Another in D comprises two adagios, one 
of them in the relative minor, and ends with a movement 
in giga time, ^. Legrenzi supplies proof of the general 
recognition of principles of instrumental form rather than 
of brilliant writing for the instrument. 

Yet another contemporary of Vitali who deserves honourable 
mention was Giovanni Maria Bononcini, bora in Modena in 
1640, His first opufl, which was published about 1665 in 
Bologna, was called 'Trattimenti da Camera* for two violins 
and violone with a bass for cembalo. It contains various 
groups of movements, such as No. 5, (l) Adagio, (2) Balletto, 
(3) Corrente, (4) Sarabanda. The groups are not uniform, 
but they all contain dance movements. The style is often 
quite like that of the great violin composers of tiie dghteenth 
century, with definite inatramental subjects and a distinct 
feeling for harmonic form. Among his other works, which 
were always published in sets, were ' Varii Fiori del Giardino 
Muflicale, overo Sonate da Camera. Opera terza. 1669.' A 
collection published in 1671 of 'Arie, Correnti, Sarabande, 
Gighe e AUemande ' for * Violino e Viobne o Spinetta ' is 

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a set of violin solo movementB with accompaniment. The 
foUowiDg is the first half of one of tiie Ariaa, wbich shows 
how generally composen had s^zed upon some of the 
capabilities of the violin — such, for instance, as leaping from 
one end of the scale to the other. The device was evidently 
popular about this time, as may be observed in the qootationa 
from Vitali's Chaconne and from Sympson's 'divisions.' 

B^mondni's hone as an instrumental composer was coDsIdemble, 
and his music was evidentiy well known in England. 

The successful establishment of true instrumental style, and 
the diffusion of taste for genuine instrumental music as distinct 
from forms of art borrowed or modified from older choral 
forms, are shown by the number of composers who cultivated 

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that bnmch of art mtb evident fadlity and Bnccen in the 
last quarter of the eerenteenth centuiy. The style which ia bo 
familiar in the copiona flood of Italian violin sonatas of the 
eighteenth century ia already unmiatakably preaent in the works 
of men who have passed into oblivion through the more 
perfect achievements of their succeasors. Tet many of them 
miaiatered to these achievements by perfecting the methoda 
and style which wa% required for the matnrer works. The 
labours of obscure conipoaers estaUished the virtnei of ' cyclic ' 
forms such as Sonatas and Suitea, and the principles of altei^ 
nating quick and alow morements, and of constructing them 
on harmonic principles which showed in a duly subordinate 
degree the old contrapuntal habita. But it ia vortii while to 
conuder why tbdr energies were devoted so exclusively 
to violin music. It ia noticeable that the style so far devekqwd, 
and developed so successfully, ia essentially the style of violin 
music. Instrumental music established the groundwork of its 
independence at first through compoaers being content to 
apply all their ener^ea to munc for only one of the modem 
orchestral instruments. The development of the marvelloUBly 
composite style which allots to every orchestral inatmment 
the forms of expression and the passages which are specially 
apt to each was not attained till fully a hundred years lat«r. 
The principle of independence had to be eatabliahed first, and 
while the effects which could be produced upon the violin 
were so novel that they appeared to amateurs of the art to be 
almost miraculooa, there clearly waa a field capacious enough 
to constantly afford fresh musical delights to the most exigent, 
without bringing the other orchestral instruments into the 
scheme. The claims of those other inatrumenta, such aa 
trumpets, flutes, hautboys, and bassoons, seem to be joat kept 
in sight by their occasional appearance on the scene; but 
for at least a century, concentrated attention of faculty was 
given by composers to the development of the style which 
afforded the most perfect opportunities for the display of the 

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exquisite and subtle qualities of tfae violin. And the exclusive 
attention bestowed in this direction had tindoabted influence 
in making composers gravitate uncooBtuouslf in the directi<Hi 
of harmomc forms of the sonata order, Nearif all these 
cotnposerB were themselves perfcHmers ; and it is very likely^ 
that they found by practical experience that the contr^untal 
forms of art, such as the canzonas and fugues, were unsuited 
to the geniua of the violin as a solo instrument. And though 
they still kept the Canzona in the group of movements consti- 
tuting their sonatas, it soon lost its pristine purity, and ceased 
to be exact in the maintenance of t^e treatment of the parts ; 
as is seen, for instance, in the first entry of the subject being 
frequently accompanied by aa independent baas, aa illustration 
of which has already been afforded in tfae second example 
(No. 235) quoted from Vitali on p. 338, and of which there 
are numberless rimilar examples belon^g to later times. 
Moreover, the predominant 'singing^ qualities of the violin 
inevitably influenced the trend of things, and led to a melodic 
treatment of the instrument which brought it very much into 
the for^round when combined with an accompanying instru- 
ment, and induced a treatment of the acctHupaniment which 
tended to simple successions of harmonies, simply figured, 
rather than to imitation and contrapuntal passages, which 
would make it too nearly equal in importance to the solo 
instrument. It may also be pointed out that the singing 
qualities of the iastrument were obviously a great part of the 
cause of its bdng so b^ved by Italian musicians, and of 
violin music so completely superseding harpsichord music 
in favour during an important period in the eighteenth century. 
All these influences combined to induce tendencies towards 
forms of the sonata order, and towards the gradual elimina- 
tion of the traces of the old choral forms and style from 
instrumental music. 

A composer of this time who had a highly organized instinct 
for insbimiental music was G. B. Basaani. His history is 

_y Google 


rather obscure, but he is commonly reputed to have been 
a pupil of Carisumi, and the master of Cordli. It would 
be pleasant to be able to connect CorelU vith Carissimij and 
to prolong yet further the noble genealogy which stretches 
immistakably from the greatest ttf modem violinists back to 
Corelli in unbroken line of pupil and master. But if Bassani 
were a pupil of Cariuimi, he certMnly can have learnt very 
little from him in respect of instrumental style, as Carissimi 
was even behind his contemporaries in that respect. And it 
seems rather unlikely that Corelli can have been Bassani's 
pupil, as that composer was bom in 1657 and CorelU four 
years earlier. However, Bassani seems to have been in the 
field as a composer before Corelli, and is osually taken to 
represent a slightly anterior standard of art, as there is 
a cdlection of works for stringed instmments by him dated 
I1577, some six yean earlier than CorcUi's first publication. 
The standard indeed is excellent^ consiatently instrumental 
in style, and quite free from the traces of the old choral 
counterpoint. A group of four dance-tunes, (i) Balletto, (3) Cor- 
rente, (3) Gigs, (4) Sarabanda, for two violins and bass shows 
a freedom and certunty of handling in detail, a comuatency 
of style, and a fluency of melody which are distinctly in advance 
of pRvious composers. The following are the opening bars of 
the Balletto and Corrente, t^e connexion of which is obvious ; 



■11, |. 


1 g V ' ■■ 


■^■*-" M 



J J I "." rli^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


There is also an excellent ■onata in A minor for two violins, 
violoncello (ad lib.), and organ which was published in 1683. 
This is developed on a much wider scale than the earlier danc^* 
tunes, and has many traits of the mature form of the Italian 
violin sonata. It begins with a long allegro, in which the 
characteristic features of a well-defined subject are well main- 
tained throughout. The second division is a grave, which 
is notable as bemg io a different key from the first, bq^nning 
and en^g in E minor. The third division is an allegro, 
b^^ning in E and ending in A. The fourth, an adagio ia 
D minor, beginning as follows ; — 

|. V ^ ji I J ^ 

il A J 

and the fifth a prestiirimoj |, also in D minor : — 

-gH-'- i jn. 


The previous adagio is resmued in D minor, but its course is 
diverted so as to end in A, and then the prestissimo is repeated, 
tranqrased bodily into A minor : — 

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Two Balient points in this scheme are the employment of 
contrutfi o{ key for different dirisioDS, and the recapitulation 
of the adagio with modifications, followed by the recapitulation 
of the prestiauroo transposed. Compoeeni had been very 
slow to diacorer the adTantage of change of key in successiye 
movements and dinaiona, Even in the series of dance move' 
ments by the composer above referred to, a considerable 
drawback ia the monotony of the tonality — everything ending 
alike in G. The present example is all the more remark- 
able because it is exceptional and even premature, for 
composers continued to write most of the movements in 
sonatas and suites in the same key till far on in the next 

Basaani's perception of tonality ia also very well illustrated 
by the internal organization of the individual movements of 
the above sonata. None of them remun in one key throughout, 
but in every one there are clear and well-defined modulations 
which make the tonal effect seem fresh and free, and convey 
a sense of structural strength to each complete division. The 
prestisumo, for instance, begins with a lively passage of nght 
bara, ending with full chord. The last four bars are repeated 
bodily for structural effect. Then fresh beginning is made 
in the same style, and modulation is made to the relative 
major and completed by a close in that key, making another 
eight bars. The last four bars of this passage are repeated 
as in the first portion, and end again in the relative major. 
Then there is a little passage of six bars, perfectiy consistent 
in style, which leads back to the dominant of the original key ; 
after which the first portion is resumed as at first, together 
with the repetition of Uie last four bars. The scheme as 
a whole is as complete and definite as possible, every pro- 
gression, repetition, and modulation having clear raiton d'ttre, 
and all the procedure being of the order which belongs to 
modem harmonic music as distinct from contrapuntal music 
of the old order. The whole sonata ia, in respect of its modem 

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structuritl qualitieB, very remarkable, and emphasizes in a 
practical manner the enormous expansion of the perception of 
tonality which had taken place in the minds of composers in 
the course of eighty-three years. 

An important performer-composer, whose reputation was 
very con»derable in the last quarter of the century, especially 
in England, was Nicola Matteis. He is referred to in terms 
of admiration both by Evelyn and by Soger North, and his 
works merit the encomiums bestowed on him. The title-page 
of a collection of 'Ayres' for the violin, published in 1685, 
describes the contents as 'Preludes, Fuges, Allmands, Sarabands, 
Courants, Gigues, Fancies, Divisions and likewise other 
passages. Introductions and Fuges for single and douUe 
stops/ &c. There is great freshness and vivadty of ideas 
in many of the movements, which are in a thoroughly 
instrumental style, most apt to the idiosyncrasies of the 
violin. As the works are almost unknown, some illustratioaB 
will conduce to the accurate appreciation of Matteis' position 
in the story. The movements of a kind of suite in B minor 
b^;in as follows: — 

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T T \r -f-f 

. r r 1 J -1 1 


-vr f--' 

f1!t 1 


I JH . -^^f/^l l' ^^ 

f r?-gf?tWt?f^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 

■b. a4». 

,. r, ^' : \'^ , '^Ti ^ p i 4^j'^ i \p *^ 
\[< r-nTT 

J J J , J 

A. lively garotte Iq another collection is qiute Id a popular 
ityle, and thoroughly tuneful and gay; but it shows tiie curious 
persistence of a charBcteiistic trait of all these early composera, 
who never knew quite what to do with the second violin, and 
frequently spoilt the effect of the tune given by the first 
violin in the endeavour to give an artistic part to the second, 
which very often obscures the essential effect of the leading 
instrument by crossing and over-elaboration. 


t,- QE,'j | rjr7.^v|j. rgi^ 


J^^UJ i 


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A point which is noticeable in Matteis* works ia the amount 
of phraae-ntarks, vhich show a higher conception of the 
refinements of performance. 

The coune of events biinga the process of many-sided 
development up to Arcangelo Corelli, who stands before the 
world as the first mature composer of violin munc, and the 
fountun head of modem violin-playing. He was bom at 
Fusignano in 1553, and came before the world as a composer 
at Rome in 1683 with bis Opus i, which conaiBted of a set 
of twelve Sonate da Chtesa. This was followed by a set of 
Sooate da Camera, also printed in Rome in 1685; and two 
more sets alternately of Sonate da Chiesa and Sonate da 
Camera came out successirdy in Modena and Bologna in 
1690 and 1(594. The compositions with which the world 
continues to be moat familiar are the duos for violin and 
violone or cembalo^ which were published in Rome in 1700^ 
and the last collection published by him was that of the 
Concerti Groin, which made their appearance in 171 z, the 
year before his death. The whole of his compositions amounts 
therefore to but sixty little works, and it is noteworthy, as 
representing the specialization of the various forms of art, 
that they were all for stringed instruments. The first four 
sets of sonatas, written for two vioUns and double bass or 
archlute with figured boss for the organ, establish the two 
main types of absolute instrumental music. The twenty-four 
Sonate da Chiesa represent absolute music of the type of 
modem sonatas, aiming at technical artistic perfection and 
formal symmetry. The twenty-four Sonate da Camera repre- 
sent the grouping of dance movements such as became familiar 
later in suites, ' ordres,' ' lessons,' and in more recent times 
in ballet suites. In the church sonatas there are no dance 
movements so called, though many of the movements are in 
gay and lively rhythms. The church sonatas are generally 
in four movements — a slow and dignified introductory move- 
ment, a solid fugal all^ro, an expressive slow movement, 

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and a lively final allegro. The general oi^nization prefigures 
distantly the modem aonata, though the style is always 
contrapuntal, and there is little which suggests the idea 
of figured accompaniment, or of arpeggios which represent pro- 
gressions of harmony in ornate forms. The chamber sonatas 
usually consist of a group of moTementa in the same alternation 
of sbv and quick times as in the more serious sonatas. The 
first morement is frequently a solid prelude, and the second a 
movement of a deliberately-moving type, such as an allemande ; 
the third a sarabande or slow movement of a kindred expressive 
character, and the last a lively movement such as a gigue or 
a corrente or gavotte. The quality irtuch distinguishes the 
movements of the chamber sonatas from the church sonatas 
is the more direct and definite quality of the rhythm^ whidi 
in the latter is obscured and complicated by the iadependeace 
and cross-action of rhythm in the simultaneously sounding 
parts. The movements in the chamber sonatas are mostly 
in the simple form familiar in Bach and Handel's suites, 
divided into two neiu'ly equal partsj the first of which starts 
from the tonic of the movement and ends in its dominant 
or relative major, and closes there with a double bar and 
sometimes a repeat; and the second of which starts from 
that point and makes its way back, often through the snb- 
dominant> to the tonic, and concludes there without much 
circumlocution. The subjects are not very definite, and the 
movements are unified rather by consistency of style than 
by identity and systematic use of subject-matter. Corelli, 
however, shows how much the instrumental branch of art 
has progressed by frequently presentmg his subjects in 
a harmonic and complete form, instead of the single-part 
form which was natural to fugue and such primarily choral 
kinds of art. The kind of subjects in which all parts make 
their appearance at once, and all are equally essential to its 
character, was a very difficult one to achieve. Even in later 
times . subjects are often met with which are merely tunes with 

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artificially sophisticated accompaniment. The perfect, ideal 
subject, in which every part seema inevitable, is the prerogative 
of only the strongest composers in their most musical moments. 
The relation of subject to development was nothing like so 
important in early days as it became later, but Corelli never- 
theless shows the genuineness of his instinct by occasionally 
hitting off an idea which is neither fugal nor mere harmoniza- 
tion. The church sonatas naturally present more of the 
contrapuntal methods, since they were the methods most 
avulable for carrying out the intellectual elements which are 
necessary in such serious abstract forms of art. In the chamber 
sonatas he was on the crest of th^ wave of contemporary 
progress, and presented his material with all the modernity 
possible in those days. The different sets of sonatas are thus 
especially suggestive and interesting in relation to the com- 
poser's attitude, as he seems to be alternately looking backwards 
and forwards. But this was not through hesitation as to which 
path to choose, but because he doubtless regarded the Sonate 
da Cbiesa as representing a high ideal of art, and the Sonate 
da Camera as light, familiar art — the one attended with 
responsibilities, the other with risks. But in the first there 
was indeed but little possibility of expansive progress, and the 
style had to be transformed almost out of recognition before 
it was available for true representative works of modem 
instrumental art. The Sonate da Camera are, therefore, the 
groups in which the tokens and features of the later develop- 
ment of instrumental music are roost frequently to be found ; 
such as the definiteness of rhythmic or tuneful subjects, the 
reiteration of phrases, the use of sequences, the devices of 
systematic key-arrangement, and so forth, which tend to the 
complete organization of every part of a movement. Corellt 
shows m his own individual development the prepress which 
was being made in perception and mastery of technique. The 
set of twelve solos show marked advance on the ' Sonate a 
tre,' in tuneful attractiveness, balance, and maturity of style, 
ran A a 

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The 'Soaate a tre' are rather vooden and archaic at best. 
The connexion with the struggling, hdpleBfl, tentative style 
oE the generationa immediately preceding is occasionally per- 
ceptible. But the BoloB move with much more ease and 
elasticity, as if the composer had attained more complete 
mastery of his muscles. These solos, like the sonataa, are 
half of the 'Chiesa* and half of the 'Camera' order, the 
first six beiDg of the former class and the last six of the latter, 
with one set of vaiiations. There are, however, several features 
which diertinguiBh the first ax from the earlier 'Sonate da 
Chiesa a tre.' Many movements are more distinctiy harmonic 
in style, and are based ^n formulas of arpe^o and similar 
marks of decisive departure from the contrapuntal style. The 
most interesting feature of all is the growth of the adagio. 
The slow movements had no doubt been the most attractive 
features even of the earlier sonatas ; but in the duos they take 
larger proportions, and they illustrate in a remarkable d^^ree 
the growth of the ornamental element, in the graces and 
flourishes which the aptitude of the violin for rapid passages 
' made especially suitable. Corelli's ornaments are eminently 
graceful and appropriate, and contrast strongly with the [purely 
mechanical flummery which the operatic composers supped for 
the edification of the vulgar portion of their audiences. By 
good fortune some of his slow movements ejdst in both forms — 
in the mmple unadorned forms as printed for the public, and 
in the ornate forms in which Corelli is said to have performed 
them himself. The closing bars of the first adagio of Sonata IV 
will illustrate the differences very serviceably : — 

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Iq nearly all these aolo Bonataa there is a surprieiiig advance 
on the earlier 'Sonate a tre ' in cleameBa and beauty of subject- 
matter. They are full of passages of melody which have 
maintained their attractiveness for three centuries, and they 
are written with a freedom and elastidty which are very 
astonishing when compared with the hesitating and con- 
stricted utterance of subjects in most of the instrumental 
works of the composers preceding Corelli's time; and the 
compositions show an almost perfect intuition for fitness in 
relation to the violin. Corelli was almost the first composer 
who ahowed a consistent instinct for style, and this marks 
one of the most important attainments in the development of 
instrumental music. For in the earlier part of the century, 
as has already been pointed out, composers had hardly any 
idea of adapting thdr thoughts to the idiosyncrasies of their 
instruments, and for the most part wrote mere voice-parts 
for them; but Corelli at last attained to the point of writing 
music to which only the instruments for which he wrote 
could adequately give effect. It may be confessed that he did 
not aim at brilliancy, but he attained to solidity and dignity, 
and trusted to intrinsic qualities of rhythm and melody to 
give interest to his works instead of trying to surprise the 
unmii^cal part of his audience with mere dexterities. The 
contrast is notable in this respect between his work and 
that of some of his contemporaries, such as Vivaldi, whose 
works, though more lively and brilliant, have failed to muntain 
any hold upon the world, because they are musically so much 
A a 3 

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more empty and are devoid of deeper qualities of expreseion 
and interest of texture. 

The ' Concerti groasi/ which constitute the last group of 
Corelli's works> do not properly belong to the seventeenth 
century, aa they did not make their appearance till 1712. 
They are, however, directly connected with the earlier worics 
of the composer by scheme, style, and artistic method. They 
show bis mastery of wider means of effect than those employed 
in tbe earlier works, as they are written for a group 
of three solo iostnimeDts, that is two violins and 'cello, with 
an accompanying orchestra of strings. The first eight of 
these are on the lines of tbe Sonate da Chiesa, and contain 
fugues and other movements which are not specified as dance 
forms : tbe last four are on the lines of the Sonate da Camera, 
and consist mainly of dance movements preceded by a prdude. 
Tbe order of movements most frequently comprises a solid 
allemande at tbe beginning, and a giga or lively minuet at 
tbe end, the middle movements varying, in relation to the 
character of the allemandes, between correntes, sarabaades 
and short incidental passages of ada^o. Tbe average outline 
therefore prefigures tbe familiar suites of Bach's time. Id 
style they are remarkably consistent, and, within th^r 
simple limits, mature. Tbey are in a broader and more 
weighty manner than tiie earlier works, but are still essentially 
Corellian; and of their kind and time they stand almost 
alone in keeping any hold upon the affections of musicians. 
There are occadonal movements which show tbe influence of 
the popular liking for the mere appearance of being busy all 
about nothing ; but all the concertos contain passages of real 
ngour and healthy vitality, and adagios of very characteristic 
beauty and delicate texture; and, among other attractive 
features, in the eighth concerto, ' Fatto per la notte di natale/ 
occurs the eminentiy tuneful 'Pastoiale,' which is not only 
one of tbe most attractive of his movements, but consistently 
free from technical devices of sheer contrapuntalism. 

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Corelli's works mark the tumiDg-point when the struggles 
and experiments of the century blossomed into the maturity 
of genuine instrumental music — establishing the principle 
of the grouping of contrasted movements^ sometimes even 
venturing so far as to allow the contrast to extend to change 
of key. They mark the complete emancipation of instrumental 
music from the trammels of the vocal style, the complete 
perception of tonality as a bans of structure, and the attcun- 
ment of the essential qoality of fitness of style. From the 
Corellian time onwards, the great school of Italian riolinists, 
who followed on his lines, proceeded to pour out the admirable 
succession of works for their unsurpassable instrument, which 
for dignity and genuine artistic qualities will stand compariBon 
with the products of any period of musical history. 

The tendencies of this branch of art are perceptible in 
other countries as well as in Italy. A general survey, indeed, 
gives the impression that the march of events was at an equal 
pace throughout all civilized countries. For though Corelli's 
pre-eminent gifts naturally attract moat attention to his country, 
the composers of other countries produced works which 
represent quite as advanced standards of artistic scheme and 
method. In Germany, for instance, the violin composer 
H. F. I. von Biber was in the field with sonatas fully as 
early as Corelli. He was considerably that composer's senior, 
having been bom in Bohemia somewhere about J638, and 
his first published collection of sonatas is said to have made 
its appearance in 1681. One of these which has been re- 
published and edited by Ferdinand David shows that his 
instinct for style and form was little short of Corelli's. 

Among other composers who prominently illustrated the 
tendencies of the time in Germany was Georg Muffat 
the organist, whose work in that department has already 
been discussed. He produced a number of works, on a very 
large scale for that time, which he collected together into 
a FTorile^um primum, published in i6g5> ^nd a Florileffium 

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tecundum, published in 1698. Each 'florile^um* comiats 
of a number of Huitea which are called ' Faaciculi/ and each 
'fasciculus' has a name of its own. Thus FasciculuB I is 
'Euaebia/ II is 'Sperantas gaudia/ IV is ' Impatientaa.* 
No. I in the second set is called 'Nobilis jurentua/ and 
No. 2 * Laeta poeus.' Each suite cootuns a large namber of 
movements, which are very irregular in their order. * Euaebia* 
contains (1) overture, (2) air, (3) sarabande, (4) fpgue i, 
is) gBvotte, (6) gigue 3, (7} minuet. The first 'Fasciculus' 
<ii the second ' Florilegium ' has Estr^ for ' Espagools ' and 
'HoUandais,' 'Oigue pour les Anglais,' 'Gavotte pour lea 
Italiens,' 'Menuet pour lea Francois,' and bo on. Fasciculus 
No. 3 of the second Florile^iun has movements called 'Les 
CuisiDiers/ 'Le Hachia/ 'Le Marmiton.* Elsewhere there 
are ' Entries des Fraudes,' ' Entr^ des Insultes/ a movement 
called 'Les Bossus/ &c. The general aspect of the works 
seems largely due to the fact that Geoig Mufiat had lived 
in Paris during the time of Lulli's pre-eminence, and bad 
studied his style and methods with evident sympathy. The 
Fasciculi are groups of ballet-tunes, the idea for which was 
derived from the groups of dance-tunes in the French opera. 
They have many points which give them historic importance, and 
their intrinsic artistic qualities are by no means insignificant. 
The overtures, which are almost invariably on the LuUian plan, 
are on a larger scale, and far more lively in detail, than the 
original models. MufEat was a much better contrapuntist than 
Lulli, and very naturally produced his fugues with greater 
facility. The subjects are much more definite than Lulli'a, 
and the treatment of them is also more systematic. As an 
illustration may be taken the following subject of the fugue 
in Fasciculus No. 5: — 

*x. asa. 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



Even the dance-tuiieB are more modeni in character, and 
modi more elastic and vivid in detail. In the Lullian dance- 
tunes there ia for too much of mere perfunctory har- 
monizatioa, and the instruments are often used without 
ministering to anything but the fullness of the sound. MuSat 
approximates more happily to the modem ideal, by giving 
the subordinate instruments something which hdps the rhythm 
in some way and is entertaining in itself. The lallowing 
is the first half of 'Jeunes Espagnols': — 

and the follomng the be^nniog of a charming ounuet bom 
Fascicolus VII: — 

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The eesenti&I idea of founding instrumeDtal compositioiu 
upon riiythmic and formal properties is implied as emphaticaDy 
as possible in these works ; and they illoatrate rery forcibly the 
amount of musical progress achieved in the instrumental depart- 
ment during the century. In the banning, serious-minded 
composers bad been busy trying to write madrigal music and 
fancies for instruments, in which contrapuntalisms obscured 
the rhythm as much as possible, and the objects of the 
composers were almost limited to the demonstration of tbdr 
powers of devinng little imitations between the several parts. 
By the end of the century we have this collection of over 
a hundred morements, in which an iufinite variety of dance 
rhythms is presented, and the whole is carried out with the 
aptness and fertility of resource of a first-rate musician. Thus 
the century b^an with instrumental music in a nebulouB 
state, and ended with int^ration and definition of the most 
conspicuous kind. The type of art was illustrated with 
remarkable success later by Fraofois Couperin in his 
* Ordres ' for the harpsichord ; the miun differences being 
that Couperin omitted the LuUian overture as unsuited ta 
the dimensions of the instrument for which he wrote, and 
tiiat he adopted much mote systematically a regular nucleus 
of special dance types, such as allemande, courante, and 
sarabande, for the opening portion of his suites, giving the 
irregular array of dance-tunes, like Moffat's * Bossus,* ' Hachis,* 
and 'Marmitons' later on. However, as Couperin's com- 
poutions belong to the dghteenth century it is not advisable 
to discuss them here further than to pomt out that they 
illustrate and confirm the tendencies displayed throughout the 

The universality of these tendencies is illustrated in England 
88 well as in Italy and Germany. The revival of church 
munc and stage plays in Charles II's rime, combined with the 
effects of the cultivation of secular instrumental music during 
the Commonwealth, gave new character to every department 

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of art in tlie latter part of the century, and in none less than 
in pure instrumental muaic. In this department Purcetl'a 
contributions are as weighty and as artistically interesting as 
those of the best of his contemporaries in foreign countries, but 
they also illustrate the coDserrative dispositioii of the race, in 
the obvious leaning towards muBicianship rather than towards 
amenity &nd charm. The first set of Purcell's sonatas for 
stringed instruments was published in parts in 1683, the very 
same year as Corelli's Opus i. Among other things which 
gave the pubUcation special interest were some points in tlie 
preface, in which he expressed his preference for tlie Italian 
style and Italian art to that of the French school, which had 
been fostered and encouraged so much in Charles IPs reign. 
He says, ' I shall say but a very few things by way of Preface 
concerning the following book and its Author : for its Author 
he has faithfully endeavoured a just imitation of the most 
fam'd Italian masters; prindpally, to bring the Seriousness 
and gravity of that sort of Music into vogue and reputation 
among our Country-men, whose humour, 'tis time now, should 
begin to loathe the levity and balladry of our neighbours, , , ,' 
He thinks he may * warrantably affirm that he is not mistaken 
in the power of the Italian Notes, or elegancy of their Com- 
positions, which he would recommend to the English Artists/ 
Besides this first set, Purcell produced late in life another 
set of ten sonatas for the same group of instniments, which 
were published by his widow soon after his death, in 1697. 
The scheme of movements in these sonatas approximates to 
the normal order, so familiar in slightly later times, of (i) slow 
movement, (3) solid all^^ in fugal style, (3) expresuve 
slow movement, (4} lively quick movement. It is notable 
that Purcdl, like the eariier English composers of instrumental 
music, liked to maintain the names which su^ested the 
time-honoured ancestry of special musical forms. Just as 
the composers of the Commonwealth-time often named the 
first movement of their suites a Pavan, so Purcell frequently 

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named his Fugal moTement a Canzona. ■ And the mfraence 
is natural, that though his genius led him to many remarkable 
strokes of surpiieing progression and melodic figure, he did 
in these sonatas aim at metliods of art which had the dignity 
of tradition about them, rather than at such as illustrated the 
moat advanced stage of progress. The movements are worked 
out on an imposing scale, and no pretence is made of being 
light and familiar. The texture is of the contrapuntal order, 
and direct rhythm of the kind familiar in modem instnuneatal 
music is almost entirely eschewed. The traditions of tite 
old polyphonic style are still dimly apparent in the frequent 
introduction of cross rhythms, which emphanze the inde- 
pendence of the parts and make them more interesting to 
the player than to the average man out of the vbreet. Tbe 
methods of art, in which fugal devices and manifold imitaUoos 
are predominant, show that the works were intended for tbe 
cultivated musiciaD and not for an unsophisticated public. 
Thus the works represent Purcell's purest ideals of art, jmt 
as quartets would represent the highest ideals of a modem 
composer, and they show him quite out of the range of the 
French influences which his departed master Charles II had 
BO favoured. The sum total of their characteristics marks these 
works as illustrative of technical qualities rather than qualitiei 
of beauty and attractiveness ; but they have singular strength 
and spaciousness, and move with perfect ease even in the 
most complicated situaUons. The personality of Purcell does 
not, however, shine through them quite so conspicuously ot 
so invariably as in other branches of art, and they deserve 
connderation as sterling works of art rather than as illustratioDS 
of the latest phase of instrumental music of the century. la 
some ways they are slightly antecedent in character to Corelli's 
works, though tfadr intrinsic force and power of development 
give them a place among the finest examples of tbdr kind 
produced in the century. As an illustration of extremely 
elaborate and ingenious progressions, the commencement lA 
the ada^o of sonata 5 of the set of 1683 may be taken:— 

_y Google 




Uii — i~TiQ,.. — rTi .-fj'—^i 

_-^ _ M_ _, — , . — ._ ___ 

■j^ . i-*-"* 1^,1 . — Ji J ■ 1^ [ fJ p fJ;. J-\fj* ^i^ J-,-iJ 

1 f |>j . .■if .f r 1 

^l>^ l-t '"' 1' '^1 1 

Ab an examj^ of directness and vivacity the opaiing ban 
of sonata No. 7 of the later series : — 



1 Jj t .=^^ 


— = — r 


r 1 1*1^ f fr F — — rt 

— 1«P 

"ff.r «.^' '■ p<— f 


— ^ 

■ JI'TT] J .-g 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


As has before been pointed out, the sudden and all-absorbii^ 
culUvation of music for atrioged instruments, from the begin- 
ning of the second quarter of the century onwards, had caused 
music for domestic tfeyed instruments to be entirdy neglected 
in Italy, Germany, and England for about half a centtny. 
But towards the end of this century the attention of composot 
b^an to be attracted in this direction again. Harpsichotd 
music had been cultivated in France to a certain octant while 
composers in other countries were absorbed in working out 
the problems of viol and violin music; and to the French 
davecinists and lutenlsts of the seventeenth century (such 
as the Gaultier family, of whom Denys wm the last and 
greatest), the art owes the establishment of the style for 
domestic music for keyed instruments, and Uie application 
to them of the system of grouping dance movements into 
suites or 'ordres.' The French composers did not at any 
time aim at grand schemes, rich and interesting devdop- 
ment, or displays of learning. Their acute instinct for 
fitness led them to cultivate daintiness, prettiness, neatness^ 
dexterous play with phrases, intimate and delicate fandes 
suitable to the home-life of people whose intelligence was 
polished and vivadous. The composers of the middle of 
the century seem to hover a little on the confines of contra- 
puntalism and the learned style. Occasionally they evta 
wrote fugues. But the instinct for refined pleasure shines 
through the learned texture, and can be felt to be drawing 
them onwards in the direction of the elegancies of the dance 
suites and the neat little named picture-tunes in which French 

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composers excelled during the early part of the next centurf ; 
such as are prefigured in Deuya Gaultier'B collection oE 
suites for the lute^ called La RA&orique des Dieux. The 
foremost representative of harpsichord muaic in Louts XlV'g 
time waa Jacques Champion de Chambonni^res, who came 
of a famous musical Family, several members of which had 
enjoyed reputation as organists in the reigna of Henry IV 
and Louis XIII. He is commonly regarded as the father 
of the French harpsichord school, and his music girefl 
indication of considerable advance in style and refinement 
upon the standard of such music at the beginning of the 
century. Among other famoua clavecinists immediately after 
him, some of them his pupils, were Anglebert, Le B^gue, 
and Dumont. Their work as a whole represents the immediate 
step before the finished and delicate work of Francois Couperin, 
who remfuns the most conspicuous representative of this 
French branch of art, and did more than any other composer 
to establish the Suite as a suitable form for the domestic 
keyed instrument. 

In reviving the cultivation of harpsichord music England 
was but little behind France. It may be confessed that her 
comp<»ers had not the delicate sense of style requisite for such 
refinements of private life, but they tried to make up for it 
by being forcible, interesting, and ingenious. The fancy 
truly was lacking, but the will was good. In the collection 
called Melothesia, published in 1679, are coUections of Suites 
by Matthew Lock, Preston, Roberts, and Gregory, which 
show how universal the acceptance of the normal order of 
movements in such works had become. The 'Almain' is 
nearly always the first of the quaai-dance movements, and is 
generally followed by a *Corant' and a Sarabande; and the 
cycle ends with a quick movement, such as a 'Jig,' 'Rant,* 
Round, Hornpipe, or country dance. As an example of the 
complicated manner of utterance, the Corant of the fourth set 
by Lock is worth quoting. It shows the complete lineaments 

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and many ot the artificial dexterities which are met with in 
flimilar movements by Coupsrin, Bach, and others of the 
later suite composers. 

< r- trJiJJ.J' i J J^J J^J'J'r 




r » r ;" ■ 

r-t i fVf 

■ Ji J J , 


' tr r-f ft 

Mt f 

1 1 J f]^ ^"^? 

'.V'^^' ' 1 ■ 


^ — ^ 

-J— l-l- * J ; 1 1 

1 1.-, 1 ■ 

r r L,.r-T=.^ — |U-V=- 


FurceH's contributionB to this branch (^ solo music are 
of great mark. The most important are the Choice CktUeeim 
■ of Lettont for the Harpsichord or Spinet^ which were pub- 
lished by his widow in 1696. There are eight regular suites 
of four or fire movements apiece, most of them in the familiar 
order of Prelude, Almand, Corant, and Sarabande or Minuet. 
The uxth has a hornpipe in the place of the corant, and tlw 
seventh ends with a hornpipe, and the eighth with a short 
'trumpet tune' and a chaconne. The style is masculine 
and eneigetic, and, with the exception of the preludes, which 
are short, moat of the movements are of about the same 

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dimenwons as those in J. 8. Bach's suites, and there is 
something of the same temperament about the works them- 
selves. The artistic texture is very highly organized in 
some cases, as in the 'Almand' in the seventh set, wtiich 
begins as follows: — 

and in the exquisitely dainty dose of the first half of the 
same movement. 


It is noticeable that there is a slight flaTOor of English 
tunefulness about many of the movemente, and a definitenesa 
of mnncal idea which, for the time when they were written, 
is very remarkable. In tiiis latter respect the twelve little 
pieces which constitute the Leitona far Munci^a Handmaid 

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(Heniy Playford, 1689) are remariiable. These are dunty little 
miniatures of tuneful and attractire quality representing nuuij 
types of contemporary instramental art. There are minurti, 
song tunes, marches, and a rigaudon ; and No. 9 is the funoiu 
' Ulliburlero,' which in this place is called * an Irish tune.' The 
collection is remarkable, for the time when it was written, 
as one of the earliest attempts at presenting music for tlie 
harpsichord which is attractive on its direct intrinsic meriti 
of tune and rhythm, apart from technical ingenuities; and 
some of the movements are premature anticipations of the little 
lyrical and romantic pieces for the pianoforte which hsTc 
become so importunately plentiful in modern times. The 
most remarkable composition in the set is No. 8, which it 
called *a new ground.' Purcell in this case shows in a flmiU 
compass a very high degree of artistic perception. The 'ground 
bass' is notable for its genuinely instrumental character, 

and the composer biulds upon it a genuine instrumental song, 
an ornate and very expressive melody, which suggests kinship 
to the slow movement of Bach's Italian Concerto, and antici- 
pates the methods therein adopted. 

s^pir': i u".'^=^9^^ 




;< J- j ^-n-r^^ s; 

I f 'i f f 


' r f" 'e a ' 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Te^etber irith Purcell's works of the kind, John Blcfw'g 
haipsichord lessons deseire honourable mention as works of 
sterling artistic quality. They came out in 1698, and com- 
prise preludes, diristoas on grounds, chaconnes, and examples 
of the usual components of suites, written in tiie free contn- 
puntal manner of instrumental music of the period, and show- 
ing a good deal of invention and sense of instrumental style. 

Gennaoy, which was destined to surpass all other nations 
in instrumental music, was slow to enter the field of music 
for domestic keyed instruments. The energies of her com- 
posers wtate fully and very profitably occupied in developing 
organ munc, and the opportunities offered by the clavi- 
chord and harpucbord were too slender to attract them ; 
but when tl^ be^an to give then- attention to the secular 
branch of instrumental art they soon showed that it was 
congeniaL It was almost inevitable at first that composers 
of such music should have been organists, and also that the 
style they afiected should have depended to a great extent 
on their belonging to the southern or the northern group. 
Kaspar Kerl, who must clearly have been very early in the 
field of secular clavier music, shows a very marked disposition 
to adopt the southern or Italian style, with its flimsy treats 
ment of arpeggios and harmonic commonplaces. However, 
his Toccata in C called ' Tutta de salti,' the ' Capricio cucu,' 
and the Passacaglia in D minor, are important on the same 
grounds as some of John Bull's work; affording illustrations 
of the development of clavier technique and figure of the 
purely harmonic kind in the direction which led to the 
sonata-style of the so-called classical masters. 

Of a very diffemit and far more interesting order is 
Frobeq;er's muuc for the 'clavier.* The date of the com- 
position of bis 'Partien' seems to he unascertainable, but 
inferences from the dates of his life and the style of the 
works indicate that they were written before the last quarter 
of the century; and that Froberger led the way among 

fA» Bb 

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composers of his race in attackiiig the proviDce of eecular 
clavier muuc. 

The moHt promineat external feature of these Siutee ii 
the conformity of gFouping of the constitiient tnovemenU 
with the groupmg ■ adopted in the next century by J. S. 
Bach. They consist almost invariably <^ allemande, counnte, 
aarabande, and gtgue, the only exceptions being that in a 
{ew cases the gigue is wanting, and in one case a set of 
variations on ' Aufi die Mayeiin * stands in the place of the 
allemande, while the com-ante with double, and the aarabande, 
which complete the suite, are variations on the tiieme. The 
apparent exception of the remarkable lament for the death 
of Ferdinand IV, king of the Romans, which stands at the 
head of another suite, is only apparent, as the movement 
is really an allemande in disguise. These suites of Frobeiger*! 
are among the most important compositions for the clavier 
of the century ; for though they are severe and have but little 
amenity and grace, and though the influence of t2ie style 
which had been developed for the oi^^ is strongly perceptible, 
they do hit the true note of secular music, especially of that 
dignified and highly-organized type of which J. S, Bach's clavier 
music was ultimately the highest manifestation. The peculiar 
kind of rugged individuality which characterizes these worki 
is illustrated by the examples quoted from his o^an worics in 
Chapter iii. 

The last few years of the century witnessed conaderable 
activity on the part of German composers in the field of clavier 
music. The composer who broke new ground with the greatest 
enterprise and success was the learned and versatUe Johana 
Euhnau, who from 1684 was organist of St. Thomas' Church 
in Leipzig, and from 1700 onwards Cantor of the St, Thomas' 
Bchool, and therein Johann Sebastian Bach's immediate prede- 
cessor. His first important contribution to this department 
of art was the ' Neuer Klavier-Uebungen erster Theil, bestehend 
in sieben Fartien,' &c., which was brought out in Leipzig in 

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1689, The Beren 'Partien' in quest^n consist of groups of 
movements, for the most part of the same type as the well- 
known suites of J. S. Bach. The increment upon the systematic 
order of Frobei^er is the Preeludium, which generally consists 
of a short introduction made up of figured passages or arpeggios 
based on simple successions of chords, and a short fugue. 
Among better known examples, the type is illustrated by the 
prelude in C$ major in the first half of J. S. Bach's 'forty, 
eight,' and the Toccata to his E minor Partita. Both the 
preludes and the quasi-dance movements which follow are 
of admirable quality, and angularly mature and instrumental 
in style, combining the best artistic qualities of the southern 
with the earnestness of the northern school. The movements 
are more graceful and easy in manner than Froberger's, and 
show more perception of the style appropriate to the domestic 
keyed instnunents, as distinguished from the organ style, wiUi 
its characteTiitic suspensions and severe harmonies. 

Kuhnau followed up his first set of suites with a second set 
in 1692, which were on much the same plan, and contained 
the same artistic qualities as the first. But the great feature 
of the second set was the Sonata in B 1^, which he added at 
the end of the set. The little preface which he appended to 
the publication shows that he recognized the fact that the 
'Sonata' had been monopolized by stringed instruments, and 
that he conddered his composition to be quite a new departure, 
for he says, 'I have added a Stmata in B If. For why should 
not such things be attempted on the Clavier as well as on other 
instruments ? ' The Sonata can, however, hardly be said to 
prefigure the Sonatas of tiie later 'classical' order, but is rather 
of the nature of an individual speculation, outside the direct 
road of evolution of that branch of art. It is true that it is 
quite different hxna the Suites in style, form, and material ; but 
Knhnau was trying to anticipate a development which needed 
quite half a century to complete, and therefore it is rather the 
spirit than the matter which marks pn^ress in the direction 
B b 2 

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o( mod«-n art. Such as it is> the Bcheme deaeim comddera- 
tion. The work be^ns with a wdght^ aud Tigorous moremeiit, 
in which there are passages of simple chorda rhythmicalljr 
grouped, and passages of imitation. This is succeeded 1^ 
a lively fugal movement. Then follows a short adagio coo- 
usting mainly of simple harmonies, and a short all^ro of 
nmple character in | time, and the whole is completed by 
a repetition of the first movement. There is no strongly 
marked distribution of subjects as in later sonatas, but the 
effect depends much more on harmonic conmderationa than 
would be the case in suites. 

Having thus broken ground in the line of sonatas for daner, 
Kuhnau followed up his venture by the publication <^ aeven 
more sonatas in 1696, which appeared under the tiUe of 
FHaehe Ckmer / riiehte. The form in these is again munly 
speculative, and little attempt is made to devise cbsncteristic 
subjects. There are alternations of quick and slow movements, 
of passages of simple chords and passages of imitation; and 
the gravitation in the direction of harmonic as distingnished 
from contrapuntal treatment is again strongly apparent. The 
composer shows no leanings in the direction of virtoon^, 
and keeps his fiorid passages within dignified bounds ; but 
the works are nerertheleas genial and interesting, and 
thoroughly apt to the claTi». The scheme of the third 
sonata may be taken as a sample, and is as follows: — 

I^TSt movement in F in | time, umple and solid in quslity: — 

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The second movement is a timple aria in common time, 
bef^inning as follows: — 

l^i^li I il 



- ^r-rrri 

The third movement is a fugue with the following subject:— 


The fourth movement is a second aria, in D minor in q time, 
somewhat resembling the familiar Corellian slow movements : — 

and the fifth and last movemeDt is in F major, in giga-style and 
in ^ time, containing many alternations at forte and jnono: — ■ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Having thus expimded hia venture in the direction of daviei 
Bonatas to confiiderable proportions^ and with no little Bucceas, 
Kuhnau proceeded yet further in a modem direction by 
attacking the province of programme music. His experiment 
in this form consisted of six Biblical-history sonatas, pub- 
lished in 1700, which are among the most curioua acfaieve- 
menta in the whole range of music. The subjects are 
'David and Goliath/ 'David curing Sanl of his tnelancbolf 
by mufuc/ 'The marriage of Jacob/ 'Hezekiah's sickness' 
'Gideon,' and 'The tomb of Jacob/ The subjects aod 
situations are au^ested by various realistic devices, for the 
moat part rather innocent in character, and belonging to 
the same order of musical thought as those already described 
in Carissimi's oratorios. The first movement of 'David and 
Goliath ' su^eats the insolent bravado of the giant ; the second, 
the tremor of the Israelites ; the third, the courage and con- 
fidence of David, and the battle and the fall of the giant; 
the fourth, the flight of the PhUistinea, in lively runsj the 
fifth, the joy of the Israelites ; t^e sixth, a ' concerto mnsico' 
of women in honour of David ; and the last, a genosl 
jubilarion. The other histories are dealt with on similar 
lines, and with conaiderable variety of reaource. Indeed, the 
ntuation is to a certun extent saved by the thorough 
musicianship of the composer, who employs for the moat 
part an artiatic treatment which makes a good deal of the 
music interesting in itself. He was a man of too much 
intellectual caUbre to rely altogether on realistic sugges- 
rion, such as has made some later programme music seem 
so absurd ; and he employs a variety of harmony and expressive 
figures, and manipulates the form of his movements in a 
manner which illustrates forcibly the distance which art had 
travelled in the course of the previous century. Moreover, 
he was by no means alone in his impiilae to illuatrate pro- 
grammes at that period of musical history. MuSat, in his 
' Florile^um,' bad anticipated the same impulse; and even 

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Buxtehude had publiBhed Booat&s for clavier which vere 
intended in some way to have reference to the planets, and 
Couperin was shortly due to illustrate the same disposition 
in his 'Ordres.* 

Among works which illastrate the newly awakened energies 
of German composers in the line of clavier moEuc mention must 
also be made of Pachelbel's six Arias with variations, which 
were published in 1699 with the title of Hexachordum 
Ajmtlmis, There are also several other Arias and chorales 
with variations and Chaconnes by the same composer, all of 
which are elegant, strongly tinctured with the soatiiem style, 
and thoroughly apt to the clavier. They are specially note- 
worthy on account of the frequency witii which they present 
typical examples of the ornamental formulas of arpeggio (such 
as the so-called 'Alberti Bass') and other characteristic 
tommoDplaces of accompaniment of the harmonic order; of 
which this composer, probably under the influence of Kaspar 
Kerl, became one of the most consistent early manipulators. 

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The mainteDance of an onginal and independent ataadard 
of art requires not only vital force and in^viduali^, bat 
alBO great natural gifts of exposition and eiqtresnon. The 
moderately gifted being is soon exdnguisbed in a straggle 
with the tastes and habits of his contemporaries if he happens 
to be at variance with them ; for if he cannot expreaa his 
thoughts convincingly, they seem to those who differ frotn 
him to be merely annoying and perverse. Hence it is that 
in periods when men of really great mark are scarce, art 
drifts into ahallownefis and conventionality, and into all sorts 
of feeble concesaiona to the lack of taste and artistic insight 
of those who are unfit to judge of arUstic qualities without 
leaders. And when men of real perception and power com^ 
it is their missbn to wrestle with the Fhilistinea and re- 
establish the worship of the true art. A succession of such 
alternate periods may be observed in the wide spaces of 
history, like a great rhythmic process. — ^The great momenta, 
when art is full of vitality, being the result of the presence 
of strong and independent individualilies, and the periods of 
complacent and empty conrentionaltam the result of their 

In the middle of the seventeenth century Italy had not 
the good fortune to possess any men of pre-eminent genius 
and individuality, except tiie one who had gone over to 

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France and adopted French manners. There were a few 
men of great abQitjr, bat apparently none with sufficient 
personal force to muntain a course independent of the 
influence of public taste. As has been already pointed out^ the 
course which the pn^rew of opera in Italy appeared to be 
pursuing in Monteverde's time was almost totally abandoned 
as soon as he died. Indeed if the anonymous manuscript 
opera of ' II ritomo d'Ulisse ' which exists in the Royal 
Library of Vienna is really Monteverde's opera of that name, 
it indicates that he himself regarded his efforts in the histrionic 
and dramatic direction as a foriom hope. His pupil Cavalli 
maintained some hold upon dramatic idealfl> but, as has been 
pointed out, he drifted away from them in the direction of 
technical artistic finish and clearness of muucal form. The 
opera composers who followed him, agun, show a further 
gravitation in the direction of technical efficiency rather than 
dramatic expression, and during the latter part of the cen- 
tury they seem to have been lesa intent on finding what 
was worth saying than on developing a ready and affable 
manner, and a pleasant and eawly intelligible way of presenting 
what they had to say. But it is not necessary to infer that 
this was all pure loss to art. Technical resources must be 
cnltivated in order that great thoughts may be uttered. It 
is quite indispensable that art shall in the long run be in- 
telli^ble and organic in all its aspects. The wild ravings 
of hysterical passion are no more endurable in music than 
in literature, and composers necessarily seek in times of 
sanity for forms and terms in which to present theur inspi- 
rations; so that they shall be clear and definite, and shall 
convey a sense of orderliness and oi^anizatiou to intelligent 
human beings. Hence the influence of the Italian public 
in the first three quarters of the century was not altogether 
unprofitable ; for it induced composers to content them- 
sdves with solving elementary problems instead of wasting 
their povrers on attempting things quite out of their reach. 

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M they would have done if they had tried to cany out the 
aims of Mootererde without having at their diaposal the 
resources of harmony and inatnimental effect, aod the masteiy 
of variety of design, which were indispensable to their achieve- 
ment. Their somewhat unenterprising labours helped materially 
to the establishment of the modem system of tonally, to the 
development of instrumental style, to the discovery of simj^ 
principles of form, to the art of writing effectively for the 
voice, and to the moulding of elegant and expressive melodies. 
It was after this had been done that the taste of the public 
became most unpropitious. The greater part of the development 
had BO far been in the melodic directioo. Melody was indeed 
the only part of the art which bad arrived at any d^ree 
of maturity ; and the Italians, whose dispontion it has always 
been to enjoy things purely beautiful in themselves rather than 
highly coloured or vehement effects which illustrate aome- 
tbing external to music, fastened on melody as their chietett 
joy. Indeed, they came to adore the vocal solo to such an 
extent that ererytUug which might happen to stand in the 
way of its perfect attainment had to go overboard. It seemi 
almost needless to point out that art is many-uded, aod 
that the extravagant glorification of one part of it at the 
expense of the rest is an inentable prelude to its deterioration. 
The excesKve and exclusive taste of the Italians for rocalizaUe 
melodic music led to the dreariest period in the history of art, 
because it necessarily excluded so much that is needed to 
make music permanently interesting. The accompanimenti 
had to be kept in subordination to prevent their distracting the 
hearer from the full enjoyment of the singer's skill ; wher^ore 
all tiie higher qualities of direct expression which depend 
upon harmony were excluded. Variety of form became supers 
fluous, because the vocalist naturally hked to display his 
powers in cadences and other formalities in the same paita 
of his ariias. Dramatic development became superfluous 
because the audiences were not concerned vrith the interest 

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of the stoiy Bet, but with the miinc and the performere. 
Hov these mfluences continued to drag Italian opera down 
lower and lower into the slough of shams, and even to the most 
vapid vulgarity, it is not necesaaiy to recall. Fortunately 
they were not fully revealed during the seventeenth century, 
though the tendendes can plainly be discerned. Neither 
audiences nor composers had aa yet lost all sense of self- 
respect, and composers were still allowed to show artistic 
feeling and originality in their treatment and genuine beauty 
in the contours of thrir melodic phrases. 

It was just at this moment, when the development of 
artistic methods and resources had arrived at a fairiy practicable 
standard, especially in the matter of melody, but when the 
taste of the public waa beginning to exert its influence most 
unfavourably, that the great Aleasandro Scarlatti came upon 
the scene. Very little is known of his early history, but 
there seems no doubt that he was bom in 1659, probably 
in Sicily ; and it is clear that he began his public career in 
Rome, as it was in the eternal city that his first opera, 
' Gli Equivoci nel Sembiante ' was performed in 1679, when he 
was but twenty yean old. He is commonly reported to have 
been a pupil of Carissimi ; but as that venerated master died in 
1674, when Scarlatti was at most fifteen years old, it is unlikely 
that his responubilities exceeded a general influence, which 
indeed is often perceptible in the younger master's melodic 
style. It seems possible that he studied with Legrenzi, wbose 
influence is even more clearly perceptible, and it is tolerably 
certain that he came under the influence of Francesco Pro- 
venzale, one of the most important early composers of the 
Neapolitan school, whose operas * Stellidaura vendicante ' and 
'II Schiavo di sua Moglie' came out in Naples in 1670 and 
J 67 1 respectively. It seems indeed likely that Scarlatti was 
actually his pupil. However conjectural such points may be, 
after he had come before the public with the opera named 
above, and had followed it up in 1680 with 'L'Onesta 

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nell' Amore/ tbe circumstances of his life can be easily 
lollowed. It clearly was fortunate that the fint few yean 
of his public life were spent in Rome, for there the taste of 
amateurs was more serious than at Naples, and he was en- 
connged to lay the foundations of his style in solid and artistic 
qualitiesj which stood him in good stead later in life. It 
was probably in Rome that his instinct for instrumental style 
was awakened and fostered, for the influences must cleariy 
have been the same as those which bore such hi^py fruit 
in the musical personality of Corelli, who was his contem- 
porsry. Similar serious and steadying influences must have 
directed his mind towards the old choral music of the Church, 
which also was a gain to his style. But in 1697 these con- 
ditions came to an end, as opera performances were stopped 
in Rome by the ecclesiastical authorities, who had long looked 
askance at public theatres ; and Scarlatti's musical activities 
were transferred to Naples, which was the centre of the 
kingdom to which he, as Sicilian-bom, belonged. There can 
hardly be a doubt that the inflaence of Neapolitan audiences 
was unfavourable, and he acknowledged that it hindered him 
from using his highest powers. But fortunately he had Mends 
elsewhere who sympathized with and encouraged the finer 
sides of bis nature, such as Cardinal I^etro Ottoboni, who 
wrote the libretto of one of the finest of his operas, ' La Statin,' 
and Ferdinando de* Medici, who had a theatre of his own 
and brought out some of his works in it. So the Neapolitan 
influence was not altogether unalloyed, though it was suffident 
to account for moat of the deficiencies in the scheme of the 
great master, and especially for the unfortunate type of opera 
which his great powers established as a model to the composes 
of the early part of tbe next century. 

Scariatti's disposition was more compliant than speculative. 
His works give the impression that they are the outcome 
of an exceptionally artistic nature, which was satisfied with 
the conditions presented to it and the methods which his 

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predecessors had eTolved, and sought only to make the best 
me of them which coofonnity with the taste of his con- 
temporaries admitted. It was a nature little liable to be 
disturbed by pasnoa, vivid dramatic situations, independent 
lof^ aspiration, or human suffering; hut possessed of an 
exceptional instinct for purely abstract beauty, and perfect 
capacity to adapt itself to conditions. It may be doubted 
whether Scarlatti ever wrote a sin^e passage which really 
stirs the depths of human feding. Though often forcible 
to a remarkable degree and generally noble and dignified, 
there is auch an element of polished and courtly elegance 
about all his work that, though the pleasure it gives is refined 
and even elevatuig, it does not appeal to genuine human 
^notion. The well-known words *mira suavitas' on his 
tombstone are so apt that they seem to touch on the satirical ; 
and thoi^h his melodies are truly ezquinte> they tend to 
pall upon the hearer, for, Hke men who are overpolite, they 
seem to lack the quality of individual conviction. 

Scarlatti's facility is truly astonishing. He assimilated all 
the resources his predecessors had accumulated, and applied 
them with brilliant success, improving them as he went along, 
while pouring out opera after opera with a precision and 
s conformity to established practice which would give the 
impression that he had something of the mechanic about 
him, had not the gifts of tune and style which they display 
proved that he was almost the greatest genius of his century. 
His pre-endnent gift is melody. In that he seema at home 
in every mood. Whether the vein is energetic, reposeful, 
pluntive, heroic, blustering or tender, the melodic phrase 
always seems ready, in a style which is admirably suited 
to show off the vocalist's ability. The articulation of the 
phraseology and the dexterous treatment of the words In 
detul are often worthy of admiration and even astonishment; 
hut when a great number of arias have been gone through, 
the deliberate reiteration of the same devices and the para- 

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lyaing monotonjr of the same invariable design betray the 
influencea which made the great composer little more than 
a name to later generationg. The theory that Scaiiatfi io- 
vented the aria form ia one of the most familiar absurditiea 
of average secondhand mosical history. It is perfectly obvioug 
that he did not invent it, as its growth and use can be traced 
in the works of composers earlier in his century. But at 
the same time the n^lect of other types of solo movemait 
by compters of the period, and the extreme perustence with 
which he himself used this one form, excuse the atbributiou bi 
him of more than he deserves. He at all events represents 
the period when it came promluently into notice and be- 
came the staple resource of opera composers. Its prominent 
emeif^ce here makes a short description of its nature 
excusable. It begins with a first part, representing a definite 
block of music which is conaiatent in mood and style of 
melody, r^resenta one key, and ia rounded oS with a close. 
Thia portion is followed by a second portion which supplies 
contrast of some sort — sometimes contrast of key, and within 
certun bomids contrast of mood and style. This division 
is developed at a length a litUe less than the first portion, 
and generally in a style less vivid, so as not to overbalance 
the prindpal opening section, and the movement is romided 
off by repeating the whole of the first portion over again, 
which process is familiarly d^cribed as the ' Da Capo.' The 
form is obviously of the simplest imaginable, corresponding 
to the formula ABA, and is sometimes called the primary 
form in music, because it ia the very lowest and most 
dementary type which can be arrived at. That it is inevitable 
in some guise or another at all periods of art doei not 
mitigate the fact that at a stage of art when melody was 
the sole resource of expression it was the most unsuitable 
form which could have been chosen for dramatic purposes. 
However great the dexterity, artistic finish and beauty of 
melodic detail which even Scariatti could expend upon such 

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movementa, the conBtant procesuon of arias intersperaed with 
amorphous recitative made dramatic effect impoasible. Even 
setting; aude the monotony of the procedure, it had the additional 
demerit that it did not admit of any constant development to 
a dramatic climax. However much the drama which was the 
Bobject of the opera warmed aa it proceeded, and however much 
the situations increased in intensity, the blankne&a of the reci- 
tatire and its alternation with mere concrete arias held back the 
mufflc itself at the same uuprogressive level. But in truth the 
Neapolitans, to whom the credit of establishing the scheme of 
the conventional Italian opera is generally given, did not want 
munc dramas. They wanted elegant entertainments which 
afforded opportunities for social gatherings and conversation, 
interspersed with the agreeable relaxation of hearing pleasant 
melodies sung by their favourite singers. And for such purposes 
the simple form of the aria seemed adequate. It certainly made 
no demands on the intdligence of the listener; and in the 
hands of a master like Alessandro Scarlatti it was capable of 
presenting a great variety of qualities, variety of characterization 
in relation to individuals, and variety of mood and expression 
apt to the underlying story of the drama, which were just 
sufBdent to muntain a littie tangible interest over and above 
the mere enjoyment of el^ant music and good singing. 
The opera composer was by this time at the mercy of the 
public. It was not till the public itself got sick and weary 
of the monotony of the conventions that its own lack of sense 
had induced, and till a man of the fierce determination of 
Gluck came on the scene, that a return to dramatic ideals 
became posuUe. Scarlatti could do no more with all his 
genius than make the best of the situation; which he did 
by the admirable modelling of his melodies, and by widening 
and enhancing the sphere of the instrumental portion of his 
works. In the matter of texture his work was a great advance 
on that of his predecessors, and subordinate details of figure 
and movement are made serviceable and relevant without 

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becoming obtruBwe. These qualities are shown conspicuonaly 
in his apt and characteristic treatment of accompaniments 
whenever he bron^t his real powers to bear. This, it miut 
be admitted, is not always the case, for a large proportioD f>f 
the accompaniments to his arias are in the purely perfunctory 
shape of a figured bass, which leaves all the artistic details to 
the tender mercies of the accompanist; but there are also a 
good number which are scored for strings, and some few have 
obbligato parts for trumpets, hautboys or flutes, which show 
the tendency of artistic gravitation towards the organization 
of all the resources of effect in rhythm, figure, harmony, and 
colour. A fine bold example, which displays some very charac- 
teristic truts both of voice writing and accompaniment, is the 
song for Venus at the banning of 'La Rosaura,* of which the 
following are the first few bars : — 

'c_r i^^Ll_E_j' r 


^^c LL.'r 

C»M-4s, «ca.uta,afiil -in[4L 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



The pBsaage derives special iDterest from iu being an 
example of the device of representing chords by arp^;gio 
figures, whichf when thoroughly realized, proved too facile, 
and led to the barren wastes c^ conventional formulas, 
which have such a sodden ^ect in much of the perfunctory 
Italian music of the eighteenth century. In thia case the 
figures can be felt to have ample vitality, and they are 
used with thorough artistic con«gtency. The device was 
as yet too new for formulas to be conventionalized, and 
Scarlatti thus escaped the temptation to fill up with passages 
which were common property. In many cases bis accom- 
panimentB and inner parts are treated in the new style of 
free instrumental counterpoint, the conjunct motion of which 
still indicates its descent from the old choral 8t]4e. But 
it must be accounted one of his virtues that he moved with 
tiie times, and in the latter part of his career his manner 
grew more and more to approximate to the Italian harmonic 
style of the eighteenth century, with its simple successioa 
of chords or figurate passages representing them. A remark- 
able example of the transitional stage, which illustrates also 
the boldness of his dengn and his fmciUe treatment of 
the sob voice-part, is a song for Campaspe in 'La Statira,' 
which begins &a follows: — 


Al-'Jl- \'.- !■ =1 

^ .u.«. U 


tJ LLiS, tiSi _ 



D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


' do, jil dar-do d'Amo ' 




The scope of hia arias is very Tariabte. Some are of great 
length and admirahly developed ; some are so short that they 
only amount to a few bars. An example from the ' Prigionier 
fortunate' is so compact that it admits of being inserted 
here almost in its entirety, together with part of the 
recitative which precedes it, to illustrate hia procedure in 
these respects: — 


l ee '■^61-^ 

\a-1-o dw V-wieH,Cl*, d« di-(«-H dilniv d>l 

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'c r r 

' ' ^ I 

1^ :/ '^[Lf ■ 

The 'da capo* from A follows, and the whole coDcIudes 
with a good ngorooa ritomello of four bars. 

Though Scarlatti mainljr contented himself ' with writing 
ariaa and ' recitallvo secco,' there are a few examples in 
hia works of accompanied recitative, sometimes developed to 
considerable proportions, and finely conceived ; and there 
are a few examples of a kind of compromise between aria 
and accompanied recitative, which show that if the taste 
of the opera public had not been so narrowly restrictive, 
Scarlatti might have achieved something consistently dramatic . 
on less conventional lines. 

His facility and certainty oi handling are coDspicuously 
shown in the independent instrumental parts of his works. 
His overtures occupy a singular and important position, as 
the earliest approximately mature examples of the Italian 
form which ultimately expanded into the modem orchestral 
symphony. The typical scheme consisted of three move- 
ments. First, a solid all^ro movement, corresponding in 
spirit to the first movement of a symphony of the claasical 
period; secondly, a slow movement; and, finally, a light 
and lively movement. In the early days the group was 
frequently termed 'stnfonia,' and when in course of time 
such overtures came to be elaborated and furnished with 
the resources of expanding orchestratioQ, th^ were frequoitly 

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published separately in seb of baod-parts, and played at 
concerts, independently ol the operas to which they belonged. 
The practice was common in all places where instrumental 
music was attempted ; and it is curioua that whereas the 
opening instrumental movements of operas were called 'sin- 
foaias,' they frequently appear under the name of overtures 
when they were intended for performance apart from operas, 
and it was under that title that some of Haydn's early 
symphonies made their appearance. As a recognized form 
of overture for Italian opera it perusted till the time of 
Mozart, and the overture to his early opera 'Lucio Sylla' 
was in that form. 

Scarlatti's examples vary a good deal in quality. That 
to 'II Flavio Cuniberto' ia crude and undeveloped, and the 
initiatory allegro is in a rather clumsy fugal style, though 
hardly to be dignified by the name of a fugue. That to 
*La Rosaura' is aingulariy mature in style and scheme. 
It constBts of four movements, the true characteristic allegro 
being preceded by a slow introductory movement. The 
following illustrations are the commencements of the four 
movements ! — 

•j j f J r ■■'7T4--i[^ J I ^T^ iB=jq 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


1^ j? ^ f ff P 1 ^- '^ ^■'"^1^ 


f;i l;^V 

f7l^ ^ I fj'^^ l ^ rrMJ | , h ^ (! l 


■n ta' O | tf p:j a' [j I 

r I ^Ji'^^^ljQ i^?! 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


pG^^ o ^om^ 

J— 3 

y^ UJtnS^ ^ I— I \Tf-C^ 


ij 'i J 

A very complete three-movement example U the OTcrture to 
the 'Caduta dei Decemviri,' the last movement of which is 
a spirited and effective giga. The overture to the ' Prigionier 
fortunato' U also in the three-movement fonn, and seems to 
suggest that he was taking the practical measure of his audience ; 
for the last movement is one of the earliest examples of the 
vulgar type of tune which, in later times, so often disfigured 
Italian opera. It suggests that Scarlatti divined that, as it 
would be the last thing heard before the dramatic action 
b(^;an, he could attract the attention of the audience by 
making it importunate. The first half of this singular 
movement is as follows: — 

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The overture to Mb very last opera 'Grisddft' (1720) ii 
iotereeting, as it has so much of the character of genuine 
modem mstrumental music. It is in the three- movement 
form, and is scored tor trumpets, hautboys, and strings. The 
material indeed is not so stalwart and virile as much of the 
earlier munc written in a slightly archaic contrapuntal styl^ 
and this is the case with all the early instrumental music of 
genuine orchestral type. The explanation of the apparent 
anomaly is that the old contrapuntal methods, evea when 
transformed into terms of instrumental part-writing, were not 
capable of forming the basis of modem orchestral music; 
and that whereas men had so far only discovered how to 
express their noblest thoughts in contrapuntal forms, and 
knew not how to express great musical ideas in terms of 
orchestral colour, they had, while approaching the new field, 
to adopt a much lower standard of intrinsic quality in thdi 
utterances. The early attempts at harmonic orchestral music, 
which afford opportunity for spreading out orchestral colour 
over sufficiently broad spaces to be effective, are very vapid and 
pointless. But when the great German maatera lud bold 
of the system, and infused into it the life-blood of genuine 
feelii^ and inspiration, modem orchestral music came at last 
to life as the most copious and comprehensive means of 
muucal expression ever devised by man. The overture to 
' Griselda ' shows that Scarlatti divined the course which true 
orchestral muaic was destined to pursue. It is even likely that 
he was first in the field. Thus his work as a whole, despite 
the limitations imposed upon him, spreads over a very wide 
field. In matters operatic he summed up the work of the 
Italian composers of the century, and gave a distinct indication 

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of tbe force of public opinion which controlled the scheme. 
Moreover^ a considerable pordon of his best work was done 
in the seventeenth century. <La Statira* came out as early 
as 1690. 'La Caduta dei DecetnTiri,' 'Flavio Cuniberto/ 
'II Prigionier fortunato,' 'Gerone/ 'La Bosnura/ followed 
within the next ten yean, and the century finished with 
'L'Eradea* in 1700. 'Mitridate Eupatori' came in 1707, 
and 'Tigrane* in 1 715, and 'Griselda,' as before mentioned, 
closed the list in 1730. So that he not only summed up 
the one century, but initiated the operatic work of the next ; 
and that, moreover, in a manner which clearly represented 
the transformation from the contrapimtal style of the kind 
oommouly employed by Handel, to the harmonic style which 
served as tbe foundation of modem opera, which is especially 
prominent in the accompaniments, as well as in the separate 
instrumental portions, of 'Griselda,' 

Scarlatti exercised his powers in otlier branches of secular 
art besides opera, as,, for instance, in Serenatae, some of 
which are on a large scale, comprising choruses and effective 
use of the orchestra. The form which was most closely 
allied to opera was the 'Cantata a voce sola,' examples 
of which by earlier composers have already been referred 
to. Of this form he must have been one of the most 
prolific of all composers, and the works, though never heard 
now in their entirety, contain many beauti«. Their general 
appearance is as if they were slices out of operas, for 
they generally consist of several arias interspersed with reci- 
tatives. There is nothing particularly significant about them, 
except the inexhaustible facility of vocal melody, and the 
strange puzzle that a form of art which is so undeniably 
long-winded should have been so popular. It would appear 
to have heen the main staple of domestic vocal music for 
many generations, and it is certdnly creditable to the taste 
of the prosperous classes that a branch of art which had 
such distinguished qualities should have been so much in 

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demand ; for the staDdard of s^le, notwitbatandrng obrions 
defects, is always high. Scarlatti's examples, which are among 
the finest of their kind, are almost entirely hee from triviality 
in the essentially musical parts ; but, as in the opera arias, the 
melody is rather of a vague, complacent, and very vocal 
character than decisively striking or tuneful. The form 
of art was quite a specialty, and the singular feature Uiat 
the bass (which is all the accompaniment supplied) ia of 
a semi-melodic character ia rather a drawback in some 
ways, as it limits the opportunities of attaining anything 
highly characteristic. At the same time it must be admitted 
to be much more artistic than the accompaniments of a 
large proportion of the songs which are popular in the same 
sections of society in modem times. In some ways Scarlatti's 
cantatas show a falling o£E from the pracdce of Cariasimi 
and Rossi similar to that noticeable in his operas. The 
constant use of the same aiia-form, with scarcely any attempt to 
diversify it or to contrive something original in plan, contrasts 
unfavourably with the variety attempted by the earlier masters ; 
while his purely conventional recitative seems a great falling off 
from the striking passages' of expresuve declamation which are 
to be met with in the cantatas of the previous generation, of 
which examples have been given above. In this, agun, Italian 
taste evidently had the effect of fining down and reducing the 
intrinsic interest of the details, and it is instructive to compare 
the barren result with the extraordinarily energetic treatment 
of characteristic expressive detcul in a corresponding branch 
of English 90I0 music of the time, such as Furcell's songs 
and scenes in music written for plays and so-called operas. 
Aa these cantatas are not easily avulable in thdr complete 
form, an outline of one of them, with short illustrations of 
its mu«cal material, will be a help to the attunment of a 
conception of their character. A fine cantata for soprano 
be^na with the following recitative : — 

Digitized by Google 



bfi-n > fi «.-L_Ez^ 

loToheUcoimi itniaa 

■*;m& n-ili-M 

*"?- — W- 

After this followB the first aria: — 

ra ■ (l,niT-ni-tl plu-ga-n padir flna kl ai do-lor. 

ti J II n 


the middle part of which begins in D minor aa follows :- 

Mt hU arn-do. . la ■ 

; . I .' 1 — ^ 

and modulates to C, G major, and through D minor again to 
a close in A minor, after which the whole of the first part 
ia repeated from A. Then follows a second redtative of the 
usual pattern: — 

IJ I ^ f I ^ 

k dl tal u - to - n 

1 5 E s e C P 

■al > oa (U qnal go - n 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



And then follows the final aria, preceded hy an introduction 
which anticipate! its opening phrases i — 

-f i r S ^ 


to which the voice-part answers:- 

This am also has a long middle part and the usual ' da capo.* 
With the cantatas 'a voce sola' must be coupled Scarlatti*! 
cantatas for two or more voices, a form which had been 
cultivated with much previous Italian composers, 
as, for instance, by Stradella. There is indeed nothing 
specially noteworthy about them, except the dexterous inter- 
weaving of the voice-parts. They are characterized by the 
same elegance of vocal melody as the cantatas ' a voce sola.* 

Other composers besides Scarlatti illustrated the operatic 
tendendes of the age during the last quarter of the ceatury, 
but his pre-eminence was so decisive that what little of thdr 
work has survived seems only to illustrate the same tendencies 
in a lesser degree. Indeed, one of the most curious features 
of the period and of the generation which succeeded is the 
absence of personal qualities and individuality in the composers. 

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They all seem to be saying the same el^iant fudlities in the 
same suave manner, as it they were too polite to venture on 
anything decisive or really characteristic. Names of men 
and their works are met with in plenty, and records of 
popularity and of successes of a most ephemeral kind. Some- 
times a solitary movement has survived through the charm 
of some particular phrase, or through its being specially 
pleasant to sing. Antonio Lotti the Venetian made an Im- 
presuon on his contemporaries which causes his name to hover 
in men's minds with a pleasant sense of interest, and to him 
is attributed one of the most charming urs of that time. 
The gifted family of the Bononcini won hme by their operas 
before the century closed. Jacopo Antonio Perti, the Bolognese, 
produced at least eight operas in his native town between 
1679 and ifi95* 1'he names of Qiovanni del Violone and 
Francesco PoUaroIo are specially coupled with that of Alesaandro 
Scariatti through their composing a sacred opera, 'San 
Genuinda,' together, each composer writing an act. It is 
conducive to despair to think of the thousands of miles 
of staves which these composers filled with weariness and 
monotony, reaching Car on into the next century, in which 
there is hardly a movement worth the endeavour to resusci- 
tate. The only directions in which genuine vitality or escape 
from convention seemed possible were ccnnic opera and the 
combination of features of the Italian and French types. 
Comic opera, which was destined to such a conspicuous 
career in after-times under many distinctive names, had but 
few representatives in the seventeenth century; but comic 
characters and comic scenes were frequently introduced into 
serious operas, and there are many such in Scarlatti's, 
including some on the same kind of basis as the stammering 
scene in Cavalli'a 'Giasone' (p. 148). Scariatti, however, 
did not attempt comic opera in the seventeenth century, 
and it was only near the end of his career that he produced 
'II Trionfo d'Onore,' in 1718. In this he happily prefigures 

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the style of the comic operas or operatic comedies of later 
times, even indeed of Mozart himself; and it is bright and 
lively, and even vritty, to an extent which is astonishing in 
such a veteran. 

The amalgamation of truts of French opera with the 
Italian type was more definitely and decisively attempted in 
the seventeenth century. Italian composers had naturally been 
in much request in foreign countries, and it has already been 
described how Cavalli was summoned to Paris and Cesti to 
Vienna with the result of modificatdon of their usual procedure 
in both cases. But in their time the forms of Italian opera 
and French opera had not become sufficiently distinct and 
stereotyped for reSex action, Quite at the end of the century 
it was otherwise, and it is interesting to trace the interaction 
of the two schemes, in view of later developments in respect 
of Handel, Gluck, and even Mozart. In some portions of 
Germany, though the Italian style was most highly appredated 
for the vocal portions of operas, the manners and customs 
of Paris were regarded as of highest prratige in other respects. 
At many German courts the style of the court of Louis XIV 
was regarded as the most perfect model of splendour and 
stateliness, and it was probably from this source that the 
curious amalgamation of French and Italian features in 
the same operas came about. The fact is familiar, that 
in later times, in a much more important development of 
opera, Handel, following the Italian dUposition of all the 
vocal parts, such as the aria and recitatives, followed French 
models in his overtures and instrumental movements. The 
Italian form of overture was almost entirely neglected by faim 
in favour of what is cidled the Lullian form, with the sonorous 
opening movement and the fugal movement, derived from the 
canzona, and sometimes succeeded by dance-tunes of French 
oripn. This tendency had been prefigured in respect of 
instrumental music by features in Ceati's * Pomo d'Oro,' written 
for Vienna, and the singular group of instrumental suites 

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written by Muffat; and it is also conapicuous in snch a 
work as Agostino SteSani's *La Ijotta d'Alcide.' This re- 
markable composer, one of the greatest of his time after 
Scarlatti and Purcell, began his career as a choir-boy at 
St. Mark's in Venice^ but he was removed in very early years 
to Munich, and the greater part of bis life was spent in 
connexion with foreign courts. He, like Handel, maintained 
throughout his attachmeot to the Italian style in vocal solo 
music, which he displayed not only in his operas, but in 
a great number of the most succeastul cantatas and duos 
which were produced in his time. But in this opera, which 
was written for the court of Hanorer in 1689, he illustrated 
the taste for French instrumental music by adopting the 
French form of overture, and by introducing dance-tunes 
of a French kind into the body of the work. The love of 
Italians for beautiful cantilena almost excluded ballets and 
dance-tunes from their operas in Scarlatti's time as in Cavalli's, 
and the consequence was that as the audiences in other coun- 
tries liked scenic display and dancing as well as the French, 
the composers who wrote for them were obliged to follow 
French models in providing the portions of their works which 
were scanty represented in the Italian operas. Stefiani, who 
was a man of exceptional personal calibre, carried out this part 
of his work with admirable spontaneity and verve; and it is 
not lulikely that Handel, who admired him, and seems to 
have occasionally borrowed from him, took his cue from him 
in the fonii of'opera which he adopted for the edification of 
courtly society in England, where there was ample reason 
for Hanoverian musical traditions to meet with favour. As 
an illustration of the fidelity with which the eclectic Steffani 
imitated the Lullian type of dance-tunes, the following from 
' La Lotta d'Alcide ' is worthy of consideration : — 

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' ' ' " ' f ^ r' 'r' ''" ' f 

■ H-Ji'^Vji i 

J ^ i J ■Ti J .J' i^fa 


iUJHiijjd.I A. ^ ,.ijii 




The general intrinsic deterioration in Italian vocal music 
during the latter part of the seventeenth century is as noticealde 
in Chureh music and sacred mudc as in opera. It ia true 
that composers continued in the endeavour to write music for 
special ecclesiastical occasions in the style of the great masten 
of the previous century; and they occasionally succeeded. 
Alessandro Scarlatti himself showed such perfect mastery of the 
old contrapuntal methods and such a fine sense of style that 
there are passages in some of his worhs of this kind which 
might easily be nustaken, even by experts^ for in^irations of 
Palestrina himself. But for the moat part the attempts of the 

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Church composen in pure choral music are like the attempts to 
design Gothic buildings in the twentieth century. The tempta- 
tion to produce eSecta, and to any things which are alieo and 
even impoasible to the spirit of the style and the age to whidi 
they make believe to belong is too great to be resisted, and 
the unnatural artificiality of the result ultimately produces the 
uncomfortable impression that the things are not genuine. 
The Church compositions of such masters as Beneroli (1602- 
167a), Bemabei (1659-1732), Lotti (i665-i74o),C(donna(drca 
1640-1695), are sometimes fluent, artistically finished, beautiful 
in sound, and skilfully manipulated, but they illustrate the 
tendendes of the time in such respects as imply a fatal 
degeneration. E^fisential qualities of the old devotional style 
are irretrievably lost ; and conspicuous features of the secular 
harmonic style, which are really quite incompatible with it, 
have taken their places. The passages are generally con- 
structed so as to illustrate tonal principles strongly and clearly, 
modulations of a modem kind are used for the purposes of 
effect, and modem harmonic cadences are introduced in 
profusion to punctuate periods and give the effect of design 
to Uie whole scheme. 

But nevertheless the works which were written ' a cappella,* 
that is in accordance with Uie ideals of the masters of the 
pure choral style, muntained a dignity and a seriousness 
which is extraordinarily at variance with the style of 
the Church muidc written with instrumental accompaniment. 
Indeed there is nothing more strange and astonishing in 
the music of this period, and even for a full generation later, 
than the extreme difference of character between the two 
kinds of Church music. They seem to belong to different 
epochs. And even the same men who proved capable of 
writing works of decorous solemnity in the choral style at 
one moment are found writing the paltriest trivialities directly 
they attempt to combine instruments vrith tiie voices. The 
extent of the difference seems almost ine:q>licaUe, except on 

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the gToundB that the one kind of muuc was intended for 
occasionB when the devout were to be edified, and the other for 
occanona on which an indifierent public had to be entertuned. 
The one, though not always a perfect copy of the old st^le^ 
ia aerious, meditative, and devout; the other is always busy, 
eometiniea artistic, but esBentially mundane. It tepresmts the 
section of humanity who attended the services of the Church as 
social functions. The mere sease of the stringed instrumoiti 
and the secular element they represented seems almost to have 
poisoned the minds of oomposers of Church muuc whenever 
they were admitted to grace special occasions. In extenua- 
tion however it may be argued that whereas the technique 
of choral muuc had been devek^ted in relation to the 
devotional ideas of the Church, all the technique of instni- 
mental music so far had been developed in connexioa with 
secular ideas and secular situations. So that composos who 
used stringed accompaniments for dieir Church music were 
driven to adopt secular methods in default of sacred models. 
The more acute their sense of style the more unfit the choral 
style of the older dispensation would have seemed for iostm- 
mental music. For the amalgamation of Church muuc of 
the old order with the liveliness of the new instrumental st^e 
would be as glarin^y grotesque as fitting the figures of the 
angels and saints of Fra Angelico into the general scheme 
of a modem realistic picture. So when composers had to 
combine voices and instruments in Church services they were 
driven to adopt lively secular manners for their voices as 
well as for thur instruments ; and so came about the strange 
phenomenon that composers wrote music for the srarices 
of the same Church in two totaUy different styles. An 
example will bring home better than anything else the extent 
of the diversity betvreea them. Among the foremost musiciaia 
of tjie time was G. P. Colonna, who was organist and Maestro 
di Cappella at the Church of San Petronio at Bologna. The 
musical traditions of that ancient town had always been 

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distinguished^ and » great deal of the most noteworthy instru- 
mental music of the seventeenth century had been published 
there. So everything combines to point to the place and the 
man as furly representing the highest standards of the day. 
Colonna in 1S94 brought out a collection of psalms for eight 
voices, which for the most part show a mastery and perception 
of true choral effect of the old style. There are defidendes 
no doubt, such as were inevitable at that time ; but the muuc 
is seriously meant. The same composer was very prominent 
amongst those who cultivated the new ecclesiastical style> 
and a good deal of his ivork of this kind also is fairly solid 
and dignified. But the fact that he knew how to write 
seriously renders the more significant the occasbns when he 
ad<^ted the new ecclesiastical style; as the following fiimsy 
commencement of the ' Oloria ' to the motet ' Laudate 
Dominum omnes gentes' will show: — 



D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


' ; r mZL' ' 

1st 4nd tnd ^flbtoL 

Et ^.ri. tii<l auH ■ . 7 .... to. 

The masten of the seventeenth centuiy did not arrive 
at the pitch of barren vapidity which characterized some ot 
the' later compOBers, but the poison can be discerned in the 
oyatem. They had found out the trick of making a specious 
show without meaning, and of giving the appearance d 
animation without any intrinsic ene^y in the ideas. And 
the fadlity acquired by the development of a certain kind 
of technique, which lent itself to mere showiness, had the 
same baleful effect as in operatic matters; and their Church 
music ceased to hare any devotional intention, and merely 
served as a decorative adjunct to ceremonial occauona which 
brought a concourse of people together. 

The motets which were written in such profusion in the 
Utter part of this century were extremely florid, especially in 
the Bolo portions, which were undoubtedly meant to give famous 
aingers full opportunities for the display of their powers of 
vocalization. These solo movements differed from operatic 
arias in a manner parallel to the difference noticeable in 
English music between the verses in the anthems and the 
tundul songs in the operas and the theatre music. Composers 

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seem comparatiTely rarely to turn at definite melodies, but to 
prefer va^e desigiiB in which underlying principles of tonal 
constructdon are maintained without the definite formulatioa of 
complete 'da capos,' and sections which make definite expanses 
of tune. The morementa indeed approach more frequently to 
the continuous manner of fugues, though, of course, without 
the technical artistic treatment of subjects in that form 
of art. The style, moreover, is a little more serious and 
weighty than in operatic solos, notwithstanding the superfluous 
amount of flourishes and ornamental passBges; and a great 
deal of the effect, apart from the admirable adjustment to 
ttte requirements of vocalization, was obtained by a kind 
of free contrapuntal relation between the voice and the 
accompaniment. These movements represent an expansion 
of the methods of Carissimi and Rosu, and the progress, 
snch as there is, is merdy in the direction of greater freedom 
and liveliness of style ; for in intrinuc qualities of point and 
character the earlier composers had the advantage. A good 
and characteriatic ^ample of style and treatment is afforded 
by the motet 'O anima, O voces' by Andrea Ziani, who 
succeeded Cavalli as organist of the second organ at St. Marie's 
at Venice in 1668. It b^ins with a vigorous and business- 
like ritomello, based on the initial phrase of the vocal solo 
to follow: — 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


j;>' qff t-T ^u \ %j 


Thete is a clone in C> and the single iiutnmient takes 
over tlie accompaniment of tlie voice after a too *■"*'*■" 
maDoeri — 


¥ ' 0.g3 j:i I iig'"^ r ^^ 

Ft • U ■ UD Ds . 

I'l II J ^ J I n 


Fl , U.nm D. . i. 

The fitat phfase is repeated after another familiar 
aDd then followB this Rgtonjahing flouiiah— 

| <J' " rrr i rrcLD cD j I ' ^f^ ^' ^a 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Hui rtyle and phraaeok^ is to be met irith CTeiywho 
evea to the little tricks of figuration, such u the turn — 

^lich for instance is bo conspicuous in the following <q>eniiif 
pamage of a solo and chorus by the Bolognese Perti, from 
B motet of tiie 'Assumption':— 



The style of the choruses ih this class of motet is some- 
what variable. In SteSani's numerous motets, for instance^ 
there are some choruses which approzimato to the old choral 
ityle> and others which are full of runs and lirely figores, 
nmilar to those with which the world is familiar in Handel's 
choruses. Composers -vere eWdently well trained in writing 
severe counterpoint, and they applied the facility so gained 
in writing free and lively counterpoint of the new kind, 
derived mainly from the kind employed in instrumental musiCj 
but accommodated to the requirements of good voice writing. 
It is undeniable that the fugal movements in the Church 
music of the composers of the closing yean of the seveo- 
tMDth and the early yean of the eighteenth centnriea are 

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highly artistic and animated, and they more with great 
sense of ease and ' saroir-fure.' There are passages in 
Scarlatti's motets and Church munc in the more nu>deni 
style which are really superb in vigour and freedom; but 
composers were not consiBtent in these respects, and their 
choral music can he felt to be drifting either into mere 
el^ant perfunctory counterpoint, more scholastic than pointed, 
OT employment of voices lilw wind instruments to make 
a mass of sustuned tone. In the search after broad but 
.cheap eSecti they lost touch with the higher principlea 
of choral muric, and the methods of treatment by which 
it could be made genuinely interesting and human. The 
tendency is analogous in prindple to that of the deteriora- 
tion in southern organ music, and implies an abandonment 
of the artistic qualities which require concentration and 
energy in the composer, and the adoption of specious and 
easy courses which appear sufficiently effective to the ephe- 
meral taste of an uncritical and inattentive public. There 
was fortunately one department of art in which oompoaecs 
still addressed themselves' to the hlghA* inatincCs ind* per- 
ceptions of genuinely artistic circles. In instrumental motic 
intended for small and select audiences the Italians still 
showed their great natural aptitudes, and maintained the 
foremost position in the muncal .world, as is shown in its 
place (Chap. vtii). . But the curious susceptibility to the 
verdict of their immediate public, which has been the bane 
of Italian composers, was already manifesting its deteriorating 
effect in every other department of*' art before the century 
had expired. And in this century Italian composers had the 
glory of initiating almost all the typical forms of modem art. 
It is tragic to think that they were not destined to bring 
even so much as one to perfection, owing to some inherent lock 
of power to maintain an equal standard of personal energy and 
conviction, when unf6rti6ed by the support of a sympathetic 

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At the bq;iimmg of the aeventeenth century Germany wu 
quite uncoDBciouB of her great muucal destiny. She had 
■s yet given the world no striking proofa of great mtuical 
aptitudes, and though she had produced a kw notable 
compoKH and musicians, she appeared on the whole to 
be less naturally productive or artistic than the rest of the 
civilized nations of Europe, It seems likely enough indeed 
that the appearance was in conformity with the factai and 
that Germany attuned her ultimate pre-eminence by force 
of character rather than by facility. The greatest composers 
or orators or artists are by no means necessarily those who 
have the readiest utterance or the greatest natural aptitudes, 
but those who have high ideals, force of character, in- 
dividuality, devotion, and grandeur and depth of feeling and 
conception. Mozart and Mendelssohn were apparently the 
most naturally gifted of all composers, but neither of them 
attained to such a convincing standard of greatness as 
Beethoven or Bach, who only developed artistic powers 
CfHnmensurate with their aims by persistent and indefatigable 
labour. So the German people at the outset were easily 
distanced by the Italians, whose natural musical gifta were 
much greater, and they even had to learn a good deal from 
the French before they attained to the standpoint which 

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enabled them to pursue a digtinct line of thai own, in 
which they^ ultimately ■urpassed all other races in the world. 
But though at first they could not play the part of lead»«, 
and in matters of art were not on a level with other nationa, 
thur musical utterance! had almost from the earliest dajrg 
certun special qoalities. The ferrour and depth of devotion 
which made the Germans so pronunent in the RefOTmation 
ia reflected in their comporitioDS. It bore fruit in the 
outpouring of chorales, and in the production of sacred soi^ 
for many voices which were inspired by die ideas and 
sentiments of the words. The chorales had an afBnity with 
folksongs in the definiteness of their metre and the grouping 
and delineation of periods, and when they were used in 
a manner analogous to * canti fermi,' th^ rhythmic or 
metrical qualities were generally nuuntained, and their melodic 
features, instead of disappearing under a network of counter^ 
point, as in the Roman Church music, shone out as the 
symbols of the sentiments which were associated with them, 
and enhanced by the peculiarities of harmonization. Thus 
diatinctivdy German music came into being with the chorales 
which embodied the devotional feeUngs of the composers, and 
for a considerable time, botii in choral and instrumental 
music, they formed the foundation and core of their produc- 
tive musical development. The inference ia plun, that tnie 
German music was the outcome of genuine and deep feding, 
and not, as with other nations, of artistic sensibility or love 
of mere beauty or deure tor display. Germans took the art 
in a more serious spirit, as too lovable a thing to be used 
for mere distraction and amusement. Their attitude evot 
at the banning of their muucal history seems perfectly 
in conformity with the characteristics which have marked 
their great composers in later times ; and the fact that 
the muncal ideas were the outcome of aspirations which 
had a wider basis than mere artistic instinct is probably 
the clue to tiieir ultimately attaining such absolute supremacy 

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in the modern art, which deals with that part of man which 
is unseen and unaeeable except in its effects. 

In after times purely secular conceptions came profusely 
enough into the scheme of Qerman musical art, but in the 
serenteenth century the motive which lies behind all the 
most interesting work of German composers is religious 
sentiment and fervour, A considerable number of composers 
whose names have almost passed into oblivion were constantly 
busy producing new choralesj and adorning old ones with all 
the skill they possessed in expressive counterpoint and har- 
mony. Two distinct principles of procedure are distinguishable 
throughout the century, one being to treat the chorale tune as 
the basis of a musical work, by using its characteristic figures 
in 'imitationa* or transformiug them by variations; the other, 
to present the concrete tune with the appropriate accompaniment 
of counterpoint or harmony. Both t3'pefl are frequently combined 
with instrumental ritomelli. Of tunea simply but effectively 
harmonized there are good examples belon^ng to the sixteenth 
century by Jobann Walther, Le Maistre, and others } and in 
the early years of the seventeenth century such settings became 
numerous. It is noteworthy that even in the early examples 
composers seem impelled to make the most of the harmoniza- 
tion and the voice-parts, so as to enhance the expresuon, 
thereby prefiguring J. S. Bach's elaborate treatment of the 
voice-parts in the chorales in the Passions and the Church 
cantatas. Of the other type a very apposite and interesting 
example, of as early a date as 1614, is the forty-sixth Psalm 
by Thomas Walliser, wherdn the familiar phrases of ' Ein' f este 
Burg' are passed about from part to part in little passages 
of canon and imitation, hardly a bar passing without some 
reference to the tone. 

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dn' (tt - t« Walii' und Wat . 


I, J Ji;j J ^^ m 



--, — r-r-|:a • 1^, --^ 



MraMt,>ln- go - M W.far <uid K 





■ ■ ■ is, ^- la ■ ta W<hi- lud Waf 


i^ rj. JH jl 


ffi- ^ - '. ., t. WAr- 

«iidW«t . . 





■■M-l i: 










w Oott. 

Such compoaitioQa &re nudnly the outcome of purely Qerman 
ideas of art. A considerable modification of the methods (A 
treatment, and indeed of the general scope, of religions music 
came about when Italian progressive ideas begtJi to permeate 
into Grermany. Then the ornamental treatment of choiales 
began to present much more elaborate features, and larger 
kinds of sacred compouUona be^an to be cultirated. The 
elaboration of chorales still coDtinued to be a conspicuous 
feature of sacred art, but the progress of Gterman compoution 
baa to be followed for a time in more spacious types of art. 

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The firit repreBentative German composer whose gifts were 
sufficiently comprehenure to lead the way in the direction of 
modern forms of art was Heinrich Schiitz. Bom just a 
hundred years before Bach and Handel at Kostritz in Saxony, 
he began his musical career at the age of thirteen in the 
choir of the chapel of Maurice^ Landgraf of Hesse-Cassel. 
After receiving a good general educ&tbn, some of it at 
the University of Marbu^, he was sent to Venice compara- 
tively late in life by the Landgraf, who seems to have been 
smitten with the idea of introducing into Germany the methods 
of art for which Giovanni Gabrieli was so famous. To judge 
by the event, Heinrich Schiitz was happily chosen for the 
eiqperiment, and the Landgraf was singulariy lucky or wise in 
hia choice of the particular Italian composer to take as a guide. 

As has been before pointed out, the Venetian tradition origi- 
nally sprang from a northern source, and it had not yet lost iti 
northern qualities. Of this tradition Gabrieli was the most 
powerfnl and characteristic representative. His music savoura 
more of rugged force than of sensuous beauty. He seeks 
rather to interest than to please, and uses artistic resources 
to intennfy the meaning of words rather than for purdy 
artistic effects. Deeply speculative and enterprinng, be passed 
beyond tlie limits of the old choral style fully as soon as the 
[Mvmoters of the 'Nuove Musiche,* but by a different road 
and with much greater musicianship and range of resource. 
His attitude was precisely of the nature to appeal to men of 
Teutonic race, and it was the appropriate outcome of inherent 
affinities that Germany alone of modem nations should initiate 
her own music under the influence of the great Venetian, 

Hdnrich Schntz was with Gabrieli from 1609 till ifiis, 
when the master died, and the pupil went back to Germany. 
At first he remained in the service of the Landgraf who had 
afforded him the opportunity to go to Venice. But in 1616 
a more favourable field was opened to him in the chapel of 
the Elector of Saxony in Dresden, of which he was made 

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Capellmeister. This Elector had aspirations also to be wdl 
to the fore in his chapel music, and Schiitz had for a time 
the advantage of a hand as well as an oi^an to accompany 
his choir. It was under theae circumstances that he produced 
his most characteristic worics, which have earned for him in 
some quarters the name of 'the father of Oerman music' 
The great majority of his compositions belong to the 'sacred* 
branch of art, the most important being numerous psalms 
and motets, a so-called oratorio of 'The Resurrection,' four 
'Passions,' a musical rendering of the 'Seven Last Words 
on the Cross,' and several collections of ' Symphoniae sacrae,' 
which consist of settings of Latin and German texts of various 
kinds, some dramatic and some devotional, for voices and in- 
struments. These works have many characteristics in common 
irith Qiovanni Gabrieli's, and it may be confessed that among 
them are a crudeneas and speculativeneas which frequmtly 
arrive at the point of being almost impracticable. But on 
the other hand Schiitz, like Gabrieli, is personally interesting 
to a remarkable degree : a character of rare genuineness and 
fervour — a nature susceptible to beautiful and pathetic senti- 
ments, and not the less attractive because bis attempts 
to utter what he felt are so endentJy bounded by the very 
limited development of artistic technique of his time. His 
attitude in relation to sacred words is happily illustrated 
by bis setting of the 'Lord's Prayer' for nine voices and 
an accompaniment of two violins and bass. It b^ns with 
the following passage, in which the singular rising progres- 
sions evidently suggest the eagerness of pleading : — 

SB. 8TS. 

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dn do Urt 

- Mr, Ikir da Uib lA HIomb«], da dn Uil to JtUm ■ 


.J>Ji^ ^ 

Eftch clause is preceded by the word * Vater/ which is reiterated 
more faequently as the prajrer proceeds. It is repeated three 
times before * Forgire us our aina,' and four times before * Lead 
us not iato temptation.* The music to the words 'Erloae 
una TOD dem t)bel * is developed at rather exceptional length, 
seeming to dwell especialljr on the word ' erlose,' and thereby 
BUggestiDg sentiment associated with the word 'Erloser/ to 
which Germans attached a deeply mystical meaning. With 
the exordium, 'Father, Thine ia the kingdom,' in which the 
prayer ceases and an approach to doxok^ is made, there 
is a change of time and style, at first for some time witli 
a single voice, and then for the first time the two choirs of 
five and four roices respectivdy come into action, answering 
and overlapping one another in the final phrase, 'Thine ia 
the kingdom, the power, and the glory/ and ao on, the 
two choirs being massed together in the last few bars to 
the words, ' Amen, Vater, Amen t * In the earlier part of 
the composition the whole of the voices hardly ever sing 
together, but only two and three at a time, with the evident 
intention of thromng the sonority of the last part into strong 
relief. This process lends itself at the same time to the 
individualization of each separate voice, as though each was 
personally concerned in his own utterance of the prayer, 
producing a kind of dramatic effect by a method which Schiitz 
employed again for the choruses in the Pasaions. 

Another interesting scheme, very apt to the words, is 'Nun 
danket AUe Gott' It begins with a lively symphony, a few 

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bars of which may be quoted aa an example of Schutz's 
treatment of instrameotB: — 

The whole of the voices, divided into two choin of six and 
four parts respectively, take up the words of the hymn 
in a massive Huccession of chords, and thereafter a kind of 
nmdo form is attmned by altemaliDg passages for a few nnces 
at a time in a semi-melodious recitative s^le (something in 
I»inciple like the verses in the English anthenia), with the 
reiteration of the masnve *Nan danket AUe Gott,' and 
the work is rounded ofi with a fine climacteric coda in which 
group responds to group with jubilant ' Allelujahs.' 

The expressive intentions of the composer are shown in 
another aspect in the remarkable 'Symphonia sacra,' 'Sao], 
Saul, was verfoIgBt du mich ? ' Here the call rises from the 
lowest depths of available sound in broken ejacolations, 
the basses taking it first, followed by the two middle rtnces, 
and then by the two highest voices: — 

BkUl, Sul, Saul, H«J, i 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Then the Huue formala U given to the inBtramentfl adll 
higher in the Bcale, and three choirs of ax, four, and 
fonr ToiceB reHpectirely alternate the call forte, and then 
the words 'was verfolgst du mich' are ^ven first piano, 
then pianwritiM). Then tingle voicea take up the words, 
' E^ wird dir schwer werdea, Tnder dea Stachel zu 15cken ' ; — 


r r\r 

r T\ 



>■>»(««. do, 

1 4T4~ 

vUdKdaStMhdn 1« ■ . . . 


^» - 




and then the shout of all the choir comes again, Uie 
cjaculatory call alternating with passages of choral recitadre, 
and the last outburst of ' Saul, was rerf olgat du mich/ 
banning forte, dn^s to mezzo forte, then to ptanitnmo, 
and then seems to die awajr altogether with the quan- 
distant echo, 'was verfolgst du mich,' till only two voicet 
are left out of the fourteen to end with. 

It is worthy of note that the treatment is not in reality 
histrionic. The singular call rising from the depths and 
spreading over the whole of the vocal scale> beginning irith 
the aoftnesB inevitable with such deep vocal sonnd, and in- 
creasing like a flood to the utmost force of the chorus, is more 
subjective than objective. It represents the throbbing of the 
inner man under intense excitement, growing more and more 
overwhelming aa the emotion gathers force, until the whols 
bdng is vibratiDg with it, and then dying away hke a fading 
image in the mind as exhaustion supervenes. This treatment 
does not su^^t the scene, but the effect the ntoation produces 
on the human being. And it illuitratei the just view of the 
Teutonic composer, that music deals with the inward man and 
not with what is external to him ; with the mood induced l^ 
the external and not with the external itself. The external may 

M>n B e 

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be HUg^ted secoodarily hj the exactness of the presentation 
of the inner feeling and mood ; and when the mood U justly 
represented, a trait of external realism is justifiable as a help 
to define and locate the cause of the impression produced. 
The predisposition of men of Teutonic race to introspec- 
tion and deep thought leads them in this respect in tiw 
right direction, and offers an additional reason why the 
German attitude led to such triumphant acbierementa in 

The same characteristics of earnest simplicity and dee^ 
feeling are shown in Scbiitz's lai^er works. Of these the most 
important and the most comprehensive is the SUtoria von 
der Ai^erttehutiff Jem Chritli, which is frequently described 
as an oratorio, though in that category it stands, both for 
style and treatment, by itself. In this he employs chorus, 
a number of soloists, a small orchestra of strings, and an 
organ, for which only figured bass is given after the usual 
manner of the time. The treatment of the subject is similar 
to that employed in Bach's famous ' Passions.' The narratiTe 
portion, which is put into the mouth of the * Evangelist' is 
given to the tenor soloist, who is accompanied by four gambai, 
and it is sung in a curious kind of plaintive recitative, a 
great part of which is intoned on one note, diverwfied at the 
be^nings and ends of phrases and sentences by short 
passages of melodic raUier than declamatory character, which 
have, in relation to the intonation, a very expressive effect. 
Most of the sentences throughout the work begin with the same 
melodic formula, consisting of a plaintive rise from the tonic 
to the fifth and the minor seventh and returning to the fifth 
again, which thenceforward becomes the reciting note. The 
reciting note is, however, not restricted to the fifth, but other 
notes are taken for various parts of the sentences, and tbe 
monotone is often diversified by isolated deviations of no^ 
notes tor the purposes of accent on a syllable or the reverse. 
The following excerpt will serve to illostrate the process: — 

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Tt • tm dd Btb-ba- tao, Hhi 

r i' e ; Fl^ !• r Ir r 1^ 

h ri>7 f /'>M 

'^' r 1/ ' r ^ r '■ " 

1 r r r r 



.*ilt ' - f 

M t^*amh dn 

fcOMlid-to-bai, dnnda Ki 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


1^1) ^ 

m . 1 

1 . >=^ 


ifr . 1 





.^ tot Uu-n 


Wll ■ ■ 



-. J J - 



■ J 

^" ' f^ • 




[•■p ^-ff--r— f c 1 r ' ^ 1 r p* — -| * 1 


' i 



TOD da 


■ bN 




J iJ 











The various characten are taken by various soloutx as in 
Bach's 'PaasionB.' Thus, the two angels at the grave nng 
a kind of duet; the three Marys a trio}. Cleophas a solo. 
The words of Maria Magdalena and the other Maiy are given 
to two soloists, and so are the words of Jesus. All these 
individual utterances are in a kind of archaic recitative. 
There is not the slightest attempt at tune of any kind. 
The declamation is often on one note, as in the part of the 
Bvangelist, but at prominent moments expression is obtained 
by the rising or falling of the voice, and by the harmonies 
irith which it is accompanied. As an example of the tender 
kind of expression obtained by the simplest means, the 
following from the scene between the angels and Maria 
Magdalena, comprising the pathetic utterance, 'They have 
taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have 
hud'Him/ may be taken: — 

_y Google 



VM, W<Av 


«<i^ T«n, VH ml- 

qicldit m Ih 


* r r 
. I J J 

N .n J I u 1 



r~ p.* ' ■ — w 

I U^Jl'''''! 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


The chorus is but little employedj ia the body of the 
work only for the words of the difldplea, ' The Lord ia riseu 
indeed, and has appeared to Simon'; and there are two short 
chonues at the b^^inning and end — the first to gin the fomul 
irords of preface ' The lesurrection of our Lord Jemis Christ 
as it is written for us l^ the four Evangelists/ and the final 
chorus, rounding off the whtde, 'To God be thanks, who 
giv«th us the victory through Jesus Christ' — followed by 
jubilant rateratbn of the word ' Victoria.' 

In the four 'Passions' the scheme is even more slender, 
for no instruments are used at all. But the chorus ia used 
much more frequently. Like the individual solotsta in the 
' Auferstehung,' it ia used mainly for the purpoaes of im- 
peraonation. Thua there are choruses of the disciples, chonuea 
of the high priests and scribes, choruaea of Jews ; and in each 
case the composer endeavoura to suggest the personalities of 
the characters, and to find a kind of music which is con- 
aiatent with the mood and the spirit of the people who 
utter the words, much as Catiasimi did, as has been de- 
scribed above in chapter iv. The method is alao exactly Uke 
that adopted in the similar choruses in Bach's 'Paswona,' 
and in one case, where the disciples ask eagerly one after 
another, ' Lord, is it I ? ' the identity of intention has 
produced a very close and interesting parallel. The passage 
in Schiitz's ' Passion according to St. Matthew,' which will 

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serve to illustrate his way of dealing with such tilings, is as 
follows : — 

— J 

; ., ~' 

Han, Us 












" r 1 f 

-f |-Tr- 




— ' ' 

bin Ish'ar Ua tch'at 

u. kh^t 

Un Idi' 

1 Un 


— 1 

loh'k! Un 



— ^— 1 

ieh-il bin 


i ■ 't ^ 




The parallel in Bach's ' Matthew-Passion * is the chorus at 
the end of No. 15 to the same 'words. 

The dramatic choruses are very short, and have scarcely any 
development. They merely serve to introduce the utterances of 
a crowd or group of persons as they happen to come into the 
oamtive of the Evangelist, and to make their musical utter- 
ances tell by their appropriateness to the words and characters. 
Notwithstanding the extremely reserved nature of the.wtiole, 
the balance is bo delicately maintained that such choruses as 
'Tell us who is he that struck Thee' in the St. Luke ' Paauon/ 
• Away with Him, and give us Barabbas,' and ' Crucify Him ' 
in the St. Matthew 'Passion,' stand out vividly and eflectivdy. 
The manner is as simple and direct as posuble, without 
misusing any opportunities tor merely artistic purposes. In 

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other words, the artistic resources employed are only those 
which are exactly apt to the situation, and the procedure 
generally amounts to ^vin^ a short figure, which fits the words 
and expresses the mood, to one voice to b^in with, and maldog 
the other voices follow more or less irregularly with the same 
subject ; thereby putting the art of ' imitation/ as it ia technl- 
catly called, to a practical purpose. The b^inning of tbe 
passage from the St. John 'Passion/ where the high priests 
aay, 'We have no king but Caesar/ will serve to show the 
manner in which 'imitation ' is used : — 

Vb bk-bn ksliMii, k^oan Kt • I 

W!l hi-bm katun, kalnm SB - 

/ J J 

Wli ht-bm kri-nm, kd-naD, ktf-iun, kal-DM Xd . bIk 

J f f r e 


■r, Vie iM-bna kaj-nan, 1 

kat-nan, kaf-xm Ka . td^ 

And the growing heat of the asseverants is happily represented 
by making the imitations succeed one another more closely 
as the movement proceeds, as in a fugue atretto. 

As has been previously sud, there are no choruses or 
movements which are developed upon any purely artistic 

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principle!, or whose object ia putdy artistic or beautiful 
effect. Even the prefatory chorua, which ia similar in the 
'Pasrions' to that in the ' Resurrecrttou/ is merely a simple 
passage in the pure old choral style with rery umple 
imitations between the partly pushed on from moment to 
moment by the familiar devices of suspennoos. These 
prefatory choruses, however, are always very dignified and 
smoothly flowing, as though to prepare the minds of the 
audience for the solemn story to which they are going to 
listen. And the smootlmeBS of the style also serves to dis- 
tinguish theie choruses from the choruses introduced into the 
body of tlie story, which are made abrupt and angular on 
purpose to convey the effects of the situations. The final 
cbonues, named fittingly 'Beschluss,' are generally the moat 
ottennve, thouj^ evw these do not extend to a coujde of 
pages of music. They generally express a final prayer, or 
a reflection on the story, or quiet reverential praise. The 
final chorus of the St. Matthew ' Pasmon ' ie peculiar for throwing 
a momentary sidelight on the relations of the Reformed Church 
to the old reli^^on, as after beginning with ' Ehre sei dir, 
Christe,' it ends with *Kyrie eloson.* These choruses are 
never homophonic — that is, they never have any appearance 
of harmonized hymns, hut are essentiaUy contrapuntal io 
texture, and rather suggest the tradition of the Netherlands 
than of Italy, which is not surprising in view of the great 
influence and number of the Netherlanders who went to 
Yemce. Another pdnt worthy of note is that there are no 
discernible traces of Chorales in either the ' Resurrection ' or the 
' Pasnona.' This is one of the conspicuous elements in the 
later * Passions ' that is missing. And another is the reflective 
element, which in both choruses and solos is so conspicuous 
in later days, when poets and composers lingered and dwelt 
<^Q each salient moment in the story of the 'Passion' by 
adding a poem or a meditation on its essential idea. Schiitz's 
treatment ia less ornamental and more direct. 

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4a6 music of seventeenth centdry 

Ab these 'Passions' are written for voices witliout any ac- 
companiment at all, there is veiy little opportunity tot 
soloists to launch out into display of any kind, and none 
for movements constructed upon any modem artistic metltods, 
which require either contrapuntal or harmonic accompaniiaenL 
There are a great many soloistSj as each character is impow 
sooated by a difEerent performer; but very little is attempted 
b^ond fitting the rise and fall of the notes to the accents 
and the natural rise and fall of the syllables. The style ia 
archaic and picturesque, the manner of which is evidently of 
great antiquity and muntains characteristics of the Htnrgicsl 
intonations of the Church. It ia entirely indefinite io rhythm, 
and its most prominent features are the frequent use of 
two or three notes to a syllable, which is specially resorted 
to when the words or the situation su^ested demand 
exceptional prominence. For instance, the last words of 
Jesus upon the cross in the ' St. Matthew Passioa ' arc ta 

follows -. 

ax. a«4. 

and the Evangelist gives the translation of the mysterious 
words to the same succession of notes, making a very in- 
teresting parallel to the treatment of the same words in Bach's 
' Matthew-Passion,' 

The methods empkiyed in Die tteben Worte Jeau ChrUH 
am Krenz are the same as in the other works, but the 
choruses are slightiy more extended, and the treatment of 
the solo voices is more free and less archaic than in the 
other works ; moreover, there is not only a bass with figures 
to serve as support and accompaniment to the voices, but 

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there is a Bolemn ^sympbonia' for five instruments after the 
introductory chorus, which is repeated before the final chorus, 
which constitutea the 'conclu^o/ 

In conaideriag these remarkable works from the purely 
artistic point of new it must be said that they hare more 
connexion with matters of ancient tradition than with the 
tendencies of the new music. There is never the smallest 
pretence of tunefulness or tonal form in any part either of 
the solos or the choruses, or in the ' symphonies ' of the * Seven 
Last Words/ The intention is to present the impressive story 
in a reverent but expressive manner, treating the characters 
dramatically, and making the essential points stand out by 
more deGntte music than the mere narrative. The choruses 
approximate moat to modem style, such as that of Bach, 
in the cases where a crowd or number of persons express their 
share in the evolution of the drama. The longer choruses at 
the banning and end are more in the ancient manner. The 
share the instruments take in these works is insignificant; 
but when instrumental passages are introduced ^ther as 
accompaniment or alone, here, or in the collection of sacred 
concertos, the style is always that of the early composers 
of the seventeenth century, such as Gabrieli and Banchieri 
and tiie earlier composers of fancies in England, rather than 
that of later masters. Lively passages are occasionally intro- 
duced, such as that given on p. 416, which have some affinity 
to the passages of Handel and Bach. But for tiie most part 
Scbiitz neither anticipates modem methods, nor does he show 
much intuition of instrumental style, or of the type of passages 
exclusively suited to instruments. The deep seriousness of 
his nature prevented his attempting much outside the contra- 
puntal methods and the style which had been consecrated to 
serious subjects for generations. It was only in respect of 
the expressive use of unusual harmonies, and the change 
of attitude implied in seeking always for expression of a 
human kind instead of studying mere beautiful effects of 

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polyphony^ that hia style differed from the old choral i 
of the school of the Netherlands and of Venice. Bak the 
chanj^e thereby induced is vtxy great, and it is owing to 
the change being made in such a manner that the true 
German compoKrs maintwned such a high level of st^e and 
thought, and escaped the contaminalion of the soperfidsl 
•ecularity which became the bane of Italian sacred munc. 

Schiitz'B country was, howerer, by no means fortnnate in 
her opportunities for a time. Erea his own development and 
productiTity were considonbly hindered by the devastating 
horrors of the thirty years' war> which broke up Church 
estaUishments, and distracted all nten for a time from the 
peaceful pursuit of ait. Schiitz himself removed for some 
years to Denmark, and it seems that, diough he lived till 
1672, in the Utter part of his life he had less favourable 
opportunities tor the performance of la^^ works than in his 
earlier ye»n, before the war had become general. But the 
love of the new kind of sacred music had taken roo^ and 
in the latt^ part of the century composers had favourable 
opportunities for developing resources and technique of the 
new kind, and employing them in instrumental and choral 
forms of rdi^us music 

In the middle of the century the essential spirit of German 
sacred music and the peculiar character of Teutonic devotional 
sentiment are moat clearly recognizable in the works of 
Andreas Hammerschmidt, Bom at Brunn in Moravia some 
twenty-seven years after Schiitz, he ultimately migrated to 
Saxony, and became organist of Freibei^, where he spent 
many years of muncal activity in the composition of mnnc 
of the new kind. Hia attitude towards sacred mnaae is 
displayed in very characteristic fashion in bis Dudogaet 
between God and tke Believing Stud, which came out in 
Dresden in 1647. They are for various groups of vtnces, 
firom two up to ux, and present some external analogy 
vrith the English secular dialogues and the scheme of the 

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RestorotioB rene anthemB. The uutrataental accompanimentB 
are variably treated. In many of the dialogues there is 
only a fifpired base. In some a trombone part is added to 
the figured hua, which Bometimes goes with the bassj and 
at other times is as free as the roice-parts. In a few of the 
more extensive examples there are full seta of strings, and 
again occaaiooally a trombone. The style of treatment will 
be easUy grasped from examples. In the fifth dialogue, which 
is a duet, Cantus, taking the part of the Soul, b^ns at some 
length with a very earnest and expresmve strain as follows ; — 


Bmh> flODtinao ad Tvmboat. 

loh lu - b* (e - 

~Jj^7T — I 

to which Bassus answers in strongly contrasted s^le, innocently 
suggesting paternal cheerfulness :— 




. ■- 























D,j,i,i.aL, Google 



After the opening passages, in which the voices are independoit, 
they cany on the dialogue in phrases anBtrering and overhipping 
one another, but clearly maintaiamg their respective ideotities 
throughout, the one pleading and the other encouraging and 
consoling, as in the following passage : — 


Anh HSTT.utiHiin . . . . loh b* ■ - bgiHOn . dl . 

V* ■ f Jl.r rrl [■' r J^l 

8»lm, ..lgMrort,»l|.-tn.^ Ml,,. 

s ? .b s . . f 

|_J - V -r-^ ■ - ^rr . ■ --#-a^ - - 1 

lot, loh h. . b. ■•-■tUi . - - dl-irt. 

. ,.,, ,. rr,i iv ■' — . 

■ r \ ■> J r 1 .1 ^ r i 

■Ind dlTTa.t».bn^ d< ■ In* SBd ■ dot ilDd dlr w.r -bB. 


—1^'' 1^ ; ' '' ^ L 

Another very interesting diali^ae of somewhat the same 
character is No. 9, in which Cantus be^ns, 'Ach Herr, wie 
Bind meiae Feinde so viel ! ' at some length ; and the Bassus 
answers, 'Fiircfate dich nicht, ich bin dein Schild, imd dein 
sehr groBBer Lohn.* It is espedally noteworthy on account 

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of & Bomewhat realurtlc dence, which has at the same time 
an artistic propriety, as towards the end of the di&logue the 
Bassos fastens on a.musical figure from the first phrase allotted 
to it, to tlie words, 'Icb bin dein Schild,' and reiteratei it 
over and over agun as an accompaniment to the plaint of 
Cantus, as though to put confidence in the depressed soul 
by insistence: — 

flilB Buhli-i. IchMnitTlTi "">■'". '■■*■ "" ■'''" Sahlld, kh blnddaadtlld, 

To the same category belongs Dialogue 21, which is on 
a more extended scale. The tenor be^s alone with the 
words, *Ach Gott, warum hast du m^ vergessen?* and 
three other voices answer in a more cheerful style, 'Was 
betriibst du dich? wir haben einen Gott der da failft'; and 
after much interchange of these phrases they finally join 
together in an Allelujab. Of ditEerent character is Dialogue 15, 
wherein, after an instrumental 'symphonia,' the baas begins 
fordbly, 'Ich der Herr, das ist mein Name,' and the two 
upper voices respond in lively accents, ' Bringet her dem 
Herren Ehre und Starke,' &c. The dialogues do not all 
bear out the titie of being between God and the believing 
soul, as there is one from the Song of Solomon, in which 
the tenor b^;in8, 'Siehe, meine Freundin, Du hist schone'j 
and Cantua answers, 'Siefae, mdn Freund, Du hist schon 
und lieblich,' probably typifying, according to tradition, the 
love of Christ and the Church, Another is a dialogue 
between the Angel of the Annundation and the Virg^ 
Mary, and some are diak^es between believing souls 

Apart from the s^le and sentiment of the works, there 

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are featurea illiutrative <A the general tendency of the art. 
Whole pasBBgefl and cfaaTacteriBtic features are distributed and 
reiterated with a distinct constroctive purpose. The siztecmth 
dialogue is a very interesting example of an enhancement td 
the central ideas by such means. It begins with a short intio- 
dactory 'symphonia,' and then the bass solo nngs the words, 
so deeply impressive to the derotional mood, ' Nehmet hin and 
esset, das ist mm Leib/ in f time, and the whole of the 
voices then join in a jutnlant 'Lobe den Herren, meine Seek' 
in a swinging f time, and the 'symphonia' is repeated 
so as to mark clearly the twofold chaiacter of the scheme. 
Then the bass voice resumes agun in similar style to the 
first part, 'Nehmet hin nnd trinket alle danus, dieser 
Eelch ist das Neue Testament in meinem Blut/ &c., which 
is devebped at somewhat more length than the first par^ 
with short responses on the part of the other voices; and 
the whole concludes with the repetition of the jnUlaDt 
' Lobe den Herren.' The ' symphonia * is frequently 
used to mark oS distinct sections of the work ; in 
the dialogue from the Song of Solomon, for instance, it is 
repeated three times, leading each time to a fresh departure. 
Various other constructive devices are resorted to, such as 
repeating a definite phrase of some extent in a different key 
from that of its first enunciation ; a good example of which is 
the passage above referred to in Diak^ue 9, where the words 
<Ich bin dein Schild* are reiterated at length in a passage 
in C major, and the same passage is afterwards given in A 
minor. Another feature which marks the tendencies of the 
time is the clearness and definiteness of some of the musical 
phrases. One of the most important features of modem muncal 
art is the clear definition of the musical idea ; bat it took com- 
posers a long time to arrive at the conception, and they oftei 
tried to express what touched them most in rather indefinite 
terms. But Hammerachmidt often shows a lively instinct 
for the path along which art was destined to travel. In 

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jyiaiogae No. 3 a peculiarly consistent effect in obtained by 
reiterating the following weU-marked pbnuK almost incetuntly 
throogbout tbe whole diiilGgae : — 

, kstwadlahd<iiihiri«-d«r n ui, nod h1 del-D« KHshUn 

His efforts in the direction of egression extend even to 
occasional harmonic subtleties, which have much the same 
ring aa those of Scbiitz, Thus in INalogue 11, 'O Jeso, Du 
aUeroiissester Heiland/ the words ' werd' ich krank ror Liebe ' 
are interpreted in the following termi: — 

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Hammerscbmidt was a very voluminoua composer, for 
besides the dialogues above discussed he composed five 
collections of Muaikaliache Andachten, which connst of sacred 
compositions for various groups of voices and instrumeotB, 
individually described as GeiatUche Concerten, Geist&che 8gm- 
phometif GeUtUche Motelten, and so forth. He also wrote 
dialogues on the four GoHpels, Latin motets, and even some 
original chorales. These works all illustrate more or less the 
new departure in music, in the rhetorical treatment of the solo 
(even extending to a counterpart of the weU-known ejaculatory 
'O' of PurceU referred to on page 269), in the frequently 
harmonic and even rhythmical use of voices in combination, 
in the constructive aim, and in the use of accompanying 
instrumenbi and ritomelli. As a very curious example of 
the manner in which independent artistic speculation moving 
under similar conditions, arrives at the same result, it is 
worth while to compare the following commencement of one 
of the compositionB in the Mtuikaluche Andachten, No. 4, 
with the typical Restomtion HaUelujaha given on p. 2;2: — 

^1 ^-^^ ^IJ i ^ 'i ■"' ^ 







,.. M '. . 






1 " 1' \r-r-r .\' 7 "•-r\ • 1 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Hamtnerschmidt in such a case is histrionic, but that was 
not as a rule the German attitude la choral music, and he 
elsewhere proved himself capable of writing choral works of 
noble qusl)^ in the new kind of free counterpoint which was 
developing in the modem direction, as the following passage 
will show: — 

k - - tun' Ueb n»li^ O Hir ■ t* _ OMt, 

I ■ • ir^ 

11,0 Ha . n OcM, «r . In 

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> B*t . n OcM, 


- rrre ei T J 

^t ■ Mt, tmet 

It ia noticeable that the composers of this period did not 
make much ase of forms which are apt for purely artistic 
development, such as the fugue, in writing for voices. This 
and kindred forms they developed with ever increaung success 
in thar organ works, but in works for voices tiiejr empk^ed 
forma of art which appeared more easily adaptable to the 
utterance of devotional sentiment. This fact is empharized 
by Fianz Tunder (1614-1667), a composer of great power, 
whose works have till recently been lost to view. He is 
not only interesting on account of the quality of his com- 

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poritionHj but as the immediate predecessor of Biixtehude aa 
oi^anist of the Marieokirche at Lubeck. The important 
institution of the Abend-Muuk before referred to (p, 131) 
waa in force there in his time> and it ia very likely that 
some of his compositionB were written for it. They comprise 
elaborate and lengthily developed solos and duets with instru- 
mental accompaniment} motets, settings of psalms, dialogues 
to both Latin and German words, settings of chorales and 
works on a grand scale based on chorales. Among other 
features of note there aie chonisea in some of his la^;er 
works, such as Nm Domntu aed{ficaverit and Dominas iUu- 
nUaatio mea, which have unmistakable kinship with Carissimi ; 
and Italian influence of the best kind is also perceptible in 
his solos. But the most notable of all are his remarkable 
works on chorales, which show in an exceptional manner the 
tendencies which culminated in the methods of J. 8. Bach. 
They are of vaiiona design. The work on ' Wachet auf ' consists 
of a plun statement of the chorale by a solo voice with 
well-worked accompaniment, followed by a long coda in 
which phrases of the chorale are alluded to, interspersed 
with Allelujahs. 'Helft mir Gottes Qiite preisen' is more 
elaborate. Terse i consists of the chorale given simply by 
soprano with accompaniment, verae 2 of a duet for tenors 
with a variation of the chorale. In verse 3 the bass sings 
the chorale with free parts for the viols above it written 
in a thoroughly polyphonic style. Verse 4 has the chorale 
in the treble with elaborate treatment of the other voices 
below it. Verse 5 is on the same lines as verse 3, and verse 6 
crowns the whole by a recapitulation of the chorale for all 
the voices and instruments together, harmonized quite after the 
familiar manner of J. S. Bach, with considerable elaboration 
of the voice-parts and harmonies. The two works on 'Wend' ab 
deinen Zom ' and ' Ein' feste Buig' respectively are on a still more 
elaborate scale, each movement being constructed on a different 
system to make effective contrast. In some the chorale 

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IB sung by a solo roice simply with elaborate accompaniment. 
In some the chorale is given in elaborately florid vanatioo. 
Other moTements are quite on the linea of the Choralvorapiele) 
one part giving the chorale, which stands out cleariy in long 
notes, while the other parts are busy with short phrases in 
quicker notes, often suggesting forms of the chorale melody. 
Each ends with a long and weighty chorus, without, however, 
presenting the chorale in its entirety at the conclusion. The 
last few bars of the chorale cantata *Ein' feste Burg* throw 
light on Tunder's musical character and on his relation to 
J. S. Bach, especially in the progression of the bass at the 
end. It is as follows: — 

_y Google 


One of his solo passages, baaed on the secoad line of the 
same chorale, is also worth giving as an example of typical 
procedure : — 


— 1 T 


— 1 — ^^ 


Xla Wfct-leln 

kum . . 



buL^ r i- 1 r r- >^ 1 1^^ — rr—i 

Works of nimilar character to these were produced by Johann 
RadoU Able (KS25-1673), a composer who had great reputation 
in his time, and was oi^nist of St. Blaaius in Miihlhausen. A 
fine and elaborate example is the * Merk auf, mein Herz,' which 
is all based on the chorale 'Vom Himmel hoch.' It conaista 
of several movements, all on the phrases of the chorale, and 
enda with the chorale given simply and directly in eight parte. 
Ahle also prodnced motets, Geutliehe Dialogen, lengthy 
Arias (not in the Italian aria form, bat freely declamatory), 
Andachten, and a collection called Thunt^cker Ltutgarten. 
But though he was bom some dozen years after Tunder, 
his work does not show an advance, in artistic texture 
and licbneas of detail, upon the works of that composer. 
However, hia worka are very characteristic of the tendencies 
of his time in Germany, aa are also those of hia aon Johann 
Qeorg Able, among which are some very melodious solos 
full of devotional sentiment, especially an admirably designed 
aria, ' Komm, Jesu, komm doch her zu nur,* which is thoroughly 
German in spirit, and is accompanied, with excellent sense of 
effect, by three viole da gamba and bass. 

The love (A working upon choralea seema to have grown 
upon compoaers as Ume went on. Some of the devices 
adopted have already been explained. A curious device. 

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which belong! to the same department aa the sacred aria, 
was to TTiite a boIo as a transformed expansion of a favourite 
chorale. A. happy illustnitioD of this, of the year 1680, is 
afforded by Wolfgang Karl Brie^el, who was at that time 
Kapellme^ter to the Landgraf of Darmstadt. It is founded 
on the chorale, 'Vater nnser un Hbnmelreich/ which has 
been made familiar to modem musicians as the theme fin- 
variations in MendelsBohn's Oi^d Sonata in D minor. The 
first few bars of the symphonia for strings will serve to 
identify it: — 

m cT] J I fSn 



^ ii 

I ^r I I 

The solo begins as follows :- 

VoK». [ ^ 

FUir' niii, fUu' nu, Bar, Id T« . Mdi - use tlOtt, Visa 

dtr liB . . . . 

. H, ntnd m . oiAt, && 

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On the other handj Oerman compoeen fdl hy d^rees 
more and more under the influence of tonal principleB, coming 
mainly from Italy. This waa mauifeated in the gradual aaaimi- 
lation of Bolo forms to the type of the Italian aria, and in 
ctoral muaic by the appearance of conTentionally figured 
Bucceasions of ctwrda. The atyle of the lively Italian motet 
music permeated German church music the more inevitahly 
because there were German composers who were connected 
^th the south. Of these Pachelbel has already been indicated, 
and it is no matter for surprise that among a great deal that ia 
admirable and serious in his church music there should occa- 
sionaUy peep out a trait of mundane liveliness. The following 
solo from a wedding Cantata by him is as seculu as the most 
underotional product of the Italian, and may profitably be 
compared with the excerpt from Ziani's 'O anima* on p. 405. 
It will also be . observed that a familiar and trivial ornamental 
figure makes its appearance, which ia conspicuous both in that 
motet and in the excerpt from a motet by Perii on p. 407 : — 

L^j,,Ui;:.5. r;^^JJj- | J.j ;J'. m ^ 

AnI, ■•Ti4b*0M',hnif iB«Btirt«(^«la PilB(n*af m Fm . da, dl* 


-f^d ^ ^ J' l 

•iHb ir ■ l»n ■ bit tH ■ 


D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


J~j r^_ 

■^ -J -J J -J- 



In this connexion reference may fitly be mnde to a great 
representatire of German Roman Catholicism, Kaspar K^ 
who has already been referred to as one of the foremost of 
^e Soutiiem German organists. Germans of this persuasion 
scarcely illustrate the true Teutooic tendencies, as in writing 
for the Roman serrice they naturally adopted Italian manners. 
Such of Kerl'a music as is attainable emphasizes this fact, 
but he must be credited with conmderable skill and facili^ 
in writing for roicea. A very characteristic example of his 
style is the following passage from a quartet for four basses ; — 

7> , , ^ 

n . dlt et 



'rrrr . r ^ 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 





L[^i"ajj I u 

ta«M ttt . ■ a, 

'nrrrr \ JTn^ J-i' l 


This obviously illuttrates the ease of diction which came from 
firequent contact with Roman Church music of the time, and 
it indicates the line of cleavage in sacred music between the 
styles of the representatives of the two Churches. The wm 
of the southern composers was evidently to please, that of 
the northern composers to express devotioual feeling. The 
saving element in true Teutonic music was that the innate 
seriousness uid deep feeling of German composers persistently 
asserted themselves, and a style was ultimately developed which 
comprised all the artistic d&sticity and definiteness of tonality 
which were the mechanical excellencies of Italian sacred musi<^ 

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witiiout lowering the dignitjr and conmatent seriousnen ol 
the sentiinent. The later Gennans learnt all there waa to 
leam from the Italians in the matter of tonal construction 
and freedom of voitx-wnting, and applied it in woriu which 
have the genuine devotional ring. They even expanded the 
sphere of the inatnimeiital parts of tbdr works without 
dropping into conspicuous secularity. 

Towards the eud et the century the men who were the 
immediate foreranners of J. S. Bach in tiiis depart;m«)t of 
art made their appearance. Among them were his two uncle^ 
Johann Christopb, bom 1643, and Johann Michel, bom 1648. 
They were the sons of Heinrich Bach of Amstadt, and 
the former bec«ne orgamst <^ Eisenach, and the latter of 
Gehren. The circumstances of their lives were sucfa as to 
intensify the Teutonic chaiacteristicB of the family, for they 
were educated at home, and during the whole of their lives are 
not reported to have moved beyond the bounds of Thuringia. 
They therefore had little opportunity to come under the 
influence of any pubUc but that of their own district ; and 
though unfortunately their compositionB are so scarce aa to 
be almost unatttunable, it is easy to see that they genuinely 
represent the tendencies of Teutonic music. The moat im- 
portant and characteristic work which has survived is tbe 
muwcal presentation by Johann Chriatoph of the impressive 
idea of a celestial war between the angels and the devili^ 
led by Michael and Satan, as related in Revelation, diap. xu, 
beginning with the words, 'Es erhob sich ein Streit im 
Himmel.' In this work the composer evidentiy sought to 
make a picturesque impression of the scene as be imagined 
it, and, like the earlier German punters, filling in the details 
of their pictures of Adoration of Magi, or Presentation in the 
Temple, or any other New Testament subject with the dresses, 
utensils, and paraphernalia of the every-day life of their tinu^ 
Johann ChrUtoph brings to bear the effects suggestive oi 
warfare in contemporary mundane experience. The moat 

_y Google 


conspicuous instrumental feature mnst have been the exuberant 
emplojrment of the trampets. No lees than four are employed, 
which come in oiie after another in answering calls as the 
excitement of the imagined battle increases, and finally have 
to achieve semiqiiaver pasaagM in canon, after a manner much 
more ' familiar in instrumental music all over the world in 
the latter part of the seventeenth and the early part of the 
eighteenth century than it is now. Besides the trumpets, 
the drums are used with pictorial intent, and the rest of the 
orchestra (which is rather crudely and baldly \ised) consists 
of two violins, four violas, double bass, bassoon, and organ. 
The singularity of such a group of instruments probably does 
not arise from any special artistic purpose any more than it 
does in numerous other scores in early times, but just because 
the instruments were available in the town where the per- 
formance was intended to take place. The vocal element is 
represented by two choirs of five parts each, and there are 
no soloists ; but isolated parts, such as the bass or two 
basses, occasionally take the responsibility of quasl-narrators. 
It must be granted that the influence of Italian types in this 
case is very strong. Harmonically, the work is of quite 
statuesque simplicity, as most of the choruses are con- 
structed on simple successions of chords, and very little use 
is made of free polyphonic part-writing. The first chorus, 
which follows an introductory * sonata * and a short and simple 
declamatory passage by two basses, is almost entirely on the 
chord of C, the two groups of five raices answering one 
another in mere massive blocks of harmony, while the four 
trumpets play brilliant and rapid arp^gio figures. Not till 
after thirty bars ia a change made, which leads immediately 
to a half-close on the dominant G; then, by way of 
contrast, the upper choir resorts to more rapid changes of 
harmony and lively passages of imitation. Then follow 
alternations of simple passages for two basses and massive 
choral effects, and a further declamatory passage for bass to 

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the worde, ' Und ich horete eine grosse Stimme, die sprach im 
Himmel,' — 

nod lob hd- 

] 1 ^ 1° r • I 

which is interesting as a parallel to a passage in John Blow's 
pictureaque anthem, 'I wag in the Spirit on the Lord's 



This in its turn is succeeded by a fine passage for the two 
cboin, in which great effect is made by dignified suapensioiis. 
A further chorus expressee the words, 'Und sie haben ihn 
iiberwiinden durch des Lammes Blut'; and the last chorus 
is a vigorous alternation of short phrases between the two 
choirs to the words, 'Danim freuet euch, ihr Himmel,' on 

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simple succesuDDS of chordB, which afFord opportunity for 
the trumpets and drums to bestir tbemaelreB greatly, and 
to miniBter to an almost boisterous effect of triumphant 
jubilation at the end. Thoitgh the work is so obviously 
constructed on the harmonic principles which Italian com- 
posers had been mainly instrumental in developing, there 
is nothing Italian about the effect it would produce. The 
composer is in the deadliest earnest, and has no desire to 
give pleasing impressions by melody or elegance of phrase, 
but to convey the impression of the scene be haa in his 
mind, and the joy with which its significance inspired him, 
with the best arctic means he had at his command. 
A similarly earnest and poetical disposition is manifested in his 
fine Choral Motets, which represent the highest standard of 
such works in his time and country. It is perhaps safer not 
to lay any stress on the superb motet *Icb lasse dich nicht' aa 
illustrating his powers and aims ; for though it has been con- 
fidently attributed to him, and though the massive eight-part 
chorus with which it opens is not inconsistent with his style 
and standard of technique, the latter part in which the chorale 
melody in the treble is accompanied by animated figures for 
the other voices, after the manner of an oi^an 'Choralvor- 
spiel,' seems far in advance of anything else of his that is 
known ; and indeed reaches to such a high degree of artistic 
resource and interest, and displays such freedom and vitality 
in the treatment of detail, that it is scarcely credible that it 
could be the work of any composer but Johann Sebastian Bach 
himself. But there are several other fine motets by him of 
which the authenticity seems beyond doubt ; and in these, 
together with admirable passages which show his instinct for 
polyphonic effect in an impressive light, there are passages 
of a somewhat homopbonic character, which are significant 
as su^eating Italian influence. He even seems to aim at 
making use of metrical melody in an upper part as a means 
of expresHon without often mtroducing chorales. A typical 

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passage is the opening of the motet for eight voices 'Uebet 
Hen- Gott,' which is as follows : — 


J^J J-. 





li> ■ ■ bu Hot, 



1» - 

lie • bar, 11a . b« Hon 

_^ . bar Han, lie^^^ - bar Han 

Wao . . 


. - bar Horr, Ha - - ba* Harr 



<^'' J. 

The motets 'Der Gerechte, ob er gleich zu zeitig Htirbt,' 
- and 'Unsers Herzens Freude,' present similar features of 
harmonic, or what might perhaps be more fitly described 
as Bub^jontrapuntal character, together with passages in which 
tJie independent motion of the various voices is managed with 
noble effect. The inference su^ested is that the composer 
endeavoured to widen the sphere of his resources by bringing 
to bear such features of Italian type as he could asdmilate, 
with the object of enhancing the expression of the ideas ; and 
in a sense this implies an expansion of the branch of sacred 
music by resources which have a secular origin. Bat tlie 
change horn the old order of sacred choral music, in its subtlest 
and most pervading essence, is a tendency in the direction 
of more definite metrical or rhythmic organization. This is 
traceable even in the most powerhU passages of Johann 
Christoph's motets ; as in the noble conclusion of the motet 
*Der Gerechte,' where the impression of power is conveyed 
not by the measured scale passages themselvea but by thdr 

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bein^ combined with the bIow rhythmic rnteration of fhe 
note on which they arrive ; which pvea the impression of 
steadfast and deliberate enei^. 


J ' J 

1 Bl.1 ri ™ ^ 

Ill ^"' 


■1 - M . mil 

Oim am dm 

r . : — 1 



. - . ■* , 

'> r '1^ r f r 1 

d».nm <i . M «r mlt 

W ■ Mk 

The connexiou with Giovanni Gabrieli (p. 413) is here still 
to be cle&iiy traced, but with the differoice of the franker 
acceptance of metrical prindples, which the experiences of 
the century in the so-called ' New Music ' bad induced. 

The younger brother, Johsnn Michael, attempted nothing 
on such grand lines as ' £s erhob sich &.n Streit,' but he also 
is notable for many fine motets, some of them in eight parts. 
He seems to have been even more under the influence of 
contemporary Italian models than his brother, as is perceptible 
in umpler harmonization, and a treatment of accompanying 
voices which sometimes has the effect of lively rhythm. The 
following from his ' Ich weiss, dass mein ErlSser lebt ' is indeed 
very suf^^estive, for the accompaniment to the chorale has 
almost an instrumental effect: — 

run O g 

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1 ,1 



1 r '^ r 

■ hn 

I"' ■ -1 


L-c — '" c c ' r r r r I — 

'r -<■ 


Johann Michael's motets are indeed of somewhat unequal 
quality, and in the simpler ones the harmoaization seems at 
times rather tame and the metrical qualities rather obvious. 
The best of them are as a rule more interesting for their 
scheme than for their details — for the general poetic intention 
than for their execution. The two motets 'Unser Leben ist 
ein Schatteu' and 'Xun haV.ich uberwunden' are both veiy 
interesting from the point of view of the distribution of the 
component divisions and the broad musical features. In both 
of tbem chorales are introduced, sometimes umply harmonized, 
and sometimes accompanied by independent figurate voice- 
parts^ after the manner of the organ ' ChoralTOrspiel^' 
though without much ori^nality and vitality in the details. 
The passages in which the chorales are presented frequently 
alternate with passages which seem to serve as commentaries, 
foreshadowing the manner of dwelling upon the devotional 
ideas, by reflective parentheses, in later Passions and Cantatas. 
A sincere devotional sentiment is perceptible, though the 
composer seems to be taking a less intense view of devotion 

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and to be aeeking a more simple and popular form of utterance 
than ia met with in earlier Tentonic music. This is not 
unfrequentl; illuBtrated by innocent tunefulness, as in the 
following passage from the motet * Herr, Heir, wenn ich nur 
dich babe': — 

The slight suspicion of secular flavour in this can hardly 
be ignored, and it is no doubt partly owing to the obviousness 
of its metrical qualities. Indeed the less strenuous nature of 
Johann Michael's musical disposition causes him to betray 
the secular origin of much of his artistic method more plainly 
than Johann Christoph. But they both illustrate the manner 
in which reflective devotional sentiment was by degrees 
tempered by the infusion of moods which were necessarily 
interpretable in terms of rhythmic activity. 

J. S. Bach'a great forerunner, Dietrich Buxtehode, whose 
principal organ compositions have been discussed in chapter iii, 
holds an important position in the story of sacred choral muuc 
in Germany. Though a Dane by extraction, he adopted 
Teutonic mann^v in musical expression and a Teutonic 
attitude in faia treatment of words. When be was appointed 
organist at Ltibeck, in succession to his father-in-law, Franz 
Tunder, the institution of the Abeod-Musik before alluded to 
(pp. 121^ 437} v^ AQ undoubted incitemeat to the composition 
of large choral works with instrumental accompaniment. For 
these functions he wrote a number of cantatas, which show 
the tendencies of art in that department in the direction of 
more r^^ular and spacious forms than such as had been most 

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faroured in the middle of the century. The experimentBl 
nature of the earlier works ia indicated by the varie^ of 
namcB which were bestowed on them, such as 'Goatlicbe 
Symphonien,' 'Geiatliche Concerten,' 'Gdstliche Gesprache/ 
and BO on. As time went on these forms were aasiaulated 
by degrees, and by a process of selection and rearrangement 
ultimately settied down into the r^ular and systematic type 
of church cantatas. 

Buxtehude's works of this kind are probably the best of 
those which immediately preceded those of J. S. Bach. They 
vary in scbeme, some of them approximating to that of 
J. S. Bach, and some bdng on lines umilar to ' the eariter 
forms. The connecting links in the development are thus 
completed. The so-called cantata 'HerzUch lieb bah* ich 
dich, O Herr,' corresponds almost exactiy to the scheme of 
Franz Tunder'a works founded on chorales, such as 'Wend' 
ab deinen Zom' and 'Ein' feste Burg.' It b^ins with a 
soprano solo, giving out the chorale simply with instrumental 
accompaniment, and a number of movements follow for 
various groups of voices, nearly all of which are dther 
variations of the chorale or founded on its characteristic 
phrases ; and the final movement consists of the chorale given 
in ^ time with simple harmonization. An intermediate tonn 
is the cantata, 'Wo soil ich fliehen hin,' which b^ns with 
a simple chorale-like melody for soprano, and proceeds with 
various movements for solo voices, including an 'aria* for 
tenor, and ends with a solo and choral movement founded 
on a different chorale &om the one used at the banning 
of the work, with a coda consisting of a lively Amen. The 
harmonization of the chorale in the last movement is ao like 
J. 8. Bach in treatment that two lines of it are worth 
Quoting : — 

_y Google 





r r r T f r - 


n , r^'\ ^ / ^ 



I I' I " I h,u-nkbB& M.DMi W<m ■ .da 




The cantata 'Ihr lieben Christen* approximates yet more 
to the later type, though «tiU retaining some traces of earlier 
forms. It opens with a rery lively 'simphonia' for strings 
and trumpets. The solo version of the chorale tor soprano 
is the next number, and is followed by a massive chorus 
reiterating the words, * Siehe, sieh^ der Herr kommt mit 
viel tausead Heiligen,' accompanied by strings, comets (of 
the old type), trumpets, and trombones. To this succeeds 
a jubilant 'umphonia,' and after that a bass solo, 'Siehe, ich 
komme bald,* evidently recalling the type of the dialogues. 
The chorus which follows, ' So komm docb, Jesu,' is in a tender 
flowing vein : — 


r O r I 

III r r'lr mm' i iV| 

D,j,i,i.aL, Google 


Then there is a florid 'Amen' as a duet for two Bopranofl, 
and tbe final chonu condsts of a simple enundation of the 
chorale in | time, and a further *Amen' partly baaed on 
the figu«a of the preceding dnet. Most of the forms which 
are combined in the later church cantatas thus present them- 
aelres, though the solo moTements are not developed in the 
lai^ form of aria which Bach so often employed. 

In texture and quality these works of Buxtehude's are neithw 
so rich nor so interesting as his oi^an music, but they surest 
a largeness of conception and a certmn cosmopolitanism which 
hdped towa^B the absorption of Italian forms and methods 
into the German system of such art, thou^ at this stage they 
do not always present themselves in tbar most refined quality. 
As in some of Joliann Christoph and Michael Bach's works, 
the method of treating the choral portions is mainly harmonic 
The voices are used mainly in blocks, and there is very little 
of choral counterpoint, and in its absence there is a lack 
of the wide-spread continuity and cumulative interest and 
power which belong to fugal forms. Composers were to 
a certain extent misled by the apparent adaptability of 
Italian faomophonic methods for the purpose of expreasioD, 
and did not realize that unless tbe artistic quality and 
interest is proportionate to the interest of the words, the 
words of themselves will not make up for inadequate mouc. 
However, thia was one of the experiences which flie northern 
composers had to go through in assimilating principles of art 
of all kinds. In following foreign methods it was . 

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impooaible to avoid Bometimes relying on them too much and 
making use of formuIaB which were alien to the Teutonic 
disposition. Bat such features are mere transient super- 
ficialities, and in proceM of time they were puiged out, while 
tliose piinciples of ItaUan art which were of real value were 
retained. In respect of solo mujuc German compooerB were 
half-hearted so far in following the Italians. They had not 
tite Italian aptitude for melody, and sought to e^qness them- 
selves nuire eamestiy in forma like highly oi^^anized recitative 
and arioso, which admitted of more immediate expression. 
The influence of the chorale also told agunst the ana, for 
iq> to this time composers so oft^i gave the chorale or a 
variation of it to the atAo nuce that the aiia form was rarely 

Buxtehude** standard of inatromentation is a good deal 
in advance of that of the earlier accompaniments. He had 
rather a special instinct in this direction, and often used 
devices which are characteristic of modem instrumentation ; 
and he had in general more idea of the difference between 
vocal and instrumental style than was commtmly met with 
out of Italy. 

It will be observed that in the latter part of the century 
German music in these forms was going through a carious 
phase. German composers were endeavouring to make use 
of methods which had been established by Italian composers, 
and as yet they had not translated them into pure Teutonic 
terms. The borrowed principles needed to he expanded by 
richer manipulation of detail and more interesting and ex- 
presuve harmony than Italians cared to use, before they were 
fit for Teutonic purposes. But tliis needed time to achieve. 
German composers, like those of other countries were, in 
trutii, being brought face to face with the necessity of ex- 
panding the scheme of the most serioas branch of th^ art 
by making use of metiiods which had been initiated for secular 
purposes, whether dramatic or abstract ; but it is interesting 

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to obseire the maimer in which racial qualities or habits of 
mind influenced the result. In some cases the adnuamon of 
Becular features aod tndts of style altogether droTe out the 
beat qualities of serious devotional art. Races and people 
whose instinct and attitude of mind led them to be satisfied 
with the simple joys of art it«elf, irithout much consideration 
for the ideas which art was used to enhance, tailed to stem the 
tide of populw influence, which lowered the intrinsic standard 
<rf interest and expression. When they employed methods 
which were borrowed from secular art in eccleuastical music 
they had not the earnestness nor the discrimiaation to 
distinguish between manner and matter, and contaminated de- 
votional ^tuations with mundane thoughta. But Uie Gennans, 
vrho moved with more deliberation, and more under the in- 
fluence of reli^us fervour than native artistic impulse, 
muntiuned a loftier standard. Even when employing secnlar 
methods their steadfast concentration of mind upon devotional 
thoughts sustained the purity and dignity of their musical 
utterances. They maintained the consistency and the veracity 
of different branches of art because the expression of the idea 
embodied in the words, rather than any abstract prindple of 
art or mere sensuous beauty, was always their chiefest aim. 
Sincerity and ardour of spirit were the motives which drove 
them to utterance. Deep feeling, often defeated by inade- 
quacy of resource, shines even through the faOurea. And in 
this manner the inner impulse which had been discernible even 
in the Teutonic composers of the sixteenth century, in 
such noble phases in the works of Schiitz, and even in the 
less vivid compositions of Hammerschmidt, is serai to be 
gaining in scope and variety, and leading onwards with un- 
wavering unity of purpose to the accomplishment of the 
great and characteristic achievements of the unequalled 
Teutonic masters. 

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'Abdeluor' ; tee Pdsoxll. 
Abend-Hiuik; lee Bttztxeude, 


Acaddmiet d'Opjra ; me Pebbih. 

Boyalea de Hiuiqne, 331. 

'Acliille et FoUxioe' ; we Luixi. 
'Adian moa amonza,' 4S. 
'AgBiut thee ooly ' ; ete Huiefbzt. 
'Ah, belplew wretch*; m* Hundt. 
AHI.X, Johum Qeorg, 'Eomm, Jeen, 

komm,' 439. 
Able, Jobtma Badolf, 'Dialog!,' 

ai3, 439- 

Andachten, 439. 


' Merk auf, m^ Hen * (Vom 

Hiinmel hoch), 439. 
Tharixgischer Lu«tf[arten, 

•Ah, moriie'; MS Cabibsiki. 
Ain and Dialogue*, 380; tet 


BO800, Fobs, Fbbbgobalbi, 
Hammbbbohmipt, Job IB, 
Lawis, Look, Ko&lxy, Plat- 
tobo, poboxll, bobbiteb, 
SthfsoiT; aw Aiiaa, Dance 
Tanei, Fancies. 

'Alberti BaM,' 375- 

'Albion and Albauiu '; me O&aBU. 

'Akeite'; «wLitlu. 

■Alexander's Feast'; smClabe. 
■Alia Bota'; see Bosst (Lnigi). 
'All is a garden gteen,' 84. 
Alhnand (Almaine); tm Dance 

'Am Abend'; ms SohDtz. 
'Amadifl de Grtoe ' ; tee Dbs 

'Amarilli, mia bella ' ; tee CAOcnn. 
Amati, 336. 

'Amphitrron'; «e«FirBCELik 
Andaohten; sm Aelb, Haiixeb- 


AnmuociA, ' Land! Spiritoali,' 

Anthenu, 186, 305, 357, 393; tee 

Choich Huic, Vene AnUienu. 
'Appatatns miuico-organisticiu,' 

Appoggiatura, 375, 376. 
Abbbau, lltoinot, ' Belle qni tirat,' 

A&CADELT, Ifadrigala, 13, 82. 
'Afda Boma'; tee Lbobbrzi. 
'Alia della BomaneBca,' 82. 
'Aria detto Balletto,' 83. 
'Aria detto la FreKobalda,' 83. 
'Ariadne'; «m Cajcbebt, Laweb, 

H., HoimvEBSE. 
Aria fonn, 47, 108, 139, 140, 153, 

154. 156. 170. 173. 176, 179. 180. 

Digitized by Google 

458 IN] 

soS, 240^ 343, 381, 303, 378, 381, 
387, 393, 440, 441. 4S4- 
Alias, Ahlb, 439; HurPA.!, 104; 


'Amude'; weLULLl, 
Arpeggio, 87, 99, 375, 385. 
'Aa I went to Wolnngfaun,' 87. 
'A aolia orta' ; te* CA.BtssiHi. 
'Auomption'; «e« Pbbti. 
Attaionaht, Galliards, FavanBa, 

Branlea, 14. 
'Anff die Mayerin'; sm Frobxbokb. 
'An^wertheQbt'; wePAOHBLBSL. 
'Anrengiebe'i «m Pitbcxu.. 
'Awake np, my gloij ' ; ate Wibx. 

Bach, Bernhud, 137. 

Baob, J. Chriitopli, 113, 444, 


' Der Ghrecite," 448. 

' Bb erhob rich,' 444. 

' loh laaae dich nicht,' 447. 

' Liebei Herr Qott,' 448. 

Motet*, 447. 

Trumpet, oBe of, 445. 

' TJnd ich hOrete,' 446. 

'Unten Eeizeni Frende,' 

Baob, J. Heinrioh, 444. 

Cboml-Vonpiel, 113, 131. 

' Erbana' dich meiii, Oott ! ' 

Baob, J. Uichel, 113, 444, 454. 
' Herr, Herr, wenn ich ' (Jem, 

dn edler BrtatigKiD), 451. 
' lob weiM, daas meim EilOaer 

lebt,' 449; (Chiiatns der irt mein 

Lehen), 45a 
— Uol«ta, 449. 
' Nan hab' ich Oberwiinden,' 

'XTniei Leben iat ein Sohaitan,' 

Bach, J. S., 73, 79, 179, 373, 386, 

408, 437, 444. 447. 

Baob, J. 8., and Boztsbttds ud 
FutecoBALDi, 73, 79, 134, 451. 

Choral- Vonpid, II7, 438. 

Church Cantata^ 411. 

Coaiante, 319. 

Italian Concerto, 368. 

— — Fasaaoaglia, 8a 

' Panioni,' 397, 411, 418, 430; 

(Matthew), 43a, 436. 

Sonatajs 338. 

Suitea, 319, 366, 370. 

'Back, ahepherd, book'; m* 

' Balet comiqne de la VOjn^,' 230. 

Ballet, Balletti ; •«« Duioe Timn. 

' Ballet de I^ndy,' 331. 

' Ballet del Andonillai,' 33i. 

' BaJlo delle ingnte,' SS- 

Baltazab, 331. 

-— Echo Aire, 333. 

Bascbibbi, 41, 437. 

Echo t^nl^MJa, 313. 

Banibtbb, John, 331. 
Babbztta, J alio CeMte, Pann, 

Babdi, Qioranni, 35. 
Babbabd, oollectian of Anthenu, 

186, 189, 305. 
Babsaki, G. B., 344. 

Dance Tnnea, 345. 

SonatBB, 346. 

Baei Viol; sm Viol. 
Batajllx, Gabriel, 333. 
Battxit, Adrian, 187, 189. 
' Battle ' Untie, 94, 95, 98. 
Bkauhoiit and FuncHBB, aoa, 

Beckxb, Diedrioh, Unrikalisobe 

FrOhlingB-FrOchte, 335, 
Bbsthotxk, 184, 408. 

Overtare form, 136. 

'Behold, I bring you'; •mPusobu., 


'Behold, now' ; m« Pttbobli^ 


Digitized by Google 

'Beliold, Thoa haat made'; tte 

OiBBORS, Orlando. 
' Bella OBonia certo ri ' ; teeCsan. 
' Bellesia fogaca ' ; te* Oatjoxi. 

BBHBBaU>X, 336, 330. 

Bebuoz, 138. 

bxbhabbi, 401. 

Bebtaik)zzi, Uargareta, 331. 

'Beei of Bedlam'; m« Fcbokli.. 

Bbttbbtoit, 399. 

BiBaa, 336, 357. 

Biblical Sonatoa ; m« Enoirxn. 

' Ble»ed u he ' ; «m Wiss. 

'Blewed Virgin't expoatnlation ' ; 

Blow, John, 358, 376, 378, 3S7. 

Amphion Anglicna, sjg. 

Harpaioliord Leesons, 359, 

'I beheld and lo ! ' 366. 

'I was in the spirit,' 373; 

(and I heard), 446. 

' My God, my God,' 369. 

Ode (Dryden), 359. 

— Hew Year's Day, 359. 

Sajnt Cecilia, aS9. 

'0 Lord, I have sinned,' 366, 

' sing unto God,' 366. 

'Save me, God' (I am 

weary), a?!. 

' Though the waters,' 377. 

'Tenns and Adonis,' 397. 

Blythsxax — ' Gloria tibi, Do- 
mine,' 90. 

BShh, Qeorg, 137. 

BoxoKOUii, 397. 

BoHONOiNi, Qionuini H., 341. 


Tiattimenti daOamera (Dance 

moTsments), 341. 

Taiii Fiori (Sonatas), 341, 

' Bonny sweet Bobin,' 84. 

EJL 459 

BoBCHSTTo, BoBchetti, 'Strali d' 
Amore,' 59. 

B0B8KT, 333. 

' Bourgeois gentJlhomme ' ; «m 

Bbahhs, Johannes, 83. 
'Break, distracted heart'; s«# 

6b£cot;bt, 'Jalonx invisible,' 335. 
Bbewxb, 338. 
Bbibsxl, W. £., 137. 

' Vater onser,' 440. 

Bbioroli, Qiacomo, 71. 
Bbittov, Thomas, 331. 
Bbttki, Calletti ; su Ca.vaiaa. 
Bull, John, 71, 189, 305, 369. 
-— — 'As Iwent to Walsingham,' 67. 

• King's Himt,' 89. 

' Ut re mi fo sol la,' 83, 93 ; 

•M Fantasia. 

Virginal Hnsio, 84, 87, 89, 98. 

Bubbxt, History, 37, 153, 154, 303, 

208, 330, 376. 
BUTT8TBDT, Hsinrich, 137. 
BuxTZBUSi, Dietrich, 79, 134, 

375, 437- 

Abend-Hoiik, I3i, 438. 

and J. S. Bach, 134, 451. 

Ohoral-Torspiel, 117, 119. 

Ciacona, laa. 

'Eia' feete Burg,' I3(h 

'— Gtiitliche Oonoerten, Sym- 

phonien, Gesptftche, 453. 
'Henlich lieb hab' ich dich,' 

'Ihr lieben Christen,' 453. 

Frelodes and Fngneo, 133, 


'Wo eoll ich fliehen hin,'453. 

Bybd, William, 'Battle'Hnsic 94, 

.' Bells,' 9S. 

' Christ rising,' 187, 190. 

Death, 305. 

— < Hear my pr^er,' 186. 

Digitized by Google 

46o IN] 

Bybd, William, 'Thon God that 

gnidsBt,' 187. 
Virginal Hndc, 83, 84, 91, 94, 


Cacoiki, rroncesca, 33, 36. 
Caocimi, Qiulio, 'Amaiilli, nua 
bella,' 42. 

'Enridice,' 35. 

TveatiK, 41. 

'Cadnto di Decemnri'; ue 80AB- 


Casbbbt, 334, 395. 
^~ 'Ariane/ it$. 
' ' Jalonz inviiible ' (burlesque 

trio), 335. 
Putonde (' Premifere comidio 

fianpaiie'}, 23$, 338. 

— ' Peinea et plaiaiis d' Amour,' 
339. 233. 395- 

' Pomone,* 326, 295 ; (' Jamais 

US n ^t&nd homme '), 338, 333. 
Cahpiom, Thomaa, Ayres, 193. 
— < ICove nowwitb meaanredKund,' 


— ' Songs of MoDining,' 193. 
Cakpka., ' H^done,' 354. 
Cantatas, 'a voce sola'; ate Aria 

form, CABissim, Bobsi, Scab- 


' Cantate e canionette a voce sola ' ; 

•M Lbqbbmzi. 
Canoona, 67, 71, 33s, 344; me Caz- 

ZATi, Gabbuli, Usbcla, 

Nebi, PrmoELL. 
'Capriccio topra la Battaglia,' 95. 
Capricio ; MeSxRL, 
Cabihsixi, Oiacomo, 153, 161, 184, 

341, 3S3, a8i, 397, 306, 345. 379, 


'Daniele,' 166. 

■ 'Domina Dens,' 158, 165. 

' ' Hosanna in Excelsig,' 164. 

■ 'Jephthah' (ot la afflictdono), 

169 ; (et nlolantes], 169 ; (fngite), 

163, 166; (si tradideiit), 15S. 
Cabissixi, Qiacomo, 'Jonas* (Qnid 

est opus tnam ?), 166. 
— " 'Judicium Salomonis' (aiolu 

orta), 158; (plaudits 1:^)1 163; 

(noa est ita), 167- 
- — ' UaiT Stuart ' (Ah, morin), 

15s ; (Ferma lascia chlo porio) ; 

'Sicut Stella' (0 diet laeta), 

' Socpiri ch'nscite dal triato 

mio core,' 156. 
' Oarro di Fedelta d'Amore ' ; wf 

Cabwabdxh, 338. 
'Catena d'Adone'; sm Mazzocchi. 
CataiiIbbi, Emilio del, 36, 281. 

Bispeiazione di Fileno, 36. 

Ginooo della cieca, 36. 

• Bappresentarione di Anima e 

di Corpo, 37, I9I- 

Satiro, 36, 

Cayalu (Calletti Bbuht), lya, 

174, 181, 319, 333, 336, 337, 31 5f 

377. 398- 
and LuLLi, 136, 138, 141, 143, 

and UoirTBVXBDB,48, 57, 139, 

134, 144. 146- 
'Eliogabalo,' 143; (Misero), 

' Eicole amaute,' 141, 143, 144, 

1 47, 336 ; (monnoiate Bumioelli), 

'Giasoue,' 135, 139, I4S, I47. 

397; (co^ indarno ri cbiamo], 

147; (Dell' antro ma^co), 145; 

(Fiero amor), 139; (Le mora si 

sqnarciano), 147 ; (se daido poo- 

gente), 139; (Troppo soate), 14a 

Ground Bass, 133, 143, 241. 

'Noise di Teti e di Peleo,* 

130, MS- 

Digitized by Google 

GlTAiJJ, Orertniei (Sinfonia), 

131. 136- 
Xerxee, 143, 336; (Ballena 

fngaoe), 143. 
CAZKA.TI, Haaritio, Oaiuonw, 318. 

Correnti e Balletti, 3(9, 320. 

Symphonia*, 318. 

'Cenate fnlnuui'; ttt Soi.B- 


Cbbti, Antonio, 170, 184, 315, 398. 
^— 'Doii,' La, 173; (con amor), 

— — ' Mafpiaiutiiitk d'Alranndio ' 

(Bellft onnu caito A), 171. 
—— Orontea, 173. 
' Porno d'oro,' 174, 1S3, 303, 

398 : (no ma Din), 176. 
Chjjcbohki^bzb, Champion de, 

Chaslxb 1, 191, 1981 303, 356. 

CbABLXS II, 191, 303, 3J5, 378, 388, 

39s, 336, 360- 

'Charoa and Philomel'; m<Lawx8, 

CHABPnniBB,348; 'Uedfe,'348; 

(an diagon aoonpy), 350; tan- 

&16, 351. 
Child, Choice Ptalmi, 305, 3J7. 
Choice Psalms; m« Child, L^vxs, 

H., LaweBiW. 
Chorale, ii3,4it^43S.437.439.4SS- 
Choral-Ton^iel, 113, 113, 114, 117, 

118, 131,438,447,45a 

Bach, J. S., 117. 

BorzxHODB, 117. 

— 'Sin' feete Bnrg,' i3o; m« 




' Hag ich nnglDok,' 114. 

' Nan kommt der Eeiden Eei- 

land,' 114. 

'Steiglieder,' 117. 


113 ; aM Ahli, Bbibqu, Eax- 


TtrVDBB; (M 

'Cbiiit liiing'; sm Btbd. 
Chorch Hnnc, 3, 63, icxj, lis, l6j, 

18^ 190, 307, 3SS iqq., 380, 400, 

410, 443; M* Anthenu, Terw 

Clabk, Jeremiah, ' Alexander's 

Feait,' 359. 
Clavier ; tn Harpeichotd. 
CoxLBO, Kannal Rodrigoei, 71. 
CoLUBi, 341 ; ' Aohille et Polizbne,' 

OoufAir, Dr^ 310, 357, 381, 307, 


'Siege of Rhodee,' 313. 

CoLOKMA, 401, 403. 

—^ ' Laudate Sominnm ' (Gloria), 

' Combattimento di Itocredi e Clo- 

linda,' SS- 
'Coma, all ye winged tpiriU,' 391. 
■Come, follow me'; tetUxBOH. 
'Come, if 70a dan'; tn PuBOZLL. 
'Come,m7Celia'; awFiBBABOSOO. 
'Con amor'; ww CxsTl. 
Couaoit lenons; am Hoblbt; m* 

also Lock. 
Cook, 'Siege of Bhodea,' 313, 

CoPSBABlo, John, Fnneisl teares, 

— Songi of Moaming, 194. 
OoBiLU, Aroangelo, 336, 345, 351, 

Sonatai, 317, 337. 3Sit 3S3, 


Concertos, 351, 3S6l 

Ordres, 331. 

Pastorale, 356. 

CoKNiT, Peter, 71, 76. 
Coronation Anthem; «m LA.WB8, 

H., Pdbcell. 
Corrente (Conrante), 327, 365; sm 

Dance Tones (Ballet). 

Digitized by Google 

463 INI 

Corrente ; eee Sonata. 

get Bach, J. S.,, 

CoBSi, Jacopo, 33. 
'Coal indamo vi chiamo'; ws 


' Cost moiite,' 94. 

CosYH, Benjamin, Tiig^ual Bo)^ 

83, 87, 89, 97. 
CovPSBiv, 237, 365, 366. 

Ordreg, 319, 360, 375- 

'Court kym,' 30S; «m Aire &nd 

'Conitlr Uasqning Airs,' 337. 
Cbbquillok, ' Vag gai berger,' 67. 
'Crueltj of Spuiiards in Pern,' 


'Cnpid and DeaUi'; aet Loos. 
' Cartajne ajre ' ; see Lock. 

Dafne ; tet Qaguaho, Rnruconn. 
Dance Tones, lo, la, 33, 4a, 53, 63, 

84. 330. 337. 2SS. 388, 296, 399. 
30O1 303. 309, 334, 327. 337. 341, 
348. 358. 360. 399. 

Allmand, 337, 334, 356, 365, 

367. 370- 
Ballets, 82, 330, 337, 338, 345, 

249. 352. 3S3, 313, 319, 334, 33S, 

337. 341. 345. 358- 

Hornpipe, 304, 365, 366. 

Jigi, 338, 339, 338, 339, 334, 

338, 3S6. 3S8, 391- 
March, 239, 340. 

aM Caniona, Fancies, Panui, 

Bicercaii, Sonata. 
Dancing Master, 308. 
Dandi, Stelano, 'Morte d'Orfeo,' 

'Doniele '; tee Cabibbiki, 
Davxhaitf, 'Siege of Rhodes,' 313. 
DxBBiKO, 205. 
* D^rrance de Renault,' 221. 
' Dell'mitro mogico'; seeCATALu. 
DiLLA Taix£, 59. 

Db Hottevill«, Madame, 22t. 
' De Fcofiuidis ' ; tee Lbqbknzi. 
' Dec Getechte ' ; tee Bach, J. 0. 
Debkarstb, 'Tenns and Adoma,* 

Deb Touohbb, 'Amadis de Grbce,' 

Deoteiomelia ('We be three poor 

marinen '), 368. 
'Dialogi'; ttt Ahlb, Eajuemb- 

Dialognee ; tet Aiis and Dialoguea. 
' Dido iuid £neM ' ; tet Pqbcbli.. 
'Dioclesiaii'; (wPuboeu.. 
'DivisioiiB' for Viol; smStufboit, 


' Domine Dens '; tee CABiaBiifi. 
'Dominns illnrainatio mea'; tee 

Dom, QioTonni Battiata, 35, 
' Don, La ' ; (ME Ckbti, 
' Dove, Dove '; we Sxradella. 

DoTTLAND, John, I92, 305. 

' First book of Ajra,' 193. 

'iEAohiTmae ia seven Panuu,' 

Dbaghi, Giovanni Baptista, 393. 
' Dramma per Mnsica,' 197, aoo. 
Dbtdbh, 359, 399, 301. 
Dtjuoin', 365. 

Eabsdkk, 199, 

EAfiTB, 1S6. 

FanoisB, 205. 

' Echo ' fontasias, 74, 313, 333. 
'Eiu' feate Burg'; see ChoraI> 

Vorspiel, Toitdbb, Walijbbb. 
'Epsom Wells'; seePuBOiLi^ 
' Eqnivoci nel Sembiante ' ; tee 


' Eiaclea ' ; tee Soablatti. 

Ebbaoh, Christian, 71. 

' Erbarm' dioh meiji I ' tee Cboral- 


' Eroole Amaiile ' ; «e CATAiiU. 

Digitized by Google 

ml Gioidano' ; (mBosbi, 
' Gt in affliotione ' ; w* Cabibbimi. 
' Et alaUntea ' ; «w Cabibsiiu. 
EVXLTN, 348. 

'Faire if 70U expect'; smRosbitsb. 
' Fairest Me ' ; m« Pubokll. 
' Fa laa ' ; tee Hiltow. 
FaIlcie^ 308, 331, 348. 
»ee Dance Tone*, FantaioaB, 

set Bbewxb, Cabwarden, 

Eabte, Oibbobb, Jbnkihb, 

Laweb, Look, Uattiib, 

RoasBS, Syvfboit. 
Faa&re ; mt Chabfxhtibb, 

Fantasias, 74, 75, 94, 97, 308, 310, 

3«, 316. 33a- 
'Dt re mi fa sol la,' 76, 80, 

83, 84, 90, 92, 103. 
'Farewell, &it saint'; *mLawbs,H. 
FjiBNABX,Gilea,'TeU me, Daphne,' 

Fasbart, ' Felix namqne,' 90. 
Faaciculi, 358. 
'Felix naratiaQ' (Pabbakt), 90; 

(Talus), 90. 
'Fettna lascia di'io parlo'; »et 


Fbbkabosco, Alfonso, Ajres, 193. 
'Volpone' (Come my (Mia), 

FxBTA, < Down in a floweiy vale,' 

'Feeta teatntle della fista Paiza'; 

' F6tea de I'Amotu et Baochns ' ; set 


' Fieio amor ' ; tee Catalli. 
' Eiori Hodcali ' ; ttt Fbbboobaldi. 
'First daj's Entertainment,' 313. 
' Flavio Cnniberto'; tee Soablatti. 
' Florileginm ' ; tee Hupfat. 

EX 463 

FoiiTANA, G. Battisto, Sonatas, 316. 
Fobd, Thomas, 'Since fint I saw,' 

193. 195- 

gundrie kinds of aires, 193. 

Fobtbb, Will, Virginal boo^ 83, 

French opera. Chapter vi, pattitn. 

Chapter jx. 

Overtnre ; see Lulu. 

Fb^bgobaldi, Girolamo, 3o, 71, 

73, 76, 100, 134, 163, 376, 316. 
and Bach, J. 8., and Buxtb- 

Bim^ 79, 134. 

Arias, 83. 

' Battle ' Hnaic, 94. 

' Bergamesca,' 80. 

'Cappriocio wpia laBattog- 

lia,' 91. 

' Fiori Miuicali,' 78, 80, 81. 

Qirolmeta, 80. 

Toccatas, 77, 78, 80, 83. 

' Dt re mi fa sol la,' 80. 

Fcische ClavierfiHohte ; set Euh- 


Fbobxbqxb, 30, 100, 124, 376, 316. 

' Attff die Mayerin,' 370. 

Clavier mnsic, 369. 

'PariJen' (Suites), 369. 

Toccatas, 100, 103. 

' Ut re mi & sol la,' 103. 

' Fogite, fngite ' ; tee Cabibbiki. 

Qabbixli, Andrea, 64, 73. 

Canzona (' Ung gai berger '),67 . 

Ricercat, 65. 

Toccatas, 68,86. 

Gabbixli, OioTauni, 64, 71, 413, 


Canoona, 31 1. 

Gaoliaho, Marco do, ' Dafne,' 43- 

Oalanterien, 338. 

Galiui, Tincentio, Duet for lutea, 

33, 333- 

'Jeremiah,' 36. 

' Dgolino,* 35. 

Digitized by Google 

464 in: 

Galliaid; w« Pavan. 
'Gaadeomna omneB'; tee Fbbh. 
Gauitieb, Benji, 364. 

Rbdtoriqae dea Dieox, 365. 

Geiatliche Dialog! ; tee Aelb. 
Sjmphonien, &c. ; tte Bitxtb- 


' Oelosia ' ; w« Boasi, L. 
GunRUSi, 338. 
' Gerona '; fu Scablatii. 
Gbbo, Joliann, Panuii, 334. 
' Giavone ' ; »et Catixli. 
G18BOK8, Chmtopher, ' Capid and 

Death,' 313. 


Gibbons, Orlando, 71, 97, 205. 
'Behold, Thou batt made,' 

— Fonciea, 333. 
■^^ ' Fantasia of fonre parts,' 97. 
Lotd of SaliBbuij his FftTin, 


'Vicinal HubIc, 84. 

GiLBEBT, 329. 

' Gipiiee,' The ; *tt Johssoh, B. 
Qiiolineta; h0 FExacoBAlDL 
'Gloria Patri' ; see Colohsa. 
'Gloria tib^Domine'; tee Blttub- 


Gluce, Chi. YOD, 138, 234, 383, 39S. 
' Golden ' Sonata ; tee Pubcell. 
Gbabc, 395. 

'Albion and Albanioe,' 396. 

' Marriage of Bacchus,' 396. 

Song of Peace, 396. 

Gbboobt, Snites, 365. 
'Qriselda'; tee Sci.sLAvn. 
Ground Ban, 123, 142, t77> i&>> 183, 

333. 368. 
Ml Catalli, Lbobenzi, 


- — w« Fantauaa (' Ut re mi '). 


GuEDBON, Piene,Ballet de Madame 
(Cette Anne n belle), 333. 

'Halleliyah,' 273, 393, 416,431.434; 


Hakiubschkist, Andreas, IKs- 
logi, 313, 438, 434, 456 ; lUnstia- 
tions, 429 ; Concertos, 434. 

Conrantes and Sanbandei, 


' Erbarm' dich mein,' 435. 

Geistliche Concerten, fte, 434. 

Motets 434. 

Mosikaliiche Andachten. 434 ; 

(Hosiaana), 434. 

Syniphoniee, 434. 

HaMDBL, 140, 1S3, 183, 184, 340, 

387, 39'. ^97, 307. 393. 398. 407. 


EgTPt.' to3. 181. 

(oveitnie), 137, 33$. 

Overtures, 135, 136, 336. 

' Rinaldo,' 359. 

' See, the conqnerin; hero 

comes,' 391, 394. 

Sonatas, 338, 

Hakfp, Nicolans, 137. 

Harpuchord, 360, 364, 368. 

'Lessons'; tee B1.0W, PoB- 


Habse, 140, 183. 

'Haste Thee, God'; sec Hux- 


' Have mercf npon me ' ; tee Him- 


Hawkhtb, History of Hnsio, 303. 
Hatsr, Overture form, 136. 

Bjmphoniea, 389. 

' Hear m; pnjer ' ; tee Btbd. 

' Hear, Heavens ' ; tee Hukeket. 

' Hetft, mir Qottes ' ; see Tuedeb. 

* Hence, ye profane ' ; tee Lock. 

Hbnbt III, 330, 365. 

'Here are some eyes'; so Lock. 

' Hen, Eerr, wenn ich nnr didt 

habe ' ; see Bach, J. M. 
'HentUch Ueb hab' ich dich'; *m 


Digitized by Google 


Hezachoidom ApoUiais ; h« Pa- 


' Hide not Thj bee ' ; aw Fuboxll. 
En/Foit, ' Fa Itw,' aoi. 
' History of Sir Prancia Draks,' 2I3. 
Hornpipe; m« PubOSLL. 

Mt Dance Tunes. 

■Hosanna in ezcelBiR'i tee Casib- 

HTTDSoir, ' Siege of IthodeB,' 213. 
HmiTBET, Fdham, 357, 260, 378, 


' Haste Thee, Qoi,' 273. 

' Haw mercy upon me ' (A- 

gainst Thee only), 365. 
' Hear, Hearena ' (Wash ye, 

nxoke ye clean), 262. 
'like M the hart' (Why art 

then so fbU of heanneBs), 361 ; 

(When, when), 275. 
' Bootee in the Lord/ 265. 

'lam weaiy'; «m Blott. 
' I beheld and lo ' ; ate Blow. 
' Ich weiBs daas mein ErlOsei lebt '; 

iM Bach, J. M. 
'Ihr lieben Christen'; #w BtJx- 


' Inooionaaone di Poppea '; see 


'Indian Qaeen '; see PuBCBLl. 
' In exitn Israel '; tee LsaaxszL 

iHaBQITEBI, 46. 

' In Qod's word '; aee FuboBll. 

' In gnilty night ' ; •(« PnSOELii. 

Instrumental Fuicies, 208. 

Instramentol Mndc (and Instm- 
mentation). Chapter riii, jMssim, 
10. 14. 33. JO, 63. 134. 392, 4M, 
407, 410, 416, 427, 429, 434, 445, 
4S3. 45 5- 

'InterlndestolEagnificat'; SMlfag- 

EX 465 

'In these delightful, pleasant 

groves'; weFuBCEXJi. 
' lo I^an ' ; tM Look. 
' lo pnr segnirii ' ; ««• Stbadklla. 
'Isiii'; wtLCLU. 
' Israel in Egypt ' ; aet Hahsil. 
Italian Opeia, Chapters vi, ix ; aM 

aleo Opera, LuLu. 
Itsb, Simon, 203, 357. 
' I was in tho 'spirit '; me Blow. 

'Jalonx invisible'; sm BbAooubt, 

JAHBS I, 193, 199, 30I. 

Jajieb II, 2S3. 

JsiiEiira, John, Panoiea^ 334, 328, 

'Jepfathah'; see Oabisshi i. 
' Je Buis trabi ' ; lee Ldlli. 
' Jeones Espagnola ' ; »»e Huff AT. 
Jigs; («# Dance Tones. 
' Job's Curse '; smPobcbll. 
' John, oome kiss me now,' 84. 
John-Paasion ; see SchOtz. 
JoHiTBOtr, Bobert, 'OipsieB,' 303; 

'Valentinian,* 203. 

' Witch," The, 3oi . 

■Jonas'; see Cabibsiiu. 
JoNXS, Robert, Ajrea, 193. 
JoKBOH, Ben, 198. 

' Qipflies,' 303. 

' Volpone,' 198. 

Joagnm, 'Adieu mea Amonn,' 48. 
■ Jadicinm Salomonis ' ; me Cabis- 

Kkel, Easpar, 103, 107, 369, 375, 


Canaone (nsed by Handel), 103. 

— Caprieio, 369. 

Uodolatio O^anioa snper 

Magnificat, 108. 

Fassaoaglia, 369, 

Quartet for baaBOB (' Vidit et 

oommota est'), 443. 

Digitized by Google 

ExBL, Eaapar, Toccata, 369. 

* King and Qneen's Entertainment,' 

' Eing Arthur '; 5«« PuBCXLL. 
' Eomm, Jean ' ; see Ahlb, J. G. 
EBisaEB, Q. F., Sonatu, 335. 
EuHiTAC, Johaon, 137. 
— — Frische CUvier&achte, 373. 
8ojiataB,37i ; Biblical Sonatas, 



* lAchiymae ' ; teeHowuso. 
Laby NevhiE'b Vuiginal Book, 83, 

Lahbkbt, 230. 

' L'amorogo deaio ' ; tee 3CASLA.Tn. 
Landgiaf of Damutadt, 440. 
Landgiaf of Hesse, 413. 
Lahdi, 8t«&no, ' St. Alesdo,' 61. 
Lani, QioTanni, 33. 
Lajtibbe, 198. 
' Lnminalia' (Bring Biray), 200, 

* Lasciatemi morire ' ; ate Honte- 


'Laasa, chi mi soccorre?' tee 

Rossi, L. 
Labso, 7. 34. 94, 276. 

' Echo,' 74. 

Penitential PaalmB, 8. 

'I^ndateDominum'; aseCoLoniA. 
lAudi Spiritaali, 112; §ee Ani- 

KUOGiA, Nebi, Choral-Yorapiel. 
La WES, Henry, 302, 381. 

Airs, 309, 381. 

Ariadne, 3 10. 

duties Fealma, 305. 

'Comas,' 303! (Sweet Echo), 

303 ; (Back, shepherd), 303 ; 

(Sabrina), 303. 

Coi-ouation Anthem, 357. 

' Farewell, feit saJnt,' aio. 

*Siegeof Bhode«,'2i3. 

Lawxb, William, 202, 303, 310. 
Charon and Philomel, 3ii. 

LAWBS,William,Choioe Pnlms,205. 

Dance Tunes, 327. 

Fancies, 325. 

— ^ 'Temple of Peace," 203. 

Lx BfoiUB, 365. 

LSQEEiTZi, 177, 184, 379, 383. 

'Cantate a voce sola,' 180. 

'De profondia,' 180. 

Ground Baaa, 123, 142, 241. 

' In ezitn Israel,* t8o. 

Sonatas, 341, 

'Totila,' 177, 183 ; (Aida 

Boma), t79 i (Besta il core), 177. 

Lb Maistbb, 411. 

' Let God arise ' ; we Waed. 

' L'Homme arm^,' go. 

' Libertine,' The ; «m Pubcell. 

'LieberHerrOott'; awBACH, J.C. 

'Likeapiesominggale'; smLock. 

' Like as the hart ' ; tee HtJHFRST. 

' LillibDrlero ' ; tee PttbcelIi. 

■ Little Consort ' ; tee Lock. 

LooATELLi, 338. 

Lock, Matthew, 357, 360, 361, 381, 
396, 399. 319. 334- 

Coorante, 366. 

' Capid and Death,' 313. 

' Cnrtayne Ayre,' 314, 288. 

Dialognes, 393. 

Fagae for organ, 376. 

'Hence, ye profime,' 317. 

' Here are some eyes,' 317. 

'lo Paeui/ 393, 

'Like a presuming gale,' 217. 

' Little Consort,' 308, 394, 338, 


Pavana, 394. 

P«yohe, 290 J (Cotue all yo 

winged «pirits), 391 ; (Break, dis- 
tracted hBaTt),293; (Teboldaona 
of earth), 291. 

' Siege of Rhodes,' 213. 

Suites, 365. 

Symphony, 393, 

Tempest, 288, 395. 

_y Google 

LCWKiT, Joliaim J., Sinfonien, 334, 
LooBOSCiKO, 14S. 
LoHBT, Simon, 71, 113, 
'LoidOod of Hosts'; smFobcell. 
Loid of Saliabnrj, his Pavin ; sm 

Gibbons, 0. 
^ Lonl's PiBjer ; tee ScHtTlX. 
' ' Lotta d'Aldde ' ; me Stxtfaiii. 
Lorn, 397, 401. 
Loms XIII, 320, 333, 365. 
Louis XIV, 31S, 331, 349, 254, 365, 

' Lncio Sjlla' ; »te UozutT. 
- LCLLi, 138, 174, 198, 230, 250, 353, 

254, 361. 

and Catalli ; tee Cataxli. 

'Acliille et Polix^ne,' 241, 

347; (Re;oiB mon lang), 347. 

'AlceaU,' 395. 

' Alcidiane,' 336, 330. 

' Armide,' 333, 238, 240, 248. 

CadmnB and Hemiione, 29;. 

' Pfites de I'Anioor,' 231. 

Ground Ba«, 142, S41. 

' laia,' 303. 

'M. dePonrceangnac.'sjt. 

'Phaeton' (Gigne), 339, 

' PrinceeBe d'Elide,' 331, 

'Pajcbe,' 331. 

' Roland,' S33, 34I ; (Gigne), 

338 ; (Je bhib trahi), 342, 2sa 

— 'Thes^e,' 233, 29s ; (March), 
339 ! (Overture), 235, 337. 

LCLLi Overture, 38, I49, 173, 174, 
228, 333, 379, 390, 394, 299, 306. 
3S8, 398. 

compared with Italian, 136, 

219, 231, 338, 398. 

tee Sinfonia. 

' Lumlualla ' ; tee LaNISBx. 

Lute, inflnence of; 16, 33, 311, 364. 

music, 191 tgq., 333. 

LcTTOR, CaroluB, 71. 

LuzzAScHi, Luzzascho, 71, 76. 

>EX 467 

HAQQin, Paolo, 336. 

'Mag ioh Uoglflt^'; tee Cfaoml- 

' Magnanimity d'AIeatandro ' ; see 

' Magnificat ' interlodes ; tee Eesl, 

Paohelbbl, Scbudt. 
Maltezzi, Ccistofiuio, 71. 
Mabznzio, 34, 1 6a 

Cod morire, 94. 

HABDtl, Biagio, Balletto, 313. 

Sonatas, 318. 

'Marriage of Bacchus' ; tee Qbabu. 
' Mai7 Stuart ' ; tee Cabibsdo. 
Uasok, 'Oome, follow me,' 199, 
Masque (Mascarade)) 196 139., 313, 

219, 323, 333, 353, 361, 388, 390, 

296. 303- 
'Massacre of Paris'; smPubcell. 
Maitteib, Nicola, ' Aycea ' and 

Suites, 348. 

Divisions, Fancies, 348. 

Matthew-Passion ; tee ScHttrz. 
Haxet, Dean, 189. 
Mazabin, 331, 335. 
Mazzocohi, Domenico, ' Catena 

d'Adone,' 60. 
Mbdioi, Ferdinando de', 38a 
Melothesia, 376, 365. 

IfKKDELSeOHK, 336, 408, 44O. 

'Meik anf, meiu Herz'; tee 


M1BITLA, Tarqoioio, Canzona, 314, 
Mbbclo, Claudio, 64. 

Toccatas, 69, 7I. 

Meysbsbeb, 138. 
middi.kton, 30i. 
MiiiAiT, Don Luis, Pavan, 17, 19, 
MlLLETlLLB, Fiancesco, 76. 
Milton, John, ' Comus,' 3o3. 
'Mitiidate Eupatori'; tee 80AB- 


' Monmenr de Fourceaugnac ' ; tet 


Digitized by Google 

468 INI 

MoHTALTO, Gnzio, 33. 

MOITTKVBBDE, 33, 43, 46, 138, 134, 

148, 156, 174, 197, 219, "3. 24^ 

281, a87, 306. 315- 

and Cavalli ; aet Cavalli. 

and BoBfii; let Bosbi, L. 

'Adone,' S9- 

'Ariaiina,'46,48,59; (Lasoiate- 

mimonre), 47. 49.SS.3i2- 

'Ballo dellB ingrate,' 55, 136. 

* Combattimento di Tancredi 

e Clorinda,' 55. 

Fanfare, 51. 


Maw, 58. 

' NoBie di Eaea con Lannia,' 


' Orfeo,' 50, 136. 

' Proserpina Rapita,' 58. 

'Ritomo d'DliBM,' 59, 377, 

'Ros^o Fiorito, 58. 

Scterii Hnmcali, 56, 139. 

Tremolando, 56, 57. 

MoBUEY, Tfaomaa, 97, 189. 

'AireB,' 191. 

Coneoit leBsoni, 191. 

' HoTmoiate, o finmicelli ' ; ate 

UoBTABO, Antonio, 71. 
' Morto d'Orfeo ': see Cardi. 
Motet, 404, 414, 434, 437, 441, 446, 

'Mouming' Songs'; »tt Cakpioh, 


' More now with meagnred sound ' ; 
tte Caxfion. 

MOZABT, 184, 398, 409. 

' Lncio Scjlla,' 389. 

—^ Overture form, 136, 138, 389. 
MuFTAT, George, Arias, Ciaoona 
and Toccata*, 104, 398. 

Florileginm, 104, 357, 374. 

' Jennei EgpagnolB,' 359. 

MuLLDiXB, Virginal Music, 83, 90. 
MuKDY, 'Ah, helpless wretch,' 189. 


■Mtiaick's Handmaid'; jm Pub- 


MnsikaliBcheAndachten; (mHam- 


' Mnsikalische FHUilings-Frficbto ' ; 

we Begebb. 
'Mniik Meeting,' 331. 
'My God, my Ood'; tee Blow. 
' My heart is inditing ' ; me Pub- 

National style, 388, 303. 

NzBi, Maaainiiliano, Canxonas, 

Sonatas^ 316. 
Hbbi, PMIip, 'Laodi Spiritnali,' 

36. "2. 
Neusidlxb, Hans, 16. 
Nevilk \ mt Lady Netilb. 
'New Year's Day'; «e« Biow. 
' Nine Muses ' ; ae* Rooeks. 
'Nisi Dominos aedificaverit'; mr 


' No, ma Dira ' ; SM Cbsti. 

' Non e«t ita ' I (M Cabibsiiii. 

Nobte, Roger, 348. 

' NoEze di Enea con Lavinia' ; mt 

'Koraedi Teti e di Peleo'; aet 

' Nun danket alle Gott ' ; m* 


'Non hab' icb Dberwimden ' ; se* 

Baoh, J. H. 
' Non kommt der Heiden Heiland ' ; 

ate Cboral-Tonpiel. 
'Ni]0TeMnBidie,'3, 9, 15)23)41)44, 

48, 83, 97) 135- »S3. I6<^ >6a. 186. 

190, 193, 196, 205, 363, 376, 413, 

'Nymphs and Shepheid*'; tie 


■0 Anima, Voces '; «m Ziaxi. 
Odes; tee Blow, Pcbcell. 

Digitized by Google 

' dies laeta ' ; sw CABi&stm. 
' ^ve tlianka ' ; att Puboell. 
'0 Lord, Ihave linned'; smBlow. 
' mio cor ' ; tee Soablatti. 
'0 mutreae myne,' 84. 
'Oueet^ nell' Amore'; »tt Scab- 


Opera, 137. 

Comic, 148, 325, 397. 

French, 319 •jj., 395, 396, 

399. 303. 398. ' 
tee Overture, and tUto under 

Composen (Oataxij, Lulli, 


Oiutorio, 161, 397. 

Oidrea, 319, 351, 360, 364, 375. 


Oi^^ieta in Seventeenth Centnij, 

71. 369- 
' Oiontea ' ; »ee Cbsti, 
'0 Sing nnto God' ; see Blow. 
Ottobohi, Cardinal, 380. 
OuSBiEY, Sir F,, 187. 
Overtore (Catalli), 130 ; eee 

tee Eakdel, Pubcell, 8cab- 


(Lulli) ; »ee Lulli OTertnre. 



(SinfoniiL, Italian), 135, 136, 

'38, 319,331, 338. 

in Chnrch Miuic, 379, 446. 

in Dance Tunes, 358. 

Pachelbel, Johann, 107, 136. 

Cantata (Wedding), 'Anf 

weithe 6&at,' 441. 

Choral-Vorepiel, 113, 114, I3i. 

Ciacouae, 1 1 1, 

Fugues, loB, 

Heiachordnin Apellinia, 375. 

'Mag ich Unglflck,' 114. 

Magnificat Interlndes, 107,111. 

Moteta, 441. 

EX 469 

Pachelbel, Johann, ' Hnn kommt 
der Heiden Heiland,' 115. 

Toccatas, iii. 

' Palazzo incantato * ; see Bobsi, L. 
Palestbina, 34, 160, 400. 
Farthenia, 83, 97. 
'Partien'; <ee Fbobebqxb, Euh- 


PABqujn, 76. 

Paaaacaglia; smBaoe, J. S.; Eebl. 
Pasdon ; tee Bach, J. 8. ; SohCtz. 
Pastotale ; tee Cobblli. 
Pavan and Galliard, 316, 337, 361 ; 
see ArrAiGNANT, Babbetta, 


Lock, Milan. 

see Fancies, Dance Tunes, 

Peabson, MotetB, 305. 

'Peinea et plaiain d'Amonr'; tee 

Penitential FgalniH ; tee Lasso. 
Pbpyb, Diary, 357, 395, 
Pekoolbsi, 138, 1 48. 
Pebi, Qiacopo, 381. 

Enridice, 30, 43, 191. 

Pbbbin, Abbd, 334 ; see Cambxbt. 

Academies d'Op^ra, 336. 

Pbbti, J. At 397. 

' AsBomption ' (Gandeamna 

omues), 407, 441. ' 
Phiij[,ips, Peter, 71, 76, 94, 97. 
'PlanditeRegi'; sw Cabissiki. 
Flatfobd, Ain and Dialogues, 


'MuBiok'a Handm^,' 368. 

Pollabolo, Fianceaco, 397. 
'Pomo d'oTo' i see Cebti. 
' Pomone ' ; see Cambebt. 
Pobteb, 305. 
Pbebton, Suites, 365. 
'Prigiouier fortonato'; tee SoAB- 

' Princesae d'Elide ' ; see Lulli, 
'Programme' Music, 94, 95, 161, 
I7S, 306. 

Digitized t, Google 

' Proep^rit^ des armee de France,* 


Pbotxrzale, Franceeco (Stelli- 

danra vendictuLte ; Schiavo di 

sua Moglie), 379- 
'Provi pur le mie vendotte'; $e» 

Psalms ; aee Child, Lasso, La.WX8, 

' Ps7che ' ; nee Lock, Liilli. 
PuBOELLjHenrj, 138,200, 358, 278, 

319. 398. 
'Abdelazor,' 396; (Dance 

Tune), 305. 

Ain for the Theatre, 303. 

' Amphitryon,' 399. 

'Anrengiebe,' 296. 

' Behold, I bring you,' 366. 

' Behold, now praise the Lord,' 


' Ben of Bedlam,* 313, 307. 

' Blesaed Tire's ezpoatnla- 

tion,' 383. 

Cansonas, 285, 363. 

Dance Tnnei, 303, 304. 

'Dido and ^neae,' 396, (Re- 
member me), 398. 
'Diocleeian' (Bonnd, Fame), 

300 ; (Dance Tnne), 304. 

Elegy on Lock, 396. 

* EpBOm Wells," 396. 

' Golden ' Sonata, 359. 

Qronnd Bass, 143, 397, 398, 

. 368. 

Harpochord Lessons, 359, 366. 

'Hide not Thy face,' 277. 

' Indian Queen ' (Hornpipe), 


' In God's Word,' 367. 

Instrumentation, 285. 

' Job's Corse,' 383. 

' King Arthur,' 301 ; (Come if 

you dare ; Fairest Isle ; See, we 

aasembte ; What power art thou ?) 


PuKOBLL, Henry, ' Libertine ' 
(Nymphs and Shepherds; In 
these delightful pleasant groTM), 

'Lilliburlero' (Irish tone), 368. 

' Lord God of Hosts ' (Turn us, 

God), 371. 

' ICaaaaore of Paris,' 299. 

'Husick'sHandmaid,' 359,36s. 

'My heart is inditing* (Coro- 
nation Anthem), 383. 

Odei for King and Qoeen, 383 ; 

Trinity College, 283. 

' give thanks,' 368, 434 : 

(That I may see), 270. 

Orertnres (Symphonies), 3S5, 


' Quicken, O quicken me,' 369. 

'Remember not, Lord,' 274. 

' Resurrection,' 283. 

'Saiat Cecilia's Day,' 283, 283: 

(Wondrous Machine), 386. 

' Saul and the Witch of Endor,' 

312, 382,307; 'In guilty ni^t' 
(Farewell), 383. 

Sonatas, 359, 361. 

Songs, 394. 

Suites, 366. 

' Tempest,' 399. 

' Theodoains,' 296. 

' They that go down,' 373. 

"Thy way, O God ' (Halleln- 

jab), 373. 

' Thy Word is a lantern ' (Hal- 
lelujah), 373. 

' ' Timon of Athens,* 396. 

' Trumpet Tune,' 366. 

' Virtuous Wfe,' 396. 

Yorkshire Feast Song, 383. 

Puritans, Chapters v, vii, 

' Put up thy dagger. Jemmy,' 84. 

QCAfiLlATi, Paolot'CanudiFedeltb 

d'Amore,' 59. 
'Qnant repaire,' 10. 

_y Google 

QuBBH EuzASBTB'e Virginalbook; 

«M Virginal book 
'Qoicken, qmcken me'; Mtf 


'Quid est optu tnam'; au Cabis- 


BUCEAU, 138, 144, 334, 337. 

Realiam, 74, 94, 166, 368, 373, 381, 
388, 303, 374, 417, 431, 434. 

«M Programme Mndc. 

'Re9oiBmoii sang'; m* Lulli. 

BzDTOBDj'Te per oibem tenamm,' 

BsGQio, Pietro, 156. 


' Remember not ' ; tee PuBCSiiL. 

■SesiBta'; w* Soablaxti. 

'Beeta il core'; sm LniBENZi. 

Bestoration, the, Chap, vii, jxMm'm. 

'Resurrection ' ; sw PrBosLL, 


' Bh^toriqne dei Diem ■ ; He Gadl- 

BIcercari,65,3i6; «mQabbibli,A.; 
mt Dance Tone*. 
I 'Binaldo'; smHahdzl. 

' RiMXFOcnn, ' Arianna/ 46. 

i ' Dafne,' 42. 

I 'Eniidice,' 30. 

ROBBBTB, Snitea, 365. 

RooBBS, Benjamin, 357, 371, 334. 

* Behold, I bring you,' 374. 

'Behold, now' (Halleliyah), 


Fandee, 328. 

' Nine Hqhb,' 339, 33a 

'Roland'; m« Lulli. 

'Rosanra'i aM Soablattl 

Rossi, Lnifp, 184, 341, aSi, 405. 

'Oelona,' 153- 

I — ' Palazco incantato ' (Iabbb, 

I chi mi loccorre ?}, 153. 

'Bota,' U (Alia rota), 159. 

ViX 471 

Roasi, Uichaelangelo, ' Erminia 

>ul Oiordano,' 149, 173. 
R088IKI, 138. 
BosgrrBB, Philip, Ayrei, 193. 

'Faire if you expect,* 194. 

RnOGIBBI, 336. 

' Sabrina fair ' ; tee LAWxa, H. 

' St. Aleuia ' ; ate Landi. 

Saint Cecilia Ode; mw Blow, 


8. GioTSnni Baftitta; tee Stba- 


SaLO, Gaaparo da, 336. 
Saraband, 338 ; see Dance Tanes. 
' Sanl ' ; tee SoHtixz. 
' Save me, God ' ; tee Blow. 
Sgablatii, Alessandro, 138, 140, 

1S3> 170* 179. 181, 183, 184, 340, 

399, 336. 

Aria, 381, 387. 

' Caduta di Decemriri,' 391 , 393 ■ 

Cantatas, 393. 

Chnrch Hnric, 400, 408. 

Comic Operas, 397. 


' Eraclea,* 393. 

' Flario Coniberto,' 389, 393. 

' Gerone,' 393. 

' Grieelda,' 393. 

' Mitridate Enpatori,' 393. 

Hotet*, 408. 

' jnio cor,' 39S. 

'OnesUt nell" Amore,' 380. 

Overtnrea, 388, 391, 393. 

' Prigionier fortnnato' (l/amo- 

roeo desio), 387 ; (Overture), 391, 

< Boeania,' 389, 393 ; (Ceesate, 

o fiilmini), 3S4. 
' San Oenninda,' 397. 

'Statiis,' 380, 393; (Bemata), 

— 'Tigrane,' 393. 

Digitized by Google 

47* in: 

Soi.BLATTi, ' Trionro d'Onore,' 397, 

80HEIDI, Samuel, 71, 113. 

Magnificat Interladea {Tabla- 

tnra Nora), 108. 
' Vater niuer im Himmolieich,' 

* Sohem Hnaicali '; set Mohte- 


' SohiaTO di floa Hogtie'; see FbO- 

SCHLIOH, Arnold, II3. 

SoHxiDT, BeTi)}iaRl, 113. 


SaatSTX, Heinrich, 413, 456. 

BeacUun, 435. 

Jofau-I^ssion (Wir haben kei- 

nen KOnig), 424. 
Lotd'H P»rer (Vater Umer), 


Matthew-Pauion, 423. 

Afoteta, 4.14. 


Faanona, 414, 433, 434. 

'Reflmrectioii,' 414, 418, 435 ; 

(Am Abend), 419; (Sie habeu 

meinen Herren), 431. 

' Saul, Sanl,' 416. 

' Seven Last Words,' 414, 436. 


' Se doido pangente '; swCatalli. 
'See the conqneting hero'; a«« 

' See ve auemble ' ; »et Pubcsll. 
'3eTen Last Worda'; sm Sohutz. 
Shiblet, 303. 

'Gapid and Death '; w«Loce. 

' Sicat atella ' ; smCabibbiiii. 

' Siege of Rhodes,' 313, 

'Sie haben meinen Heiren wegga- 

nommen'; tee Sghutz. 
'Since fiist I saw joni fiuie'; see 


Sinfonia, 131, 135, 136, 144, 149, 

l?3. 334- 388. 
tte Dance Tones. 

Sinfonia ; tee Oreitnre. 

aet Symphony. 

' Si tradiderit '; »ee Gabissimi. 

Sonata, 315, 316, 318, 33s, 337, 34i. 

' Church ' and ' Chamber' So- 
natas, 3SI, 353- 



ssKEZi, Masiei, Nebi, Pub- 


M> Ganiona, Fancies, Suite. 

Song of Peace ; tee Gbaeu. 
'S(»piri oh'oscite'; tee CABlSBUii. 
' Sound, Fame ' ; tee Pubcell. 
S. OUKR, U. de, 331. 
SpoHmn, 138. 

' Statiia,' !« ; tee Scabi;.atii, A. 
Steffaki, Agortino, 407 ; (■ Lotta 

d' AJoide'), 399. 
Steisliedeb, Chorale, 117. 
'Stellidania vendicante'; smPbo- 


Stefhaiti, Johann, 71, 113. 
SXBADELLA, Aleesandxo, Cantatas, 


Gronnd Ban, 141, 181, 183. 

' lo par Regair6,' 183. 

' S. Giovanni Battiata ' (Don, 

dove), 183; (Provi pur le mie 

vendette), 184; (So, Su), 184; 

(volin poTe), 183. 
Straditari, 336. 
' Strali d'Amoie ' ; tee Bosohetto. 
Strozzi, 'Festa teatrale,' 33[, 
Subject in inBtnimental mnsio, 66, 

96, 3S3. 
Soitet, 365, 369; tee Dance Tone*. 

tee Sonatas. 

' Sumer is icnmen in,' 11, is. 
SvaATo, Tielman, Dancee, 14. 
'So, Bn'; ««« Stbaseli^ 
SwBBLncK, Ion Peter, 73. 
SirxsLiKOK, Ian Petenoon, 30, 71, 

?a, 93. 97. 

Digitized by Google 

SwzEuiicK, laa Fetetsoon, Fau- 

tfRffiaflf 74. 
' Sweet Eclio ' ; »m Lawkb, H. 
Sjmphoniae Sacroe ; h* SchOtz. 
Symphony, 388, 437, 431, 43a, 434, 

440, 453; aw Lock, Pobobll, 

tee Sinfonia. 

Sykfbon, DiTuiou for 'Viol, 3o8, 
333. 34a- 

Talub, 97. 

' FeUx Namqne,' 9a 

Tartiri, 338. 

' Tell me. Daphne,' 86. 

'Tempest'; msLock, Pubosu- 

' Te per orbem temurun,' (jcx 


'Theodomoi'; ate Pubcxix. 

' Theato ' ; sm Lulu. 

'They that go down'; M«PuBCBLL. 

' Thon Ood that gnidMt ' ; He Btbd. 

'Thy way, OGod'; Me Puboxll. 

' Thy Word is & lantern ' ; mt 


'Tigrane ' ; me Bcxblatti. 

* Timon of Athena ' ; tee PUBOSLL, 

Toccata, 316. 

(Fbxsoobaldi), 77, 78, 82. 

(Fbobebobb), 101, 103. 

(Oabribli), 68, 86. 

(Kbbl), 369. 

(Ukbulo), 69. 

(Muff at), 104. 

(Overture), 50. 

(Pachblbxl), rii. 

ToxEiHs, 95. 

Tonality, 81, 133, 337. 347, 357, 

401, 441, 444. 
' Totila ' ; tee Leobbbzl 
Tremolando, 56, 57, 316. 
'Trionfod'Onore'; amScablatti. 
' Troppo Boare ' ; tet Catalli. 
' I^umpet Tnne,' 366. 

KX 473 

TcnrDiB, Fiwu, 436. 

— ^ Abend-Uneik, 437. 

^^^ ' Domimii illnzninatio mea,' 

'Ein* Feate Bnrg,' 437, 453; 

(Dan Beich Gotta), 438; (Eiii 

Wortlein kum), 439, 

Helft mir Oottes, 437- 

'NUi Dominiu aedificamit, 


' Wachet auf,' 437. 

' Wand* ab deinen Zona,' 437, 

'Tnniat,OQod'; (wPcboell. 
' Und ich hSrete '; tee Bach, J. C. 
'Un dragon auonpy'; tee Chab- 


' Ting gai berger' ; m« Cbk^ttillor. 
' Unsec Leben ist ein Schatten ' ; 

tee Baob, J. M. 
' DnMiB Herzens Frende * ; tee 

Bach, J. C. 
' Ut re mi fa sol la' ; me Fantaaiaa. 

' Talentinian ' ; aee Johksok, R 
'Vater Unaei'; tee Bbixgbl, 

' Tatar onset im Himmalieich '; aw 

TzcoHi, Horado, 'AnflparaaaBO,' 

36, 37, 38. 
'Tenns and Adonis'; sm Blow, 

'Versa' Anthems, 186, 305, 362, 
380, 404, 416, 439 ; tee Anthems, 
Church Hnsic. 

' Vidit at commota est ' ; aw Exbl. 

Viol, Bom, 333. 

Violin, s6, 337- 

in Church Hnaio, 378 ; maken 

of, 336- 

VlOUHO, Battiato del, 33. 

ViOLoiTE, aiovanni del, 397. 

Virginal Book, 331, 

Cosym'b, 83, 87, 89, 97. 

Digitized by Google 

474 f« 

Virginal Book, FOBTBB'S, 83, 89. 

Ladt HBViLB'a, 83, 95, 98. 

■ Faithenia, 83, 97. 

QusEH Elizabeth'b, 76, 83, 

■ .86, S7, 89, -90. 

' VirtoouB Wife * ; sm Pitbobll. 

ViXAU, TommsM^ 337. 

Chaoonue, '340. 

■- Dance Soitea, 337; 

Sonatas, 337. 

TiTTOKU., 34. 
TiTALDi,336, 355. 
'Tom Himinel bocb'; mw *ft-' i 

■Wacbet anf ; set Tuitcbb^ 
WAaNBB, Richard, 138, 385. 

Gatterd&mmerung, 145. 

Waldbit, Lord, 193. 

Walubbb, ThoiDM, 'Ein' fMe 

Bnrg,' 41. 
' WaUm^uun ' ; lee "BvLL, John. 
Waltbbb, Joh&un, 411, 
Wabd, John, 'Let God Arise,' 

'Wftih ye, make 30 clean'; «w 

' Ways of Zion,' the ; te Wibb. 

*We be three poor marinen*; tee 

' Wend' ab deinen Zom ' ; me 


'What power ait than?'; aee 


' Wh; art thou BO fall of he&TineesT '; 

WiLBOX, 3IO, 357. 

Wive, Uicbael, 358, 378. 

'Awake up, my gloiy,' 366. 

' Blessed is he,' 266. 

'Ways of Zion,' 375. 

' Witch,' the ; tee Johkboh, R. 

'Wondrous Machine'; (mFukcblZi. 

Wood, Antonj, 331. 

■ Woods BO wild,' the, 84. 

'Wo soil icb fiiehen hin'; m« 


Xenes (Setse) ; tee Cavalli. 

' Te bold sons of earth ' ; me Lock. 

Zaohau, F. W., 137. 
Zabliho, 35, 7a, 73. 
Ziasi, Andrea, ' aoima, voces,' 
40s, 441. 


Page 35, line 8, fi>r no nod little 

„ 40, „ 4 from bottom, fir nothing nad little 

„ 53, fin" ohitarroni read ctutaroni (thrice) 

„ 137, line 10, /or W. C, Briegel read W, K. Briegel 

„ 137, „ 19, j^ of well-balanced rend for well-balanced 

„ 308, „ 15, Jbr Locke read Lock 

II 349) n 7 from bottom, /or opeia read operas 

„ 366, „ 7 &om bottom, /or good read ^lad 

„ 387, „ 18, /br oonaideiationa read oonaideiation 

If >94i M 7 /Or CSonoeit read Consort 

Ozfiwd : Printed at the Clarendoa Press, by Hokace Habt, H.A. 

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